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1.  Glycoside rich fraction from Spondias pinnata bark ameliorate iron overload induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice 
Background
Iron in the overloaded condition in liver promotes the overproduction of free radicals that lead to oxidative stress and ultimately hepatic damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorating potential from iron overloaded hepatotoxicity by the glycosidic fraction from Spondious pinnata bark (SPW1) along with its antioxidant property.
Methods
The fraction was tested for its in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging property and iron chelation potential via standard biochemical assays. Iron overload condition was generated by the intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran in mice. The levels of serum enzymes, antioxidant enzymes in liver, markers of hepatic damage, liver iron, and ferritin content were measured in response to the oral treatment of SPW1. Histopathology of the liver sections was performed for visual confirmation of the amelioration potential of SPW1.
Results
The fraction exhibited excellent in vitro antioxidant as well as free radical scavenging potential against both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Administration of SPW1 significantly normalized the disturbed levels of antioxidant enzymes, liver iron, lipid peroxidation, liver fibrosis, serum enzyme and ferritin better than standard desirox which were also supported by the morphological study of the liver sections. Phytochemical analysis as well as HPLC study, confirmed that the fraction mainly consisted of glycosidic phenolics and flavonoids that attributed to its biological activities.
Conclusions
The above results suggested that beneficial effects of SPW1 on iron overload induced hepatotoxicity that can be considered as a possible candidate against iron overload diseases.
doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1244-4
PMCID: PMC4966786  PMID: 27472924
Antioxidant; Iron chelation; Histopathology; Phytochemicals; Hepatic damage; Serum enzymes
2.  Role of phenolics from Spondias pinnata bark in amelioration of iron overload induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice 
Background
Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage.
Methods
In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies.
Results
MG and GA demonstrated excellent reducing power activities but iron chelation potential of MG is better than GA. Oral MG treatment in mice displayed excellent efficacy (better than GA) to significantly restore the levels of liver antioxidants, serum markers and cellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent fashion. Apart from these, MG exceptionally prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation whereas GA demonstrated better activity to reduce collagen content, thereby strengthening its position as an efficient drug against hepatic damage/fibrosis, which was further supported by histopathological studies. Alongside, MG efficiently eliminated the cause of liver damage, i.e., excess iron, by chelating free iron and reducing the ferritin-bound iron.
Conclusions
The present study confirmed the curative effect of GA and MG against iron overload hepatic damage via their potent antioxidant and iron-chelating potential.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40360-016-0077-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s40360-016-0077-6
PMCID: PMC4962386  PMID: 27459849
Hemosiderosis; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant enzymes; Lipid peroxidation; Liver fibrosis
3.  A microalga, Euglena tuba induces apoptosis and suppresses metastasis in human lung and breast carcinoma cells through ROS-mediated regulation of MAPKs 
Background
Euglena tuba, a microalga, is known for its excellent antioxidant and iron-chelation activities; however its anticancer efficacies have not been reported yet. This study investigates the antitumor and antimetastatic activities of 70 % methanolic extract of Euglena tuba (ETME) against human lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells in vitro. Moreover, we had examined ETME’s role in inducing intracellular ROS with the regulation of antioxidants and MAPK pathway.
Methods
Anticancer activity of ETME was thoroughly studied using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and western blotting; along with various biochemical assays for analysing ROS-induced regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Inhibition of invasion and migration of malignant cells by ETME were investigated by wound healing and zymographic studies. DNA–Protein interaction with ETME was also studied.
Results
ETME inhibited the growth of both A549 (IC50 92.14 µg/ml) and MCF-7 cells (IC50 50.27 µg/ml) by inducing apoptosis, while remained non-toxic against nomral WI-38 cells (IC50 911.43 µg/ml). ETME treatment resulted in increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, BID truncation and activation of caspase cascade. This ultimately leads to PARP degradation and apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway in both A549 and MCF-7 cells. Wound healing and gelatin zymography studies revealed that ETME significantly inhibited the invasion and migration of both A549 and MCF-7 cells dose-dependently through the downregulation of MMP-9. Further investigations showed that ETME selectively induces intracellular ROS, regulated the levels of intracellular antioxidants and suppresses the activation of ERK1/2, JNK, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in both type of malignant cells. Further DNA and protein binding studies revealed that ETME strongly interact with DNA as well as protein attributing the possibilities of presence of components which are targeting the macromolecules in cancer cells. Moreover, when the identified compounds from ETME were examined for their cytotoxicities individually, it was found that they lost their specificities towards cancer cells and also attacked normal cells.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that ETME retards the growth of both lung and breast cancer cells, in vitro, through multivariate mechanisms, proving its candidature for the development of better and safer drugs against these cancers.
doi:10.1186/s12935-016-0330-5
PMCID: PMC4928336  PMID: 27366113
Microalga; ROS; Antioxidants; MAPK; Anticancer; SOD; DNA binding; Protein binding
4.  Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0144280.
The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME) exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml). PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38). On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144280
PMCID: PMC4669143  PMID: 26633891
5.  Identification and characterisation of microsatellite DNA markers in order to recognise the WSSV susceptible populations of marine giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon 
Veterinary Research  2015;46:110.
White spot disease (WSD) which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in captured and cultured black tiger shrimp, resulting a huge loss in the economic output of the aquaculture industry worldwide. Performing selective breeding using DNA markers would prove to be a potential cost effective strategy for long term disease control in shrimps. In the present investigation, microsatellite DNA fingerprints were compared between naturally occurring WSSV resistant and susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon. After PCR with a set of shrimp specific primers three reproducible DNA fragments of varying sizes were found, among which 442 bp and 236 bp fragments were present in considerably higher frequencies in the WSSV susceptible shrimp population (p ≤ 0.0001). After WSSV challenge experiment the copy no. of WSSV was determined using real-time PCR, where it was found to be almost 4 × 103 fold higher in WSSV susceptible shrimps than in the resistant ones. Thus, these microsatellite DNA markers will be useful to distinguish between WSSV susceptible and resistant brood stocks of P. monodon. Sequencing studies revealed that these DNA markers were novel in P. monodon. Highest WSSV resistance using these DNA markers, was observed in the shrimp populations of Andaman Island and Chennai among the different coastal areas of India, suggesting these places as safe for specific pathogen resistant brood stock shrimp collection. This study will be a very effective platform towards understanding the molecular pathogenesis of WSD for generation of disease free shrimp aquaculture industry.
doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0248-2
PMCID: PMC4582847  PMID: 26407974
6.  An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0128221.
Free iron typically leads to the formation of excess free radicals, and additional iron deposition in the liver contributes to the oxidative pathologic processes of liver disease. Many pharmacological properties of the insectivorous plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. have been reported in previous studies; however, there is no evidence of its antioxidant or hepatoprotective potential against iron overload. The antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extract of D. burmannii (DBME) was evaluated. DBME showed excellent DPPH, hydroxyl, hypochlorous, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. A substantial iron chelation (IC50 = 40.90 ± 0.31 μg/ml) and supercoiled DNA protection ([P]50 = 50.41 ± 0.55 μg) were observed. DBME also displayed excellent in vivo hepatoprotective activity in iron-overloaded Swiss albino mice compared to the standard desirox treatment. Administration of DBME significantly normalized serum enzyme levels and restored liver antioxidant enzymes levels. DBME lowered the raised levels of liver damage parameters, also reflected from the morphological analysis of the liver sections. DBME also reduced liver iron content by 115.90% which is also seen by Perls’ staining. A phytochemical analysis of DBME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents, including phenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids were abundantly found in DBME. An HPLC analysis of DBME revealed the presence of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, methyl gallate and rutin. Purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate and rutin displayed excellent iron chelation but exhibited cytotoxicity toward normal (WI-38) cells; while DBME found to be non-toxic to the normal cells. These findings suggest that the constituents present in DBME contributed to its iron chelation activity. Additional studies are needed to determine if DBME can be used as a treatment for iron overload diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128221
PMCID: PMC4444084  PMID: 26010614
7.  Methyl gallate isolated from Spondias pinnata exhibits anticancer activity against human glioblastoma by induction of apoptosis and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2015;11(42):269-276.
Background:
Spondias pinnata has been reported for its efficient anticancer effects, but the studies were mostly focused on its extract.
Objective:
Since its bioactive compounds are largely unknown, this study was designed to characterize the lead components present in it and their anticancer activity against human glioblastoma cell line (U87).
Materials and Methods:
Major compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by column chromatography and their anticancer potentials against U87 cells were evaluated. Furthermore, flow cytometric and immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate the mechanism of apoptosis inducing activity of methyl gallate (MG) against U87 cell line.
Results:
Four major compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. Amongst these, two compounds showed promising activities and with the help of different spectroscopic methods they were identified as gallic acid and MG. Flow cytometric studies revealed that MG-induced apoptosis in U87 cells dose-dependently; the same was confirmed by activation of caspases through cleavage of endogenous substrate poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. MG treatment also induced the expression of p53 and B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X and cleavage of BH3 interacting-domain with a concomitant decrease in B-cell lymphoma-2 expression. Moreover, MG-induced sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in U87 cells with no change in the phosphorylation of other mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal of stress-activated protein kinases, p38).
Conclusion:
MG is a potent antioxidant and it induces sustained ERK1/2 activation and apoptosis in human glioblastoma U87, and provide a rationale for evaluation of MG for other brain carcinoma cell lines for the advancement of glioblastoma therapy.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.153078
PMCID: PMC4378123  PMID: 25829764
Anticancer; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; methyl gallate; Spondias pinnata; U87
8.  In vitro anticancer activity of Spondias pinnata bark on human lung and breast carcinoma 
Cytotechnology  2013;66(2):209-218.
Spondias pinnata, a commonly distributed tree in India, previously proven for various pharmacological properties and also reported for efficient anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging and iron chelating activity, continuing this, the present study is aimed to investigate the role of 70 % methanolic extract of S. pinnata bark (SPME) in promoting apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). These two malignant cell lines and a normal cell line were treated with increasing concentrations of SPME and cell viability is calculated. SPME showed significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 147.84 ± 3.74 and 149.34 ± 13.30 μg/ml, respectively, whereas, comparatively no cytotoxicity was found in normal human lung fibroblast cell line (WI-38): IC50 932.38 ± 84.44 μg/ml. Flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopic studies confirmed that SPME is able to induce apoptosis in both malignant cell lines. Furthermore, immunoblot result proposed the pathway of apoptosis induction by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in both cell types, which results in the activation of the caspase-cascade and ultimately leads to the cleavage of Poly adeno ribose polymerase. For the first time this study proved the anticancer potential of SPME against human lung and breast cancer by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. This might take S. pinnata in light to investigate it for further development as therapeutic anticancer source.
doi:10.1007/s10616-013-9553-7
PMCID: PMC3918266  PMID: 23686547
Spondias pinnata; Anticancer; Apoptosis; Caspase; Bax/Bcl-2
9.  Assessment of the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a bloom forming microalgae Euglena tuba 
Biological Research  2014;47(1):24.
Background
Unstable generation of free radicals in the body are responsible for many degenerative diseases. A bloom forming algae Euglena tuba growing abundantly in the aquatic habitats of Cachar district in the state of Assam in North-East India was analysed for its phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging potentials.
Results
Based on the ability of the extract in ABTS•+ radical cation inhibition and Fe3+ reducing power, the obtained results revealed the prominent antioxidant activity of the algae, with high correlation coefficient of its TEAC values to the respective phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract had shown its scavenging activity for different free radicals and 41.89 ± 0.41 μg/ml, 5.83 ± 0.07 μg/ml, 278.46 ± 15.02 μg/ml and 223.25 ± 4.19 μg/ml were determined as the IC50 values for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid respectively, which are lower than that of the corresponding reference standards. The phytochemical analysis also revealed that the phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and carbohydrates are present in adequate amount in the extract which was confirmed by HPLC analysis.
Conclusions
The results showed that 70% methanol extract of the algae possesses excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
doi:10.1186/0717-6287-47-24
PMCID: PMC4101720  PMID: 25026869
Euglenoid; Phytochemicals; Free radical scavenging; Antioxidant; Reducing power
10.  Heartwood extract of Acacia catechu induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma by altering bax/bcl-2 ratio 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2014;10(37):27-33.
Background:
The heartwood extract of A. catechu, called pale catechu or “Katha” in Hindi has been widely used in traditional Indian medicinal system. Although various pharmacological properties of this plant had been reported previously, only a few were concerned with the anticancer activity of this plant.
Objective:
The objective was to assess the in vitro anticancer and apoptosis inducing effect of 70% methanolic extract of “Katha” (ACME) on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7).
Materials and Methods:
MCF-7 cell line was treated with increasing concentrations of ACME and cell viability was calculated. Flow cytometric methods were used to confirm the apoptosis promoting role of ACME. Morphological changes were then analysed using confocal microscopy. Western blotting was then performed to investigate the expression of apoptogenic proteins and to analyse the activation of caspases.
Results:
ACME showed significant cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 288.85 ± 25.79 μg/ml. Flow cytometric analysis and morphological studies confirmed that ACME is able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, immunoblot results suggested the pathway of apoptosis induction by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio which results in the activation of caspase-cascade and ultimately leads to the cleavage of Poly adeno ribose polymerase (PARP).
Conclusion:
These results provide the evidence that ACME is able to inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through intrinsic pathway.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.126654
PMCID: PMC3969655  PMID: 24695415
Acacia catechu; anticancer; apoptosis; bax/bcl-2; caspase; MCF-7
11.  An Antioxidant Extract of Tropical Lichen,Parmotrema reticulatum, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Carcinoma Cell Line MCF-7 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82293.
This report highlights the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant potential and anticancer activity against breast carcinoma of 70% methanolic extract of lichen, Parmotrema reticulatum (PRME). Phytochemical analysis of PRME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents like alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, and ascorbic acid; among which alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids are found in abundant amount. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of PRME revealed the presence of catechin, purpurin, tannic acid and reserpine. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by nine separate methods. PRME showed excellent hydroxyl and hypochlorous radical scavenging as well as moderate DPPH, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Cytotoxicity of PRME was tested against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), lung carcinoma (A549) and normal lung fibroblast (WI-38) using WST-1 method. PRME was found cytotoxic against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value 130.03±3.11 µg/ml while negligible cytotoxicity was observed on A549 and WI-38 cells. Further flow cytometric study showed that PRME halted the MCF-7 cells in S and G2/M phases and induces apoptosis in dose as well as time dependent manner. Cell cycle arrest was associated with downregulation of cyclin B1, Cdk-2 and Cdc25C as well as slight decrease in the expression of Cdk-1 and cyclin A1 with subsequent upregulation of p53 and p21. Moreover PRME induced Bax and inhibited Bcl-2 expression, which results in increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase cascade. This ultimately leads to PARP degradation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. It can be hypothesised from the current study that the antioxidant and anticancer potential of the PRME may reside in the phytoconstitutents present in it and therefore, PRME may be used as a possible source of natural antioxidant that may be developed to an anticancer agent.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082293
PMCID: PMC3864928  PMID: 24358166
12.  Apolipoproteins AI/B/E gene polymorphism and their plasma levels in patients with coronary artery disease in a tertiary care-center of Eastern India 
Indian Heart Journal  2013;65(6):658-665.
Aim
The present study was designed to investigate whether the three-apolipoprotein (AI, B, E) gene polymorphisms were related to alter their plasma protein levels and hence associated to coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods
We determined distribution of MspI apo AI, EcoRI apo B, HhaI apo E gene polymorphisms, plasma apolipoproteins and lipids levels among 150 patients having CAD admitted to the Department of Cardiology, N.R.S. Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, India during June 2010–June 2012 and 150 age sex matched healthy controls.
Results
We found that ApoAI concentration of studied population was significantly different in each genotypes of −75 G/A apo AI (p < 0.0001) gene polymorphism. A significant association was found in multivariate analysis for the genotypes with apo E4 allele [odds ratio (OR): 3.639; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.019–12.995, p = 0.040] with four conventional risk factors (i.e. smoking, low-density lipoprotein, ApoAI and ApoB) with CAD. In contrast E2 allele has reverse effect, but the genotypes with apo E2 allele was no longer significant in the multivariate model (OR: 1.788; 95% CI: 0.400–8.001, p = 0.447) where as being significant in univariate analysis (OR: 0.219; 95% CI: 0.087–0.552, p = 0.001).
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms apo AI MspI and apo B EcoRI do not seem to affect CAD. But the genotype with E4 allele of apo E gene independent of other risk factors is associated with this disease.
doi:10.1016/j.ihj.2013.10.003
PMCID: PMC3905256  PMID: 24407534
Apolipoprotein; Gene polymorphism; CAD; Allele frequency
13.  Distribution of ABO Blood Group and Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Coronary Heart Disease 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:782941.
The purpose of this study is to establish whether ABO blood group is related to coronary heart disease in an individual in Asian Indian Bengali population of eastern part of India. Two hundred and fifty (250) CHD patients and two hundred and fifty (250) age and sex matched healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. ABO blood group distribution in patients was compared with control group. Frequency of major cardiac risk factors was determined to find any correlation between blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors. The distribution of ABO blood groups in patients versus control group was A in 24.00 versus 21.60%, B in 30.80 versus 32.40%, O in 38.40 versus 21.60%, and AB in 6.80 versus 24.40%. The analysis showed significant difference in frequency of O (OR = 1.857, 95%CI = 1.112–3.100, P = 0.018) and AB (OR = 0.447, 95%CI = 0.227–0.882, P = 0.020) blood group between healthy controls and CHD individuals. Our results may suggest that the AB blood group decreases the risk of CHD in healthy controls, and it might be due to the higher concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), while the O blood group increases the risk of CHD due to lower HDL-c levels in Bengali population of eastern part of India.
doi:10.1155/2013/782941
PMCID: PMC3747625  PMID: 23984407
14.  Reducing power and iron chelating property of Terminalia chebula (Retz.) alleviates iron induced liver toxicity in mice 
Background
The 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit (TCME) was investigated for its in vitro iron chelating property and in vivo ameliorating effect on hepatic injury of iron overloaded mice.
Methods
The effect of fruit extract on Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation and Fe2+ mediated pUC-18 DNA breakdown was studied in order to find the in vitro iron chelating activity. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of: blank, patient control and treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg b.w. of TCME and desirox (standard iron chelator drug with Deferasirox as parent compound). Evaluations were made for serum markers of hepatic damage, antioxidant enzyme, lipid per oxidation and liver fibrosis levels. The reductive release of ferritin iron by the extract was further studied.
Results
In vitro results showed considerable iron chelation with IC50 of 27.19 ± 2.80 μg/ml, and a significant DNA protection with [P]50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 μg/ml along with about 86% retention of supercoiled DNA. Iron-dextran injection (i.p.) caused significant increase in the levels of the serum enzymes, viz., alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin, which were subsequently lowered by oral administration of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of the fruit extract by 81.5%, 105.88%, 188.08% and 128.31%, respectively. Similarly, treatment with the same dose of the extract was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of liver antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and non-enzymatic reduced glutathione, by 49.8%, 53.5%, 35.4% and 11% respectively, in comparison to the iron overloaded mice. At the same time, the fruit extract effectively lowered the iron-overload induced raised levels of lipid per oxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline and liver iron by 49%, 67%, 67% and 26%, respectively, with oral treatment of 200 mg/kg b.w. dose of TCME. The fruit extract also showed potential activity for reductive release of ferritin iron.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that Terminalia chebula extract may contain active substances capable of lessening iron overload induced toxicity, and hence possibly be useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-144
PMCID: PMC3489879  PMID: 22938047
15.  Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice 
The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME) extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.
doi:10.1155/2012/896341
PMCID: PMC3418686  PMID: 22919421
16.  Assessment of the Antioxidant and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Activity of Methanolic Extract of Caesalpinia crista Leaf 
“Oxidative stress” is initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are responsible for majority of the diseases. However, antioxidants with ROS scavenging ability may have great relevance in the prevention of oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken, using a 70% methanolic extract of Caesalpinia crista leaves, to examine different in vitro tests in diversified fields including total antioxidant activity, scavenging activities for various ROS, iron chelating activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents. Total antioxidant activity was evaluated as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value of 0.546 ± 0.014. The extract was investigated for different ROS scavenging activities and IC50 values were found to be 0.44 ± 0.1 mg/ml, 24.9 ± 0.98 μg/ml, 33.72 ± 0.85 μg/ml, 61.13 ± 3.24 μg/mL and 170.51 ± 4.68 μg/mL for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, respectively; however, no significant results were obtained in scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite anion. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 279.85 ± 4.72 μg/mL. The plant extract (100 mg) yielded 50.23 ± 0.003 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent phenolic content and 106.83 ± 0.0003 mg/mL quercetin equivalent flavonoid content. In the in vivo experiments, the extract treatment showed significant increase in the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione. In a word, it may be concluded that 70% methanol extract of C. crista leaves acts as an antioxidant and ROS scavenger; which may be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep072
PMCID: PMC3136223  PMID: 19596746
17.  Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis 
Background
Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts.
Methods
The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts.
Results
The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards.
Conclusions
The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-20
PMCID: PMC2887379  PMID: 20462461
18.  Relation of Anti- to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Ratios with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Background/Aims
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death. Inflammatory processes play an important role in atherosclerosis, which is intimately related to AMI. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines ratios and AMI.
Methods
A total of 90 AMI patients and 90 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited in this study. Plasma cytokines and conventional risk factors were determined by standard methods.
Results
Patients with AMI showed increased interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and lower anti- to pro-inflammatory cytokine ratios as compared with controls. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that IL-10 to IL-6 ratio was independently associated with the occurrence of AMI (odds ratio [OR], 5.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39 to 12.17; p < 0.0001). In contrast, IL-6 levels were no longer significant in the multivariate model (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.932 to 1.12; p = 0.603). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that IL-6 levels and IL-10 to IL-6 ratios were a significant predictor of AMI (area under ROC curve, 0.892 and 0.851, respectively).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 is independently associated with AMI, and reduced levels of this ratio may favor the development of AMI.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2010.25.1.44
PMCID: PMC2829415  PMID: 20195402
Myocardial infarction, acute; Cytokines, inflammatory; ROC curve
19.  Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata 
Background
Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Spondias pinnata stem bark extract.
Methods
A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents.
Results
The extract showed total antioxidant activity with a trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC) value of 0.78 ± 0.02. The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 112.18 ± 3.27 μg/ml, 13.46 ± 0.66 μg/ml and 24.48 ± 2.31 μg/ml for hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for hydrogen peroxide scavenging was 44.74 ± 25.61 mg/ml. For the peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid scavenging activities the IC50 values were 716.32 ± 32.25 μg/ml, 58.07 ± 5.36 μg/ml and 127.99 ± 6.26 μg/ml, respectively. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 66.54 ± 0.84 μg/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The plant extract (100 mg) yielded 91.47 ± 0.004 mg/ml gallic acid-equivalent phenolic content and 350.5 ± 0.004 mg/ml quercetin-equivalent flavonoid content.
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence that a 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-63
PMCID: PMC2636748  PMID: 19068130

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