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1.  Anomalous cutaneous branch of median nerve in arm: a report of anatomical variation with clinical implications 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2014;47(2):138-140.
The objective of the study was to observe and document the variation on the subject of branches of the median nerve. This report will assist clinicians and surgeons by considering anatomical variation associated with the median nerve in interpreting atypical clinical presentations. The arm and forearm region of a 55 year embalmed male cadaver during educational gross anatomy dissection. We found that an anomalous cutaneous branch arising from the median nerve in the right arm which was passing deep to the tendon of the biceps brachii. Later it enters the cubital fossa and then it is accompanied by the superficial vein of the forearm. The other limb of the cadaver did not show any such variation. No other neural, arterial or muscular variation was observed in either of the limbs. A rare anatomical variation in which the anomalous cutaneous branch arising from the median nerve in the right arm which is later accompanied by a superficial vein in the forearm. Such knowledge is advantageous in nerve grafting and neurophysiological evaluation for diagnosing peripheral neuropathies.
doi:10.5115/acb.2014.47.2.138
PMCID: PMC4076422  PMID: 24987552
Median nerve; Forearm; Anomalous; Arm
2.  Surgical Importance of Arterial Segments of Human Kidneys: An Angiography and Corrosion Cast Study 
Objective: Variations in the arterial supply of human kidney have been observed frequently, either in routine dissections or surgical practice. The main objective of the present study was to describe the arterial segmental pattern of human kidneys and its variation by angiography and corrosion cast techniques.
Materials and Methods: Forty kidneys were washed and a plastic cannula was inserted into renal artery and the omnipaque dye was injected into it and X-ray was taken. The corrosion casts were prepared by injecting coloured acetate butyrate (CAB) granules solution.
Results: Five vascular segments of kidney were seen based on the branching pattern of the renal artery by angiography and corrosion cast techniques. The renal artery was divided into anterior and posterior branches. The anterior branch further divided into four branches viz. apical segmental artery (ASA), Upper segmental artery (USA), middle segmental artery (MSA), lower segmental artery (LSA) while the posterior branch continue as posterior segmental artery. The origins of segmental arteries were variable. In 60% cases apical segmental artery (ASA) had common origin with upper segmental artery (USA) while in 40% cases it took origin directly from the main renal artery. Similarly the variations in the origin of the other branches of anterior division of renal artery were observed. The posterior segmental artery (PSA) however was single and comparatively small and supplied the posterior surface of the kidney.
Conclusion: The knowledge of the vascular pattern of the kidney is thus important for the purpose of angiography and surgical procedures especially for nephrectomy and kidney transplantation.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7396.4086
PMCID: PMC4003595  PMID: 24783063
Nephrectomy; Anatomy
3.  Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill 
Background
Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models.
Methods
In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks.
Results
The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ.
Conclusion
The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-145
PMCID: PMC3468403  PMID: 22943464
Stellaria media; Anti-obesity activity; α-amylase; Lyophilized juice; High-fat-diet
4.  Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed 
The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900 mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed.
doi:10.1155/2012/715912
PMCID: PMC3418711  PMID: 22919417

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