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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (1)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience (1)
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Scamps, Frédérique (4)
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Morphology and Nanomechanics of Sensory Neurons Growth Cones following Peripheral Nerve Injury
A prior peripheral nerve injury in vivo, promotes a rapid elongated mode of sensory neurons neurite regrowth in vitro. This in vitro model of conditioned axotomy allows analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to an improved neurite re-growth. Our differential interference contrast microscopy and immunocytochemistry results show that conditioned axotomy, induced by sciatic nerve injury, did not increase somatic size of adult lumbar sensory neurons from mice dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons but promoted the appearance of larger neurites and growth cones. Using atomic force microscopy on live neurons, we investigated whether membrane mechanical properties of growth cones of axotomized neurons were modified following sciatic nerve injury. Our data revealed that neurons having a regenerative growth were characterized by softer growth cones, compared to control neurons. The increase of the growth cone membrane elasticity suggests a modification in the ratio and the inner framework of the main structural proteins.
Electro-acupuncture on functional peripheral nerve regeneration in mice: a behavioural study
Hoang, Ngoc Son
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
The improvement of axonal regeneration is a major objective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of electro-acupuncture on the functional recovery of sensorimotor responses following left sciatic nerve crush in mice.
Sciatic nerve crush was performed on seven week old female mice. Following the injury, the control group was untreated while the experimental group received an electro-acupuncture application to the injured limb under isoflurane anesthesia at acupoints GB 30 and GB 34. Mechanical and heat sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate sensory recovery. Gait analysis was performed to assess sensorimotor recovery.
Our results show that normal sensory recovery is achieved within five to six weeks with a two-week period of pain preceding the recovery to normal sensitivity levels. While electro-acupuncture did not accelerate sensory recovery, it did alleviate pain-related behaviour but only when applied during this period. Application before the development of painful symptoms did not prevent their occurrence. The analysis of gait in relation to the sensory tests suggests that the electro-acupuncture specifically improved motor recovery.
This study demonstrates that electro-acupuncture exerts a positive influence on motor recovery and is efficient in the treatment of pain symptoms that develop during target re-innervation.
Sciatic nerve; Crush; Nerve injury; Pain; Sensorimotor
Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano- and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a is acutely activated by inflammatory mediators in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (re)growth.
DRG; CaCC; bestrophin; regeneration; axotomy; electrical activity; membrane tension
Best1 is a gene regulated by nerve injury and required for Ca2+-activated Cl− current expression in axotomized sensory neurons
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
We investigated the molecular determinants of Ca2+-activated chloride current (CaCC) expressed in adult sensory neurons following a nerve injury. Dorsal root ganglia express the transcripts of three gene families known to induce CaCCs in heterologous systems: bestrophin, tweety and TMEM16. We found with quantitative transcriptional analysis and in situ hybridization that nerve injury induced upregulation of solely bestrophin-1 transcripts in sensory neurons. Gene screening with RNA interference in single neurons demonstrated that mouse Best1 is required for the expression of CaCC in injured sensory neurons. Transfecting injured sensory neurons with bestrophin-1 mutants inhibited endogenous CaCC. Exogenous expression of the fusion protein GFP-Bestrophin-1 in naive neurons demonstrated a plasma membrane localization of the protein that generates a CaCC with biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to endogenous CaCC. Our data suggest that Best1 belongs to a group of genes upregulated by nerve injury and supports functional CaCC expression in injured sensory neurons.
Bestrophin; chloride current; chloride homeostasis; injury; regeneration; DRG
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