Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state.
A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) the sham-operated group; (ii) the ovariectomized-control group; (iii) the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy) group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 µg/kg/day); and (iv) the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum) group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg). Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment.
The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2±11.74 mm3) than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4±4.05, 22.4±4.14 and 17.5±3.68 mm3, respectively). The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value) as 1.0 (0 - 2), 1.0 (1 - 2) and 1.0 (1 - 2), respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3). The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4), 3.0 (2 - 3) and 3.0 (2 - 3), respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2) (p<0.05).
The Piper sarmentosum extract improved fracture healing, as assessed by the reduced callus volumes and reduced callus scores. This extract is beneficial for fractures in osteoporotic states.