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1.  Genetic Polymorphisms Analysis of Pharmacogenomic VIP Variants in Miao Ethnic Group of Southwest China 
Background
Genetic polymorphisms have a potential clinical role in determining both inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in drug efficacy, but we have not found any pharmacogenomics information regarding minorities, such as the Miao ethnic group. Our study aimed to screen numbers of the Miao ethnic group for genotype frequencies of VIP variants and to determine differences between the Miao and other human populations worldwide.
Material/Methods
In this study, we genotyped 66 Very Important Pharmacogene (VIP) variants selected from PharmGKB in 98 unrelated, healthy Miao individuals from the Guizhou province and compared our data with 12 other populations, including 11 populations from the HapMap data set and Xi’an Han Chinese.
Results
Using the χ2 test, we found that the allele frequencies of the VDR rs1544410 and VKORC1 (rs9934438) variants in the Miao population are quite different from that in other ethnic groups. Furthermore, we found that genotype frequencies of rs1801133 (MTHFR) in the 13 selected populations are significantly different. Population structure and F-statistics (Fst) analysis show that the genetic background of the Miao is relatively close to that of Chinese in metropolitan Denver, CO, USA (CHD).
Conclusions
Our results help complete the information provided by the pharmacogenomics database of the Miao ethnic group and provide a theoretical basis for safer drug administration, which may be useful for diagnosing and treating diseases in this population.
doi:10.12659/MSM.895191
PMCID: PMC4672675  PMID: 26632549
Ethnic Groups; Genetic Counseling; Genomic Structural Variation
2.  Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in the Uygur population from northwestern China 
BMC Genetics  2015;16:66.
Background
Drug response variability observed amongst patients is caused by the interaction of both genetic and non-genetic factors, and frequencies of functional genetic variants are known to vary amongst populations. Pharmacogenomic research has the potential to help with individualized treatments. We have not found any pharmacogenomics information regarding Uygur ethnic group in northwest China. In the present study, we genotyped 85 very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) variants (selected from the PharmGKB database) in the Uygur population and compared our data with other eleven populations from the HapMap data set.
Results
Through statistical analysis, we found that CYP3A5 rs776746, VKORC1 rs9934438, and VKORC1 rs7294 were most different in Uygur compared with most of the eleven populations from the HapMap data set. Compared with East Asia populations, allele A of rs776746 is less frequent and allele A of rs7294 is more frequent in the Uygur population. The analysis of F-statistics (Fst) and population structure shows that the genetic background of Uygur is relatively close to that of MEX.
Conclusions
Our results show significant differences amongst Chinese populations that will help clinicians triage patients for better individualized treatments.
doi:10.1186/s12863-015-0232-x
PMCID: PMC4475291  PMID: 26091847
Pharmacogenomics; genetic polymorphisms; Uygur; VIP variants
3.  The influence of cardiac autonomic nerve plexus on the electrophysiological properties in canines with atrial fibrillation 
Background: This study sought to examine the effect of the cardiac autonomic nerve plexus, which originates from the vagus nerve trunk, on atrial vulnerability. Methods: Dogs in group I (n = 6) underwent ganglionated plexi (GP) sequential ablation following six hours of left atrial appendage rapid atrial pacing (RAP). The monophasic action potential duration at 90% of repolarization (APD90), effective refractory period (ERP), and the atrial fibrillation inducing rate of bilateral atria and pulmonary veins were recorded at baseline, l h, 3 h and 6 h after pacing, as well as after sequential ablation (RAGP + RIGP ablation, LSGP + RIGP ablation). Dogs in group II (n = 6) received vagus nerve stimulation following six hours of left atrial appendage RAP. APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate of bilateral atria and pulmonary veins were recorded at baseline, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h after pacing, as well as after GP sequential ablation (RAGP + RIGP ablation, LSGP + RIGP ablation). Results: In group I, APD90 and ERP progressively shortened and atrial fibrillation inducing rate increased in various sites l h, 3 h and 6 h after RAP (P < 0.05). APD90 and ERP shortened significantly and atrial fibrillation inducing rate was significantly higher in the left atrial appendage and bilateral pulmonary veins than in other sites (P < 0.05). Following GP sequential ablation, APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate were not significantly different from baseline levels (P > 0.05). In group II, APD90 and ERP progressively shortened in various sites over pacing time period, and the atrial fibrillation inducing rate increased l h, 3 h and 6 h after RAP + VNS (P < 0.05). APD90 and ERP shortened significantly and atrial fibrillation inducing rate was significantly higher in the left atrial appendage and right superior/inferior pulmonary veins when compared with other sites (P < 0.05). After GP sequential ablation, APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate were not significantly different from baseline levels (P > 0.05). Compared with group I, APD90 and ERP shortened significantly, while atrial fibrillation inducibility increased significantly at baseline and l h, 3 h, and 6 h after pacing in group II (P < 0.05). After ablation of the four major cardiac GPs, no significant differences were observed in the two groups with respect to APD90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate (P > 0.05). Conclusion: GP activation, as a result of vagal nerve stimulation, alters MAP90, ERP and atrial fibrillation inducing rate of the atrium and pulmonary veins and promotes the occurrence of RAF in the early stage of atrial fibrillation, resulting in increased atrial vulnerability and triggering the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation.
PMCID: PMC4483871  PMID: 26131069
Atrial fibrillation; vagal nerve stimulation; ganglionated plexi; cardiac autonomic nervous; rapid atrial pacing; atrial vulnerability
4.  Application of the myocardial tissue/silicon substrate microelectrode array technology on detecting the effection of Zhigancao Decoction medicated serum on cardiac electrophysiology 
Background: Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that the total extract of Zhigancao Decoction, either as a single active compound or in combination, can inhibit arrhythmia. In this study, the myocardial tissue/silicon substrate microelectrode array (MEA) was used to detect the Zhigancao Decoction medicated serum of the New Zealand white rabbits right atrial appendage after rapid right atrium pacing (RAP). Methods: New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, with eight rabbits per group. The first group was the control animal group (Group A). The second was the drug-free serum vehicle control group (Group B). The third group used serum-containing f Zhigancao Decoction (Group C) at various concentrations. The fourth group was the Zhigancao Decoction medicated serum group (Group D). After establishing the atrial fibrillation model, the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) in the control group, and in groups after different interventions, were measured. Results: We report of an atrial fibrillation model using by rapid right atrium atrial pacing, in which fAPD was significantly shorter 12 hours after pacing (P < 0.05). The intervention by 10% to 25% of drug-containing serum or decoction could prolong the fAPD of rabbit atrial appendage in atrial fibrillation rabbits in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusion: fAPD can be used as an indicator for the change of cardiac electrophysiological properties. 10% to 25% of Zhigancao Decoction medicated serum can prolong fAPD in atrial fibrillation rabbits, which may be the electrophysiological mechanism of atrial fibrillation resistance.
PMCID: PMC4402778  PMID: 25932131
Rapid pacing the right atrium; atrial fibrillation; microelectrode array; Zhigancao Decoction; drug containing serum
5.  The treatment of Uygur medicine Dracocephalum moldavica L on chronic mountain sickness rat model 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2014;10(40):477-482.
Aim:
Dracocephalum moldavica L, a traditional Uygur medicine, possesses some key cardiac activities. However, till date, no reports are available on the use of D. moldavica against chronic mountain sickness (CMS), which is a medical condition that affects the residents of high altitude. The present study was designed to explore the treatment efficacy of D. moldavica on CMS.
Materials and Methods:
80 of the 100 Sprague Dawley rats enrolled were bred in simulated high altitude environment and the remaining 20 rats were kept in the plains. Water and alcohol extracts of D. moldavica were prepared. CMS rat model was prepared, and the rat hearts were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Rat pulmonary artery pressure was determined to study the treatment efficacy.
Results:
In the CMS model group, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were found to be significantly higher than the control group; while the concentrations of SOD and GSH-Px decreased. D. moldavica could improve these levels, decrease pulmonary artery pressure, and improve the cardiac pathological state.
Conclusions:
The study results show that IL-6, CRP, MDA, SOD and GSH-Px participate and mediate the formation of CMS and D. moldavica is found to possess noticeable effects on CMS. The present study explored the basics of high altitude sickness and laid the foundation for further progress of Uygur medicines on the treatment of altitude sickness. Further preclinical and clinical studies with more sample size are recommended.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.141817
PMCID: PMC4239726  PMID: 25422549
Chronic mountain sickness; Dracocephalum moldevica L; myocardial ischemia
6.  Effects and mechanisms of acetyl-L-cysteine in rats with chronic mountain sickness with H1-NMR metabolomics methods 
Background
We established a rat model of chronic mountain sickness using acetyl-L-cysteine. Then we studied the effects and mechanisms of acetyl-L-cysteine (Da) in rats with chronic mountain sickness using nuclear magnetic resonance (H1-NMR) metabolomics methods.
Material/Methods
Using NMR spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, we analyzed the impact of Da on blood metabolism in rats with chronic mountain sickness by determining different metabolites and changes in metabolic network in the blood of rats with mountain sickness after the intragastric administration of different doses of Da suspension.
Results
Increased levels of amino acids (valine, tyrosine, 1-methyl-histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine) were detected in the blood of rats in the chronic mountain sickness group, yet significantly decreased levels were detected in control rats. At the same time, β-glucose and α-glucose levels were markedly elevated in the blood of rats in the model group but decreased in the chronic mountain sickness group, which indicated a statistically significant difference compared with the chronic altitude sickness model group (P<0.05).
Conclusions
Da has a significant impact on the metabolism of rats with chronic mountain sickness. Da may act on the disturbed glucose metabolism and amino acid metabolism in rats triggered by chronic mountain sickness, resulting in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
doi:10.12659/MSM.890244
PMCID: PMC4026147  PMID: 24816079
H1-NMR; Acetylcysteine; Altitude Sickness
7.  Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera freyn and sint seeds on ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mouse model 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2013;9(35):187-191.
Aim:
This study investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of Nigella glandulifera Freyn and Sint seeds (NGS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in a mouse model.
Materials and Methods:
Kunming mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAC) were treated with NGS by oral administration. On the 11th day after the EAC implant, mouse thymus, liver, spleen and kidney tumors were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses.
Results:
The results indicate that NGS treatment leads to an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-2 blood serum levels. Absence of viable EAC and presence of necrotic cells were observed in the tumor tissue of the NGS-treated animals.
Conclusions:
The study results indicated that a water extract of NGS had the highest anti-tumor effect. Moreover, NGS treatment also showed an increase in the immune system activity.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.113258
PMCID: PMC3732418  PMID: 23929999
Anti-tumor; Immunomodulatory; Seeds of Nigella glandulifera Freyn
8.  Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of abnormal Savda Munziq on S180 tumour-bearing mice 
Background
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), a traditional uyghur medicine, has shown anti-tumour properties in vitro. This study attempts to confirm these effects in vivo and measure effects on the immune system.
Methods
Kunming mice transplanted with Sarcoma 180 cells were treated with ASMq (2–8 g/kg/day) by intra-gastric administration compared to model and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day). After the 14th day post tumour implant, thymus, liver, spleen and tumours were removed, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for haematological and biochemical analyses including TNF-α , IL-1 β and IL-2. Splenic lymphocyte function was measured with MTT; lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry.
Results
ASMq treated animals had reduced tumour volume compared to model and increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 compared to untreated and to cyclophosphamide-treated animals. No histopathological alterations were observed. The absence of viable S180 cells and the presence of necrotic cells and granulation tissue were observed in tumour tissue of treated animals. The effect on T lymphocytes was unclear.
Conclusions
ASMq confirmed in vivo anti-tumour effects observed in vitro, which may be at least in part mediated by increased immune activity.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-157
PMCID: PMC3489790  PMID: 22978453
9.  The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2012;8(30):141-148.
Aim:
This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model.
Materials and Methods:
The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed.
Results:
The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability.
Conclusions:
The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.96568
PMCID: PMC3371436  PMID: 22701288
Abnormal savda munziq; antioxidant; antitumor

Results 1-9 (9)