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1.  Inhibitory Effect of Dihydroaustrasulfone Alcohol on the Migration of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells and the Antitumor Effect on a Lewis Lung Carcinoma-Bearing Tumor Model in C57BL/6J Mice 
Marine Drugs  2014;12(1):196-213.
There are many major causes of cancer death, including metastasis of cancer. Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, which is isolated from marine coral, has shown antioxidant activity, but has not been reported to have an anti-cancer effect. We first discovered that dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol provided a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the migration and motility of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) A549 cells by trans-well and wound healing assays. The results of a zymography assay and Western blot showed that dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol suppressed the activities and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Further investigation revealed that dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol also suppressed the expression of PI3K and the phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol markedly inhibited tumor growth in Lewis lung cancer (LLC)-bearing mice. We concluded that dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol is a new pure compound with anti-migration and anti-tumor growth activity in lung cancer and might be applied to clinical treatment in the future.
doi:10.3390/md12010196
PMCID: PMC3917270  PMID: 24413802
non-small cell lung cancer; migration; tumor; matrix metalloproteinase; marine origin
2.  Deep Sea Water Modulates Blood Pressure and Exhibits Hypolipidemic Effects via the AMPK-ACC Pathway: An in Vivo Study  
Marine Drugs  2013;11(6):2183-2202.
Deep sea water (DSW), originally pumped from the Pacific Rim off the coast of Hualien County (Taiwan), and its mineral constituents, were concentrated by a low-temperature vacuum evaporation system to produce a hardness of approximately 400,000 mg/L of seawater mineral concentrate. The primary composition of this seawater mineral concentrate was ionic magnesium (Mg2+), which was approximately 96,000 mg/L. Referring to the human recommended daily allowance (RDA) of magnesium, we diluted the mineral concentrate to three different dosages: 0.1 × DSW (equivalent to 3.75 mg Mg2+/kg DSW); 1 × DSW (equivalent to 37.5 mg Mg2+/kg DSW); and 2 × DSW (equivalent to 75 mg Mg2+/kg DSW). Additionally, a magnesium chloride treatment was conducted for comparison with the DSW supplement. The study indicated that 0.1 × DSW, 1 × DSW and 2 × DSW decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures in spontaneous hypertensive rats in an eight-week experiment. DSW has been shown to reduce serum lipids and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. Our results demonstrated that 1 × DSW and 2 × DSW significantly suppressed the serum cholesterol levels, reduced the lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. These findings indicated that the antiatherogenic effects of DSW are associated with 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) stimulation and the consequent inhibition of phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in atherosclerotic rabbits. We hypothesize that DSW could potentially be used as drinking water because it modulates blood pressure, reduces lipids, and prevents atherogenesis.
doi:10.3390/md11062183
PMCID: PMC3721228  PMID: 23774889
deep sea water; atherosclerosis; HMG-CoA reductase; AMP-activated protein kinase; acetyl-CoA carboxylase
4.  A Chinese herbal formula "Gan-Lu-Yin" suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell migration by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 through the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways 
Background
This study was to explore the effects of Gan-Lu-Yin (GLY) on the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by fetal bovine serum and on neointima formation in a rat model of carotid artery balloon injury.
Methods
VSMCs were treated with different concentrations of GLY, and then analyzed with Flow cytometric analysis, zymography, transwell, and western blotting. SD rats received balloon-injury were analyzed with H&E staining.
Results
Our results showed that GLY significantly decreased the thickness of neointima. The inhibition by non-cytoxic doses of GLY of VSMCs migration was through its negative regulatory effects on phosphorylated ERK1/2, PI3K/AKT, and FAK. The data showed that GLY can inhibit the migration of VSMCs cells, and might block injury-induced neointima hyperplasia via the inhibition of VSMCs migration, without inducing apoptosis.
Conclusions
These observations provide a mechanism of GLY in attenuating cell migration, thus as a potential intervention for restenosis.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-137
PMCID: PMC3475136  PMID: 22920190
Chinese herbs; Gan-Lu-Yin; Migration; Restenosis; Vascular smooth muscle cell
5.  Ethanol Extracts of Fruiting Bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea Suppress CL1-5 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Migration by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 through ERK, JNK, p38, and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways 
Cancer metastasis is a primary cause of cancer death. Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea), a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea (EEAC) exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on migration and motility of the highly metastatic CL1-5 cells in the absence of cytotoxicity. The results of a gelatin zymography assay showed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-(MMP-) 2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot results demonstrated that treatment with A. cinnamomea decreased the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2; while the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, that is, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) increased. Further investigation revealed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. A. cinnamomea also suppressed the expressions of PI3K and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, treatment of CL1-5 cells with inhibitors specific for PI3K (LY 294002), ERK1/2 (PD98059), JNK (SP600125), and p38 MAPK (SB203580) decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. This is the first paper confirming the antimigration activity of this potentially beneficial mushroom against human lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cancer cells.
doi:10.1155/2012/378415
PMCID: PMC3291113  PMID: 22454661

Results 1-5 (5)