Capsicum annuum (red pepper) is an important spice cum vegetable crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Here, we report an effective and reproducible auxin free regeneration method for six different red pepper cultivars (ACA-10, Kashi Anmol, LCA-235, PBC-535, Pusa Jwala and Supper) using hypocotyl explants and an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol. The explants (hypocotyls, cotyledonary leaves and leaf discs) collected from axenic seedlings of six red pepper cultivars were cultured on either hormone free MS medium or MS medium supplemented with BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Inclusion of IAA in the regeneration medium resulted in callus formation at the cut ends of explants, formation of rosette leaves and ill defined shoot buds. Regeneration of shoot buds could be achieved from hypocotyls grown in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP unlike other explants which failed to respond. Incorporation of GA3 in shoot elongation medium at 0.5 mg/l concentration enhanced the elongation in two cultivars, LCA-235 and Supper, while other cultivars showed no significant response. Chilli cultivar, Pusa Jwala was transformed with βC1 ORF of satellite DNA β molecule associated with Chilli leaf curl Joydebpur virus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene integration in putative transformants was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis.
Capsicum annuum; Plant regeneration; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Genetic transformation; Transgenic plants; Chilli leaf curl virus
Blood biochemistry has significant effect on pathophysiology of human body. Recently few studies found the association of biochemical abnormalities in sickle cell patients. Sickle cell disease showed clinical variability where African ancestors have severe phenotype than Indian sicklers. Our aim was to evaluate the biochemicals in sickle cell patients and their effect on severity. Here we present the comparative biochemical levels in sickle cell patients as well as controls. Sickle cell patients diagnosed by HPLC and biochemical analysis done by Beckman-auto analyzer. T test applied for statistical analysis. Result showed the renal abnormality lesser in patients and related biochemical within the normal range and statistically not significant. Electrolytes, hepatic enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and glucose were elevated and statistically significant (P value <0.05). Observation of the study concludes the biochemical abnormality play a significant role in sickle cell patient’s physiopathology and can be used to management of the disease.
Sickle cell anaemia; Biochemical; High performance liquid chromatography
The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy.
Materials and Methods:
The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t-tests.
The soft-tissue facial profiles of the extraction and non-extraction samples were the same following active treatment except for a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction.
The extraction or non-extraction decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.
Dentoskeletal changes; extraction-non-extraction patients; standard edgewise mechanics; soft-tissue profile
Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1.5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination.
Drug resistance; malaria elimination; malaria profile; malaria vectors; MDG; MPO; urban malaria scheme
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for secreting LEE-encoded and non-LEE-encoded virulence proteins that promote the adherence of O157 to intestinal epithelial cells and the persistence of this food-borne human pathogen in bovine intestines. In this study, we compared hha sepB and hha mutants of O157 for LEE transcription, T3SS activity, adherence to HEp-2 cells, persistence in bovine intestines, and the ability to induce changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. LEE transcription was upregulated in the hha sepB and hha mutant strains compared to that in the wild-type strain, but the secretion of virulence proteins in the hha sepB mutant was severely compromised. This reduced secretion resulted in reduced adherence of the hha sepB mutant to Hep-2 cells, correlating with a significantly shorter duration and lower magnitude of fecal shedding in feces of weaned (n = 4 per group) calves inoculated with this mutant strain. The levels of LEE transcription, T3SS activity, and adherence to HEp-2 cells were much lower in the wild-type strain than in the hha mutant, but no significant differences were observed in the duration or the magnitude of fecal shedding in calves inoculated with these strains. Examination of the rectoanal junction (RAJ) tissues from three groups of calves showed no adherent O157 bacteria and similar proinflammatory cytokine gene expression, irrespective of the inoculated strain, with the exception that interleukin-1β was upregulated in calves inoculated with the hha sepB mutant. These results indicate that the T3SS is essential for intestinal colonization and prolonged shedding, but increased secretion of virulence proteins did not enhance the duration and magnitude of fecal shedding of O157 in cattle or have any significant impact on the cytokine gene expression in RAJ tissue compared with that in small intestinal tissue from the same calves.
Metronidazole, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against trichomoniasis, is nonspermicidal and thus cannot offer pregnancy protection when used vaginally. Furthermore, increasing resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to 5-nitro-imidazoles is a cause for serious concern. On the other hand, the vaginal spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in clinical situations but may in fact increase their incidence due to its nonspecific, surfactant action. We therefore designed dually active, nonsurfactant molecules that were capable of killing Trichomonas vaginalis (both metronidazole-susceptible and -resistant strains) and irreversibly inactivating 100% human sperm at doses that were noncytotoxic to human cervical epithelial (HeLa) cells and vaginal microflora (lactobacilli) in vitro. Anaerobic energy metabolism, cell motility, and defense against reactive oxygen species, which are key to survival of both sperm and Trichomonas in the host after intravaginal inoculation, depend crucially on availability of free thiols. Consequently, molecules were designed with carbodithioic acid moiety as the major pharmacophore, and chemical variations were incorporated to provide high excess of reactive thiols for interacting with accessible thiols on sperm and Trichomonas. We report here the in vitro activities, structure-activity relationships, and safety profiles of these spermicidal antitrichomonas agents, the most promising of which was more effective than N-9 (the OTC spermicide) in inactivating human sperm and more efficacious than metronidazole in killing Trichomonas vaginalis (including metronidazole-resistant strain). It also significantly reduced the available free thiols on human sperm and inhibited the cytoadherence of Trichomonas on HeLa cells. Experimentally in vitro, the new compounds appeared to be safer than N-9 for vaginal use.
Signaling through Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9), a mediator of innate immune responses, could have a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Some studies have shown an association between polymorphisms in the TLR9 gene and disease manifestations. We investigated whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (-1486 T>C and +1174 G>A) in the TLR9 gene are associated with the risk of renal involvement in SLE. DNA samples from 112 SLE patients (62 with lupus nephritis) and 100 healthy controls were obtained. TLR9 polymorphisms (-1486 T>C and +1174 G>A) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genotype and allelic frequencies were compared between lupus patients and healthy controls. Clinical and laboratory manifestations and activity scores on renal biopsy of patients with lupus nephritis were compared between various genotypes. There was no difference in the frequency of genotype or allele distribution at either of the two loci between lupus patients and controls and in lupus patients with or without nephritis. Patients with CC/CT genotype at the -1486 position had higher serum creatinine (P = 0.03) and Austin activity scores (P = 0.015). Patients with AA/AG genotype at +1174 position showed higher serum creatinine (P = 0.04), proteinuria (P = 0.011), anti-dsDNA titers (P < 0.001) and Austin activity scores (P = 0.003) than the GG genotype. Variations at the -1486 and +1174 positions of TLR9 gene are not associated with increased risk of SLE or that of kidney involvement in North Indians. CC/CT genotypes at -1486 and AA/AG at +1174 positions are associated with more severe kidney disease at presentation.
Genetics; lupus nephritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; toll-like receptor
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are resistant to TNFα-induced apoptosis and blockade of TNFα-induced NF-κB activation sensitizes glioma cells to apoptosis. As Casein kinase-2 (CK2) induces aberrant NF-κB activation and as we observed elevated CK2 levels in GBM tumors, we investigated the potential of CK2 inhibitors (CK2-Is) - DRB and Apigenin in sensitizing glioma cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. CK2-Is and CK2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced glioma cell viability, inhibited TNFα-mediated NF-κB activation, and sensitized cell to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Importantly, CK2-Is activated p53 function in wild-type but not in p53 mutant cells. Activation of p53 function involved its increased transcriptional activation, DNA-binding ability, increased expression of p53 target genes associated with cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Moreover, CK2-Is decreased telomerase activity and increased senescence in a p53-dependent manner. Apoptotic gene profiling indicated that CK2-Is differentially affect p53 and TNFα targets in p53 wild-type and mutant glioma cells. CK2-I decreased MDM2-p53 association and p53 ubiquitination to enhance p53 levels. Interestingly, CK2-Is downregulated SIRT1 activity and over-expression of SIRT1 decreased p53 transcriptional activity and rescued cells from CK2-I-induced apoptosis. This ability of CK2-Is to sensitize glioma to TNFα-induced death via multiple mechanisms involving abrogation of NF-κB activation, reactivation of wild-type p53 function and SIRT1 inhibition warrants investigation.
glioblastoma; casein kinase-2; TNFα; NF-κB; p53
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of complete ponticulus posticus in Indian orthodontic patients.
The presence and types of ponticuli posticus were investigated on 858 lateral cephalograms.
Complete ponticulus posticus was found in 4.3% of the subjects studied with a male (5.33%) predominance over female in the population (3.76%).
Ponticulus posticus is not a rare anomaly and the patient must be told of the implications and importance of detecting ponticulus posticus on a lateral cephalogram. This information can prove beneficial for the diagnosis of head and neck symptoms later.
lateral cephalogram; atlas vertebrae; ponticulus posticus; atlantoaxial instability; migraine
Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.
Background & objectives
In drug resistant, especially multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used as second line drugs. However, the incidence of FQ-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rapidly increasing which may be due to extensive use of FQs in the treatment of various other diseases. The most important known mechanism i.e., gyrA mutation in FQ resistance is not observed in a significant proportion of FQ resistant M. tuberculosis isolates suggesting that the resistance may be because of other mechanisms such as an active drug efflux pump. In this study we evaluated the role of the efflux pumps in quinolone resistance by using various inhibitors such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and verapamil, in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis.
A total of 55 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates [45 ofloxacin (OFL) resistant and 10 ofloxacin sensitive] were tested by Resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) to observe the changes in ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels in presence of efflux inhibitors as compared to control (without efflux inhibitor).
The MIC levels of OFL showed 2-8 folds reduction in presence of CCCP (16/45; 35.5%), verapamil (24/45; 53.3%) and DNP (21/45; 46.6%) while in case of isolates identified as OFL sensitive these did not show any effect on ofloxacin MICs. In 11 of 45 (24.5%) isolates change in MIC levels was observed with all the three inhibitors. Overall 30 (66.6%) isolates had reduction in OFL MIC after treatment with these inhibitors. A total of eight isolates were sequenced for gyrA gene, of which, seven (87.5%) showed known mutations. Of the eight sequenced isolates, seven (87.5%) showed 2 to 8 fold change in MIC in presence of efflux inhibitors.
Interpretation & conclusions
Our findings suggest the involvement of active efflux pumps of both Major Facilitator Super Family (MFS) family (inhibited by CCCP and DNP) and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters (inhibited by verapamil) in the development of OFL resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates. Epidemiological significance of these findings needs to be determined in prospective studies with appropriate number of samples / isolates.
Drug resistance; efflux pump inhibitors; MIC; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; ofloxacin; tuberculosis
Surface electrodes are commonly used electrodes clinically, in applications such as functional electrical stimulation for the restoration of motor functions, pain relief, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, electrocardiographic monitoring, defibrillation, surface cardiac pacing, and advanced drug delivery systems. Common to these applications are occasional reports of pain, tissue damage, rash, or burns on the skin at the point where electrodes are placed. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the effects of acute noninvasive electrical stimulation from concentric ring electrodes (CRE) to determine the maximum safe current limit. We developed a three-dimensional multi-layer model and calculated the temperature profile under the CRE and the corresponding energy density with electrical-thermal coupled field analysis. Infrared thermography was used to measure skin temperature during electrical stimulation to verify the computer simulations. We also performed histological analysis to study cell morphology and characterize any resulting tissue damage. The simulation results are accurate for low energy density distributions. It can also be concluded that as long as the specified energy density applied is kept below 0.92 (A2/cm4·s−1), the maximum temperature will remain within the safe limits. Future work should focus on the effects of the electrode paste.
Noninvasive electrical stimulation; Transcutaneous electrical stimulation; Electrical-thermal coupled field analysis; Infrared thermography
Background and Objectives
Presence of methicillin and multidrug resistance has associated coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was carried out to study the susceptibility pattern of CNS to various antimicrobial agents and to determine the prevalence of CNS methicillin resistance in our hospital setting.
Materials and Methods
A total of 300 strains of CNS isolated from various clinical specimens were subjected to speciation and their antimicrobial sensitivity testing was studied by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Methicillin resistance was studied by observing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Oxacillin by macrobroth dilution method and E test. Susceptibility to vancomycin was determined by vancomycin screen agar test and minimum inhibitory concentration by macrobroth dilution test.
All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin in disc diffusion test while maximum resistance was noted against penicillin (100%) followed by ciprofloxacin (36.3%), norfloxacin (34.3%), gentamicin (34%), nitrofurantoin (29.9%), erythromycin (27.9%) and amikacin (22.7%). Fifty two percent (n = 156) of the isolates were found to be resistant to methicillin. A comparison between resistance patterns of methicilin resistant and methicillin sensitive strains showed that methicillin resistant isolates had higher level of resistance to other antibiotics.
The high level of resistance among CNS to commonly used antimicrobial agents in our hospital is a matter of great concern and can be prevented by practices of effective infection control measures.
Coagulase negative Staphylococci; minimum inhibitory concentration; E test
Malaria is major public health illness in Assam and 30–40% of the population is estimated to be at high-risk. Despite decades of attempted control interventions, malaria transmission is perennial and persistent in most parts of the state mostly transmitted by Anopheles minimus. Malaria outbreaks are returning associated with high rise in Plasmodium falciparum and attributable death cases. Therapeutic efficacy investigations for treatment of malaria revealed that chloroquine resistance was widespread for which artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is being instituted in the control program. For data based on the preceding years, we briefly reviewed the available information on transmission dynamics, vector biology and control, drug policy, and discuss the challenges and opportunities for strengthening interventions for malaria control to help design situation specific strategies to check impending disease outbreaks with special reference to Assam. Under increased assistance from external agencies, we strongly advocate scaling up interventions based on mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for prevention and ACTs for treatment of drug-resistant malaria, and developing strong health delivery system in high-risk areas for meeting the complex emergencies and achieving transmission reduction.
Malaria control; P. falciparum; Morbidity and mortality; Anopheles minimus; Drug-resistance; Assam; Northeast India
The ability to achieve tumor selective expression of therapeutic genes is an area that needs improvement for cancer gene therapy to be successful. One approach to address this is through the use of promoters that can be controlled by external means, such as hyperthermia. In this regard, we constructed a replication-deficient adenovirus that consists of a mutated herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (mTK) fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the full-length human heat shock (HS) 70b promoter. The virus (AdHSmTK-EGFP) was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells for expression of both mTK and EGFP. The in vitro expression of mTK-EGFP was validated using both 3H-penciclovir and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays. These studies show that specific expression could be achieved by heating the cells at 41 °C for 1 h, whereas little expression was observed using high doses of virus without hyperthermia. The vector was also evaluated in vivo by direct intratumoral injection into mice bearing SCC-9 xenografts. These studies demonstrated tumor expression of mTK-EGFP after ultrasound heating of the tumors by radioactive biodistribution assays, histology and microPET imaging. These in vivo results, which demonstrate HS-inducible transgene expression using PET imaging, provide a means for noninvasive monitoring of heat-induced gene therapy in local tumors, such as oral squamous cell carcinomas.
hyperthermia; adenovirus; PET imaging; heat shock promoter; thymidine kinase
Schiff bases (9a-l) of 3-amino-6,8-dibromo-2-phenyl-quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones (8) with various substituted aldehydes were obtained by refluxing 1:1 molar equivalents of the reactants in dry ethanol for 6 h. The aminoquinazoline (8) was inturn obtained from 3,5-dibromoantharlinic acid via intermediate (7). All the synthesized compounds (9a-l) were evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity on albino mice by maximal electroshock method using phenytoin as a standard. The compound (9l) bearing a cinnamyl function displays a very high activity (82.74 %) at dose level of 100 mg/kg b.w.
Anticonvulsant; maximal electroshock method; Schiff base; Quinazolin-4-(3H)-one; 3-aminoquinazolines
This study was carried out to evaluate in vivo protective role of aqueous extract of stem and leaves of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) on the toxic effects of lead on the hematological values. The lead-treated (5 mg/kg body weight, intraperitonially, once daily) male albino mice concurrently received either T. cordifolia stem or leaves extracts (400 mg/kg body weight, orally, once daily) for the duration of 30 days. The animals exposed to lead showed significant decrease in RBC and Hb level. Significant decline in WBC, DLC, and PCV was also noticed. Increase in MCV values displaying reciprocal relationship with RBC, PCV, and Hb values in lead-treated mice were also recorded. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of T. cordifolia stem and leaves extract. These results suggested that simultaneous supplementation of T. cordifolia protects against lead intoxication.
Hematology; lead nitrate; mice; Tinospora cordifolia