The knowledge of the prevalence of common dermatoses will be useful for optimum use of valuable resources of the country.
The aim of the study is to determine the pattern and prevalence of psoriasis, vitiligo and atopic dermatitis (AD) in India.
Materials and Methods:
This was a hospital-based study conducted on a single day in one medical college each in four zones of India.
The point prevalence of dermatological cases was 9.25%. The point prevalence of psoriasis, vitiligo and AD were 8%, 9.98% and 6.75% respectively. Chronic plaque type psoriasis was the most common (50%) clinical pattern. The most common site of involvement of psoriasis was the palms. Stable type of vitiligo was common which accounted for 65.21%. Lower lip was involved in 75% of mucosal vitiligo. Lower limbs were the most common site of onset of vitiligo. AD was most prevalent in the first decade (40.7%). Personal history of atopy was present in (59.5%) patients. Dry skin was present in 92.5% of patients.
Our data correlates with previous hospital-based prevalence studies of psoriasis, vitiligo and AD.
Atopic dermatitis; psoriasis; vitiligo
Circadian rhythms are perhaps among the genetically best characterized behaviours.
Several mutations with drastic effects on circadian processes have been identified and
models developed to explain how clock genes and their products generate self-sustained
oscillations. Although natural variations in circadian phenotypes have been studied
extensively, the genetic basis of such adaptive variations remains largely unknown. Here
we report the results of a preliminary genetic analysis of adaptive divergence of
circadian phenotypes in populations of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Two
sets of populations, ‘early' and ‘late', were created in a
long-term laboratory selection for morning and evening emergence, with four independent
replicates each. Over the course of ∼55 generations, the early flies evolved increased
morning emergence and a shorter circadian period, whereas late flies evolved increased
evening emergence and longer period. To examine the genetic basis of circadian phenotypes,
we set up crosses between early and late flies, and monitored emergence and
activity/rest rhythms in the F1, backcrossed and F2 progeny. Our analysis suggests
that the genetic basis of divergent circadian phenotypes in early and late stocks is
primarily autosomal. Line-cross analysis revealed that additive and non-additive genetic
effects contribute to the divergence of circadian phenotypes in early and late flies.
Drosophila; circadian; adult emergence; activity/rest; genetic bases
The qseBC-encoded quorum-sensing system regulates the motility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in response to bacterial autoinducer 3 (AI-3) and the mammalian stress hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). The qseC gene encodes a sensory kinase that autophosphorylates in response to AI-3, E, or NE and subsequently phosphorylates its cognate response regulator QseB. In the absence of QseC, QseB downregulates bacterial motility and virulence in animal models. In this study, we found that 8- to 10-month-old calves orally inoculated with a mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and its isogenic qseBC mutant showed significantly higher fecal shedding of the qseBC mutant. In vitro analysis revealed similar growth profiles and motilities of the qseBC mutant and the parental strain in the presence or absence of NE. The magnitudes of the response to NE and expression of flagellar genes flhD and fliC were also similar for the qseBC mutant and the parental strain. The expression of ler (a positive regulator of the locus of enterocyte effacement [LEE]), the ler-regulated espA gene, and the csgA gene (encoding curli fimbriae) was increased in the qseBC mutant compared to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth, motility, and transcription of flhD, fliC, ler, espA, and csgA were significantly reduced in the qseBC mutant complemented with a plasmid-cloned copy of the qseBC genes. Thus, in vitro motility and gene expression data indicate that the near-parental level of motility, ability to respond to NE, and enhanced expression of LEE and curli genes might in part be responsible for increased colonization and fecal shedding of the qseBC mutant in calves.
Background & objectives:
There is no national spinal trauma registry available in India at present and the research on epidemiology of these injuries is also very limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality profile of patients with spinal injuries brought to a level I trauma centre in India, and to understand the predictive factors which identify patients at an increased risk of spinal trauma mortality.
Retrospective data were collected from computerized patients records and autopsy reports maintained in the department of Forensic Medicine. All the cases with spinal injuries whether in isolation or as a part of polytrauma were reviewed. A total of 341 such cases were identified between January 2008 to December 2011. The demographic data, type of trauma, duration of survival, body areas involved, level of spinal injury and associated injuries if any, were recorded.
There were 288 (84.45%) males and 53 (15.55%) females. Most victims (73%) were between 25 and 64 yr of age, followed by young adults between 16 and 24 yr (19.35%). Male: female ratio was 5.4:1. Fifty five per cent cases had spinal injuries in isolation. Injury to the cervical spine occurred in 259 (75.95%) patients, thoracic spine in 56 (16.42%) and thoraco-lumbar spine in 26 (7.62%) patients. The commonest cause of injury was high energy falls (44.28%), followed by road traffic accidents (41.93%). The majority of deaths (51.6%) occurred in the phase IV (secondary to tertiary complications of trauma, i.e. >1 wk). Forty patients died in phase I (brought dead or surviving <3 h), 55 in phase II (>3 to 24 h) and 70 in phase III (> 24 h to 7 days).
Interpretation & conclusions:
Our data suggest that there is an urgent need to take steps to prevent major injuries, strengthen the pre-hospital care, transportation network, treatment in specialized trauma care units and to improve injury surveillance and the quality of data collected which can guide prevention efforts to avoid loss of young active lives.
Injury prevention; mortality patterns; post-traumatic; spinal injuries
Pheochromocytoma may have multiple clinical manifestations including paroxysmal hypertension, tachycardia, sweating, nausea, and headache (Phillips et al., 2002). Migraine has some of the manifestations seen with pheochromocytoma. We describe a patient who had a history of migraine headaches since childhood and was found to have pheochromocytoma. Resection of her tumor significantly improved her headache. The diagnoses of pheochromocytoma subsequently lead to diagnosing her with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A).
While increased serum phosphate concentration is a significant risk factor for vascular calcification, it is unclear whether serum phosphate is also a risk factor for increased arterial wall thickness in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Using B-mode ultrasonography, we examined carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) of CKD patients and analyzed risk factors for increased IMT with regard to the effect of serum phosphate. One hundred patients were enrolled (73 patients without diabetes, 27 patients with diabetes; 57 men, 43 women; age, 46.2 ± 15.3 years). CIMT of patients with diabetes was significantly greater than that of patients without diabetes (0.78 ± 0.250 versus 0.66 ± 0.178 mm; P < 0.0001). For the group of all patients, CIMT correlated strongly and significantly with serum phosphate (r = 0.911; P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis serum phosphate level (β = 0.356; <0.0001) was found to be a significant independent risk factor for increased CIMT, in addition to other independent risk factors, including advanced age, higher systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin and the presence of diabetes (R2 = 0.956; P < 0.00001). In conclusion, high serum phosphate level is a significant and independent factor associated with advanced arteriosclerosis in CKD patients with and without diabetes in addition to advanced age.
Carotid intimal-medial thickness; chronic kidney disease; diabetes; phosphate
Capsicum annuum (red pepper) is an important spice cum vegetable crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Here, we report an effective and reproducible auxin free regeneration method for six different red pepper cultivars (ACA-10, Kashi Anmol, LCA-235, PBC-535, Pusa Jwala and Supper) using hypocotyl explants and an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol. The explants (hypocotyls, cotyledonary leaves and leaf discs) collected from axenic seedlings of six red pepper cultivars were cultured on either hormone free MS medium or MS medium supplemented with BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Inclusion of IAA in the regeneration medium resulted in callus formation at the cut ends of explants, formation of rosette leaves and ill defined shoot buds. Regeneration of shoot buds could be achieved from hypocotyls grown in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP unlike other explants which failed to respond. Incorporation of GA3 in shoot elongation medium at 0.5 mg/l concentration enhanced the elongation in two cultivars, LCA-235 and Supper, while other cultivars showed no significant response. Chilli cultivar, Pusa Jwala was transformed with βC1 ORF of satellite DNA β molecule associated with Chilli leaf curl Joydebpur virus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene integration in putative transformants was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis.
Capsicum annuum; Plant regeneration; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Genetic transformation; Transgenic plants; Chilli leaf curl virus
Blood biochemistry has significant effect on pathophysiology of human body. Recently few studies found the association of biochemical abnormalities in sickle cell patients. Sickle cell disease showed clinical variability where African ancestors have severe phenotype than Indian sicklers. Our aim was to evaluate the biochemicals in sickle cell patients and their effect on severity. Here we present the comparative biochemical levels in sickle cell patients as well as controls. Sickle cell patients diagnosed by HPLC and biochemical analysis done by Beckman-auto analyzer. T test applied for statistical analysis. Result showed the renal abnormality lesser in patients and related biochemical within the normal range and statistically not significant. Electrolytes, hepatic enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and glucose were elevated and statistically significant (P value <0.05). Observation of the study concludes the biochemical abnormality play a significant role in sickle cell patient’s physiopathology and can be used to management of the disease.
Sickle cell anaemia; Biochemical; High performance liquid chromatography
The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy.
Materials and Methods:
The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t-tests.
The soft-tissue facial profiles of the extraction and non-extraction samples were the same following active treatment except for a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction.
The extraction or non-extraction decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.
Dentoskeletal changes; extraction-non-extraction patients; standard edgewise mechanics; soft-tissue profile
Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1.5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination.
Drug resistance; malaria elimination; malaria profile; malaria vectors; MDG; MPO; urban malaria scheme
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for secreting LEE-encoded and non-LEE-encoded virulence proteins that promote the adherence of O157 to intestinal epithelial cells and the persistence of this food-borne human pathogen in bovine intestines. In this study, we compared hha sepB and hha mutants of O157 for LEE transcription, T3SS activity, adherence to HEp-2 cells, persistence in bovine intestines, and the ability to induce changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. LEE transcription was upregulated in the hha sepB and hha mutant strains compared to that in the wild-type strain, but the secretion of virulence proteins in the hha sepB mutant was severely compromised. This reduced secretion resulted in reduced adherence of the hha sepB mutant to Hep-2 cells, correlating with a significantly shorter duration and lower magnitude of fecal shedding in feces of weaned (n = 4 per group) calves inoculated with this mutant strain. The levels of LEE transcription, T3SS activity, and adherence to HEp-2 cells were much lower in the wild-type strain than in the hha mutant, but no significant differences were observed in the duration or the magnitude of fecal shedding in calves inoculated with these strains. Examination of the rectoanal junction (RAJ) tissues from three groups of calves showed no adherent O157 bacteria and similar proinflammatory cytokine gene expression, irrespective of the inoculated strain, with the exception that interleukin-1β was upregulated in calves inoculated with the hha sepB mutant. These results indicate that the T3SS is essential for intestinal colonization and prolonged shedding, but increased secretion of virulence proteins did not enhance the duration and magnitude of fecal shedding of O157 in cattle or have any significant impact on the cytokine gene expression in RAJ tissue compared with that in small intestinal tissue from the same calves.
Metronidazole, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against trichomoniasis, is nonspermicidal and thus cannot offer pregnancy protection when used vaginally. Furthermore, increasing resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to 5-nitro-imidazoles is a cause for serious concern. On the other hand, the vaginal spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in clinical situations but may in fact increase their incidence due to its nonspecific, surfactant action. We therefore designed dually active, nonsurfactant molecules that were capable of killing Trichomonas vaginalis (both metronidazole-susceptible and -resistant strains) and irreversibly inactivating 100% human sperm at doses that were noncytotoxic to human cervical epithelial (HeLa) cells and vaginal microflora (lactobacilli) in vitro. Anaerobic energy metabolism, cell motility, and defense against reactive oxygen species, which are key to survival of both sperm and Trichomonas in the host after intravaginal inoculation, depend crucially on availability of free thiols. Consequently, molecules were designed with carbodithioic acid moiety as the major pharmacophore, and chemical variations were incorporated to provide high excess of reactive thiols for interacting with accessible thiols on sperm and Trichomonas. We report here the in vitro activities, structure-activity relationships, and safety profiles of these spermicidal antitrichomonas agents, the most promising of which was more effective than N-9 (the OTC spermicide) in inactivating human sperm and more efficacious than metronidazole in killing Trichomonas vaginalis (including metronidazole-resistant strain). It also significantly reduced the available free thiols on human sperm and inhibited the cytoadherence of Trichomonas on HeLa cells. Experimentally in vitro, the new compounds appeared to be safer than N-9 for vaginal use.
Signaling through Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9), a mediator of innate immune responses, could have a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Some studies have shown an association between polymorphisms in the TLR9 gene and disease manifestations. We investigated whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (-1486 T>C and +1174 G>A) in the TLR9 gene are associated with the risk of renal involvement in SLE. DNA samples from 112 SLE patients (62 with lupus nephritis) and 100 healthy controls were obtained. TLR9 polymorphisms (-1486 T>C and +1174 G>A) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype and allelic frequencies were compared between lupus patients and healthy controls. Clinical and laboratory manifestations and activity scores on renal biopsy of patients with lupus nephritis were compared between various genotypes. There was no difference in the frequency of genotype or allele distribution at either of the two loci between lupus patients and controls and in lupus patients with or without nephritis. Patients with CC/CT genotype at the -1486 position had higher serum creatinine (P = 0.03) and Austin activity scores (P = 0.015). Patients with AA/AG genotype at +1174 position showed higher serum creatinine (P = 0.04), proteinuria (P = 0.011), anti-dsDNA titers (P < 0.001) and Austin activity scores (P = 0.003) than the GG genotype. Variations at the -1486 and +1174 positions of TLR9 gene are not associated with increased risk of SLE or that of kidney involvement in North Indians. CC/CT genotypes at -1486 and AA/AG at +1174 positions are associated with more severe kidney disease at presentation.
Genetics; lupus nephritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; toll-like receptor
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are resistant to TNFα-induced apoptosis and blockade of TNFα-induced NF-κB activation sensitizes glioma cells to apoptosis. As Casein kinase-2 (CK2) induces aberrant NF-κB activation and as we observed elevated CK2 levels in GBM tumors, we investigated the potential of CK2 inhibitors (CK2-Is) - DRB and Apigenin in sensitizing glioma cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. CK2-Is and CK2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced glioma cell viability, inhibited TNFα-mediated NF-κB activation, and sensitized cell to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Importantly, CK2-Is activated p53 function in wild-type but not in p53 mutant cells. Activation of p53 function involved its increased transcriptional activation, DNA-binding ability, increased expression of p53 target genes associated with cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Moreover, CK2-Is decreased telomerase activity and increased senescence in a p53-dependent manner. Apoptotic gene profiling indicated that CK2-Is differentially affect p53 and TNFα targets in p53 wild-type and mutant glioma cells. CK2-I decreased MDM2-p53 association and p53 ubiquitination to enhance p53 levels. Interestingly, CK2-Is downregulated SIRT1 activity and over-expression of SIRT1 decreased p53 transcriptional activity and rescued cells from CK2-I-induced apoptosis. This ability of CK2-Is to sensitize glioma to TNFα-induced death via multiple mechanisms involving abrogation of NF-κB activation, reactivation of wild-type p53 function and SIRT1 inhibition warrants investigation.
glioblastoma; casein kinase-2; TNFα; NF-κB; p53
The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment.
Mandibular canine impaction; surgical repositioning; transmigration of mandibular canine
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of complete ponticulus posticus in Indian orthodontic patients.
The presence and types of ponticuli posticus were investigated on 858 lateral cephalograms.
Complete ponticulus posticus was found in 4.3% of the subjects studied with a male (5.33%) predominance over female in the population (3.76%).
Ponticulus posticus is not a rare anomaly and the patient must be told of the implications and importance of detecting ponticulus posticus on a lateral cephalogram. This information can prove beneficial for the diagnosis of head and neck symptoms later.
lateral cephalogram; atlas vertebrae; ponticulus posticus; atlantoaxial instability; migraine
Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.