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1.  Effects of paliperidone extended release on the symptoms and functioning of schizophrenia 
Background
We aimed to explore relations between symptomatic remission and functionality evaluation in schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone extended-release (ER), as seen in a normal day-to-day practice, using flexible dosing regimens of paliperidone ER. We explored symptomatic remission rate in patients treated with flexibly dosed paliperidone ER by 8 items of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and change of Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale.
Method
This was a 12-week multicenter, open-label, prospective clinical study conducted in in-patient and out-patient populations. Flexible dosing in the range 3-12 mg/day was used throughout the study. All subjects attended clinic visits on weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 as usual clinical practice for the 12-week observation period. Data were summarized with respect to demographic and baseline characteristics, efficacy measurement with PANSS scale, PSP, and social functioning score, and safety observations. Descriptive statistics were performed to identify the retention rate at each visit as well as the symptomatic remission rate. Summary statistics of average doses the subjects received were based on all subjects participating in the study.
Results
A total of 480 patients were enrolled. Among them, 426 patients (88.8%) had evaluation at week 4 and 350 (72.9%) completed the 12-week evaluation. Patients with at least moderate severity of schizophrenia were evaluated as "mild" or better on PANSS scale by all 8 items after 12 weeks of treatment with paliperidone ER. There was significant improvement in patients' functionality as measured by PSP improvement and score changes. Concerning the other efficacy parameters, PANSS total scale, PSP total scale, and social functioning total scale at the end of study all indicated statistically significant improvement by comparison with baseline. The safety profile also demonstrated that paliperidone ER was well-tolerated without clinically significant changes after treatment administration.
Conclusions
Although the short-term nature of this study may limit the potential for assessing improvements in function, it is noteworthy that in the present short-term study significant improvements in patient personal and social functioning with paliperidone ER treatment were observed, as assessed by PSP scale.
Trial Registration
Clinical Trials. PAL-TWN-MA3
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-12-1
PMCID: PMC3282633  PMID: 22225965
2.  Exploring How Peak Leg Power and Usual Gait Speed Are Linked to Late-Life Disability 
Objective
To investigate the relation of both peak leg power and usual gait speed in their association with varying domains of late-life disability.
Design
Participants (≥60 yrs of age, n = 1753) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, leisure and social activities, lower limb mobility, and general physical activities was obtained by self-report. Peak muscle power was the product of isokinetic peak leg torque and peak force velocity. Functional limitations were evaluated via usual gait speed, which was obtained from a 20-foot timed walk.
Results
Low usual gait speed was associated with disability independent of basic demographics, cognitive performance, co-morbidities, health behaviors, and inflammatory markers. The odds ratios for disabilities in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, leisure and social activities, lower limb mobility, and general physical activities for each standard-deviation increase in walking speed were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59–0.87), 0.63 (95% CI, 0.52–0.77), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.45–0.72), 0.56 (95% CI, 0.47–0.67), and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.64–0.85), respectively. The odds ratios for disabilities in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, leisure and social activities, lower limb mobility, and general physical activities for each standard-deviation increase in leg power were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55–0.89), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53–0.86), 0.62 (95% CI, 0.47–0.83), 0.58 (95% CI, 0.47–0.72), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.61–0.87), respectively. Supplementary adjustment for walking speed mildly attenuated the relation of leg power to disability.
Conclusion
Peak leg power and habitual gait speed were associated with varying domains of late-life disability. The association between peak leg power and disability seems to be partially mediated through usual gait speed.
doi:10.1097/01.phm.0000228527.34158.ed
PMCID: PMC2366087  PMID: 16865019
Muscle Power; Walking Speed; Gait; Disability; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Results 1-2 (2)