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1.  Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2012 
BMC Psychiatry  2016;16:88.
Background
Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population.
Methods
The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models.
Results
A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9–12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4–5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0–27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m2), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases.
Conclusions
The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of depression remains high. Further research with longitudinal follow-up for depression in people with T2DM is needed to understand real world effectiveness of depression management.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0800-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0800-2
PMCID: PMC4820858  PMID: 27044315
Depression; Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
2.  A Comparison of Data Driven-based Measures of Adherence to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Medicaid Patients 
AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings  2014;2014:1294-1301.
We evaluated and compared different methods for measuring adherence to Oral Antihyperglycemic Agents (OHA), based on the correlation between these measures and glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels in Medicaid patients with Type 2 diabetes. An observational sample of 831 Medicaid patients with Type 2 diabetes who had HbA1c test results recorded between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was identified in the Indiana Network of Patient Care (INPC). OHA adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR), proportion of days covered (PDC), and the number of gaps (GAP) for 3, 6, and 12-month intervals prior to the HbA1c test date. All three OHA adherence measurements showed consistent and significant correlation with HbA1c level. The 6-month PDC showed the strongest association with HbA1c levels in both unadjusted (−1.07, P<0.0001) and adjusted (−1.12, P<0.0001) models.
PMCID: PMC4420014  PMID: 25954441
3.  Data for drugs available through low-cost prescription drug programs are available through pharmacy benefit manager and claims data 
Background
Observational data are increasingly being used for pharmacoepidemiological, health services and clinical effectiveness research. Since pharmacies first introduced low-cost prescription programs (LCPP), researchers have worried that data about the medications provided through these programs might not be available in observational data derived from administrative sources, such as payer claims or pharmacy benefit management (PBM) company transactions.
Method
We used data from the Indiana Network for Patient Care to estimate the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes to whom an oral hypoglycemic agent was dispensed. Based on these estimates, we compared the proportions of patients who received medications from chains that do and do not offer an LCPP, the proportion trend over time based on claims data from a single payer, and to proportions estimated from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).
Results
We found that the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes who received oral hypoglycemic medications did not vary based on whether the chain that dispensed the drug offered an LCPP or over time. Additionally, the rates were comparable to those estimated from MEPS.
Conclusion
Researchers can be reassured that data for medications available through LCPPs continue to be available through administrative data sources.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-12-12
PMCID: PMC3416643  PMID: 22726249
Low-cost prescription program; Oral antihyperglycemic agents; Pharmacy benefit manager; Claims data
4.  Race and Medication Adherence and Glycemic Control: Findings from an Operational Health Information Exchange 
AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings  2011;2011:1649-1657.
The Central Indiana Beacon Community leads efforts for improving adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) to achieve improvements in glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we explored how OHA adherence affected hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) level in different racial groups. OHA adherence was measured by 6-month proportion of days covered (PDC). Of 3,976 eligible subjects, 12,874 pairs of 6-month PDC and HbA1c levels were formed between 2002 and 2008. The average HbA1c levels were 7.4% for African-Americans and 6.5% for Whites. The average 6-month PDCs were 40% for African-Americans and 50% for Whites. In mixed effect generalized linear regression analyses, OHA adherence was inversely correlated with HbA1c level for both African-Americans (−0.80, p<0.0001) and Whites (−0.53, p<0.0001). The coefficient was −0.26 (p<0.0001) for the interaction of 6-month PDC and African-Americans. Significant risk factors for OHA non-adherence were race, young age, non-commercial insurance, newly-treated status, and polypharmacy.
PMCID: PMC3243292  PMID: 22195231
5.  An Empiric Modification to the Probabilistic Record Linkage Algorithm Using Frequency-Based Weight Scaling 
Objective
To incorporate value-based weight scaling into the Fellegi-Sunter (F–S) maximum likelihood linkage algorithm and evaluate the performance of the modified algorithm.
Background
Because healthcare data are fragmented across many healthcare systems, record linkage is a key component of fully functional health information exchanges. Probabilistic linkage methods produce more accurate, dynamic, and robust matching results than rule-based approaches, particularly when matching patient records that lack unique identifiers. Theoretically, the relative frequency of specific data elements can enhance the F–S method, including minimizing the false-positive or false-negative matches. However, to our knowledge, no frequency-based weight scaling modification to the F–S method has been implemented and specifically evaluated using real-world clinical data.
Methods
The authors implemented a value-based weight scaling modification using an information theoretical model, and formally evaluated the effectiveness of this modification by linking 51,361 records from Indiana statewide newborn screening data to 80,089 HL7 registration messages from the Indiana Network for Patient Care, an operational health information exchange. In addition to applying the weight scaling modification to all fields, we examined the effect of selectively scaling common or uncommon field-specific values.
Results
The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for applying weight scaling to all field-specific values were 95.4, 98.8, and 99.9%, respectively. Compared with nonweight scaling, the modified F–S algorithm demonstrated a 10% increase in specificity with a 3% decrease in sensitivity.
Conclusion
By eliminating false-positive matches, the value-based weight modification can enhance the specificity of the F–S method with minimal decrease in sensitivity.
doi:10.1197/jamia.M3186
PMCID: PMC2744724  PMID: 19567789
6.  Facilitating Clinical Research through the Health Information Exchange: Lipid Control as an Example 
Using data from the Indiana Network of Patient Care (INPC), we analyzed long-term statin adherence patterns and their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Statin adherence was measured by proportion of days covered (PDC) for a 6-month interval prior to each LDL-C test date. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were used as covariates for LDL-C control and predictors for statin adherence. From 4,350 eligible subjects, 25,596 6-month PDC and LDL-C level pairs were formed between 2001 and 2009. Rates of suboptimal adherence and suboptimal LDL-C control were 68.5% and 46.6%, respectively. Positive predictors for LDL-C control included adherence to statin (OR: 1.87, p<0.0001) and older age (OR: 1.11, p=0.01). Significant risk factors for non-adherence were young age, female gender, African American race and newly-treated status. This study demonstrated the utility of a health information exchange in health outcome and clinical effectiveness research.
PMCID: PMC3041406  PMID: 21347118
7.  Implementing Broad Scale Childhood Immunization Decision Support as a Web Service 
Timely vaccinations decrease a child’s risk of contracting vaccine-preventable disease and prevent disease outbreaks. Childhood immunization schedules may represent the only clinical guideline for which there is official national consensus. So an immunization clinical decision support system (CDSS) is a natural application. However, immunization schedules are complex and change frequently. Maintaining multiple CDSS’s is expensive and error prone. Therefore, a practical strategy would be an immunization CDSS as a centralized web service that can be easily accessed by various electronic medical record (EMR) systems. This allows centralized maintenance of immunization guidelines. We have developed a web service, based on Miller’s tabular model with modifications, which implements routine childhood immunization guidelines. This immunization web service is currently operating in the Regenstrief Institute intranet and system evaluations are ongoing. We will make this web service available on the Internet. In this paper, we describe this web service -based immunization decision support tool.
PMCID: PMC2815411  PMID: 20351952

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