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1.  Antinociceptive effect of Encholirium spectabile: A Bromeliaceae from the Brazilian caatinga biome 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2014;10(Suppl 3):S655-S660.
Background:
Encholirium spectabile is a species found in outcrops rocky throughout the Brazilian Caatinga.
Objective:
This study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract of the leaves from E. spectabile (Es-EtOH) in mice using chemical and thermal models of nociception.
Material and Methods:
HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram. The Es-EtOH was examined for its antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.). The evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate tests in mice. Rota-rod test was used for the evaluation of motor coordination.
Results:
In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the Es-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the number of writhings by 68.59, 79.33 and 65.28%, respectively. Additionally, Es-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased by 34.14, 52.61 and 60.97% the paw licking time in the first phase, as well as 89.56, 79.90 and 96.71% in the second phase of the formalin test, respectively. Es-EtOH also showed effect in the hot plate test, since increased the latency time at dose of 100 mg/kg after 60 minutes. In addition, Es-EtOH did not impair motor coordination. The presence of phenolic compounds in the extract was confirmed using HPLC. These results indicate that Es-EtOH has antinociceptive activity, probably of peripheral origin. The mechanism involved is not completely understood but, at least in part there is the participation of opioid receptors.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.139817
PMCID: PMC4189285  PMID: 25298687
Antinociceptive effect; Bromeliaceae; Encholirium spectabile; Pain
2.  Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice 
Background
Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring (Selaginellaceae), commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception.
Methods
Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH) was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p.) antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination.
Results
A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively). Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively), as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively). Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination.
Conclusion
Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports previous claims of traditional uses for S. convoluta.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-187
PMCID: PMC3487858  PMID: 23082856
Selaginella convoluta; Selaginellaceae; Analgesic; Pain
3.  Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2012;8(31):209-214.
Background:
Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana.
Objective:
This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD.
Materials and methods:
The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD).
Results:
Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active.
Conclusion:
Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.99286
PMCID: PMC3466456  PMID: 23060695
Antimicrobial activity; flavonoids; high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector; Marcetia
4.  Synthesis of naringin 6"-ricinoleate using immobilized lipase 
Abstract
Background
Naringin is an important flavanone with several biological activities, including antioxidant action. However, this compound shows low solubility in lipophilic preparations, such as is used in the cosmetic and food industries. One way to solve this problem is to add fatty acids to the flavonoid sugar unit using immobilized lipase. However, there is limited research regarding hydroxylation of unsaturated fatty acids as an answer to the low solubility challenge. In this work, we describe the reaction of naringin with castor oil containing ricinoleic acid, castor oil's major fatty acid component, using immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the 1H and 13 C NMR (1D and 2D) spectra and literature comparison were used to characterise the obtained acyl derivative.
Results
After allowing the reaction to continue for 120 hours (in acetone media, 50°C), the major product obtained was naringin 6″-ricinoleate. In this reaction, either castor oil or pure ricinoleic acid was used as the acylating agent, providing a 33% or 24% yield, respectively. The chemical structure of naringin 6″-ricinoleate was determined using NMR analysis, including bidimensional (2D) experiments.
Conclusion
Using immobilized lipase from C. antarctica, the best conversion reaction was observed using castor oil containing ricinoleic acid as the acylating agent rather than an isolated fatty acid.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1186/1752-153X-6-41
PMCID: PMC3374675  PMID: 22578215

Results 1-4 (4)