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Year of Publication
1.  Anthelmintic effect of Euphorbia prostrata Ait. extracts 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(6):743-744.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.89846
PMCID: PMC3229805  PMID: 22144794
2.  Current status of management, control, complications and psychosocial aspects of patients with diabetes in India: Results from the DiabCare India 2011 Study 
Objectives:
DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres) survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients’ and physicians’ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire.
Results:
A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2), mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG), post prandial (PPG) and random (RBG) plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%); other complications were: Foot (32.7%), eye (19.7%), cardiovascular (6.8%) and nephropathy (6.2%). The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2%) of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs). More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient's perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician's perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9%) and treatment compliance (3.6%).
Conclusion:
DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These results indicate a need for more structured intervention at an early stage of the disease and need for increased awareness on benefits of good glycaemic control. It cannot be overemphasized that the status of diabetes care in India needs to be further improved. (ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT01351922)
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.129715
PMCID: PMC4056138  PMID: 24944934
Control and complications; current status of diabetes care; DiabCare India
3.  The Use of an Automated Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (Xpert MTB/RIF) to Predict the Sputum Smear Status of Tuberculosis Patients 
(See the Editorial Commentary by Fennelly, on pages 389–91.)
Xpert MTB/RIF–generated cycle-threshold (CT) values have poor clinical utility as a rule-in test for smear positivity (cut-point ≤20.2; sensitivity 32.3%, specificity 97.1%) but moderately good rule-out value (cut-point >31.8; negative predictive value 80.0%). Thus, 20% of individuals with CT values >31.8 were erroneously ruled out as smear-negative. This group had a significantly lower sputum bacillary load relative to correctly classified smear-positive patients (CT ≤ 31.8; P < .001). These data inform on public health and contact tracing strategies.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir824
PMCID: PMC3258275  PMID: 22139854
4.  Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill 
Background
Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models.
Methods
In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks.
Results
The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ.
Conclusion
The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-145
PMCID: PMC3468403  PMID: 22943464
Stellaria media; Anti-obesity activity; α-amylase; Lyophilized juice; High-fat-diet
5.  Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed 
The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900 mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed.
doi:10.1155/2012/715912
PMCID: PMC3418711  PMID: 22919417
6.  Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2011;7(27):229-233.
Background:
Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) species have long been used in folk medicine to treat various pathological conditions including liver diseases. Some species of Phyllanthus were found to exhibit hepatoprotective activity against drugs or toxins and this property was majorly attributed to phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. In this study, we examined the hepatoprotective activity of five different species of Phyllanthus, namely, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, Phyllanthus urinaria, and Phyllanthus Rotundifolius. The extracts were also evaluated for the presence of key phytoconstituents, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin.
Materials and Methods:
The extracts were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against tert-butyl hydroxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity using human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line).
Results:
Only P. urinaria and P. maderaspatensis exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity as evident from increased cell viability. The HPLC profile revealed that except P. amarus, the other extracts did not contain phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin.
Conclusion:
P. urinaria and P. maderaspatensis demonstrated dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity and hence, can provide promising therapeutic interventions against chemical–induced liver damage.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.84237
PMCID: PMC3173898  PMID: 21969794
Cytoprotection; hepatotoxicity; lipid peroxidation; methanolic plant extracts; silymarin
7.  Improved Glycaemic Control with Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Failing Oral Antidiabetic Drugs: PRESENT Study Results 
Archives of Drug Information  2009;2(2):23-33.
Aims
This paper presents the treatment outcomes for patients intiated on biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) treatment: BIAsp 30-only, BIAsp 30 + sulphonylureas (SU), BIAsp 30 + biguanides (BI), BIAsp 30 + SU + BI, BIAsp 30 + alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (GI), and BIAsp 30 + BI + thiazolidinediones (TZD) after failing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) treatment.
Methods
This was a multi-national, multi-centre, six-month, prospective, open-labelled, uncontrolled, clinical experience evaluation study, with the exception of a three-month study in one country (China) (“all exclude China” and “China”). Initiation and discontinuation of BIAsp 30 treatment were entirely at the discretion of the attending physicians.
Results
Mean HbA1c, FPG and PPPG were significantly reduced from baseline at three and six months in all groups (P < 0.001). In “all exclude China”, reductions in mean HbA1c, FPG and PPPG at six months were as follows: BIAsp 30-only group (−2.12 ± 1.76% points; −4.82 ± 3.86 mmol/L; −6.89 ± 4.74 mmol/L), BIAsp 30 + BI group (−2.24 ± 1.77% points; −4.48 ± 3.68 mmol/L; −6.66 ± 4.55 mmol/L), BIAsp 30 + SU group (−1.95 ± 1.59% points; −3.98 ± 3.19 mmol/L; −6.25 ± 4.45 mmol/L) and BIAsp 30 + SU + BI group (−1.78 ± 1.20% points; −3.57 ± 2.78 mmol/L; −5.89 ± 3.98 mmol/L). The only serious adverse drug reaction was reported by the BIAsp 30-only group. In the “China” group, reductions in mean HbA1c, FPG and PPPG at three months were: BIAsp 30-only group (−2.16 ± 1.52% points; −3.34 ± 2.49 mmol/L; −6.29 ± 3.92 mmol/L), BIAsp 30 + BI group (−2.44 ± 1.52% points; −4.01 ± 2.50 mmol/L; −7.10 ± 3.96 mmol/L), BIAsp 30 + GI group (−2.33 ± 1.41% points; −4.34 ± 2.52 mmol/L; −7.97 ± 3.99 mmol/L) and BIAsp 30 + BI + TZD group (−1.21 ± 1.60% points; −3.50 ± 2.29 mmol/L; −5.97 ± 3.39 mmol/L). No serious ADR were reported in China. The most frequent hypoglycaemic episodes were diurnal and minor in nature.
Conclusions
BIAsp 30 treatment in a clinical setting improved glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients failing OADs.
doi:10.1111/j.1753-5174.2008.00015.x
PMCID: PMC2721962  PMID: 19684847
Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30; Oral Antidiabetic Drug Failure; Type 2 Diabetes

Results 1-7 (7)