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1.  Dried extracts of Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae) present antioxidant and photoprotective activities in vitro 
The antioxidant and photoprotective activities of dried extracts from the leaves of Encholirium spectabile were investigated. It was also evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene–linoleic acid bleaching and compared with ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) used as reference compounds. The photoprotective effect was evaluated by the spectrophotometric method. The most significant total phenolic and flavonoid contents was of 188.50 ± 27.50 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g and 129.70 ± 4.59 mg of catechin equivalent/g, respectively, for chloroform fraction (Es-CHCl3). The Es-CHCl3 also presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 25.35 ± 4.35 μg/ml) for DPPH scavenging. The ethanol extract (Es-EtOH), Es-CHCl3 and the fraction ethyl acetate (Es-AcOEt) showed characteristic absorption bands in regions UVB and UVA in a concentration-dependent manner. Es-CHCl3 presented the highest sun protection factor SPF (8.89 ± 2.11). It shows the possibility to use this extract as sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.
PMCID: PMC3812888  PMID: 24396251
Antioxidant properties; Bromeliaceae; Encholirium spectabile; Medicinal plants; Photoprotection
2.  Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice 
Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring (Selaginellaceae), commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception.
Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH) was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p.) antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination.
A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively). Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively), as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively). Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination.
Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports previous claims of traditional uses for S. convoluta.
PMCID: PMC3487858  PMID: 23082856
Selaginella convoluta; Selaginellaceae; Analgesic; Pain
3.  Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae) 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:859210.
The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus.
PMCID: PMC3356742  PMID: 22645460

Results 1-3 (3)