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1.  Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Effect on Reticulocyte Production Rate and Age Distribution in Healthy Subjects 
Clinical pharmacokinetics  2008;47(6):399-415.
To evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on the reticulocyte production rate and age distribution in healthy subjects.
Extensive pharmacokinelic and pharmacodynamic data collected from 88 subjects who received a single subcutaneous dose of rHuEPO (dose range 20–160 kIU) were analysed. Four nonlinear mixed-effects models were evaluated to describe the time course of the percentage of reticulocytes and their age distribution in relation to rHuEPO pharmacokinetics. Model A accounted for stimulation of the production of progenitor cells in bone marrow, and model B implemented shortening of differentiation and maturation times of early progenitors in bone marrow. Model C was the combination of models A and B, and model D was the combination of model A with an increase in the maturation times of the circulating reticulocytes. Model evaluation was performed using goodness-of-fit plots, a nonparametric bootstrap and a posterior predictive check.
Model D was selected as the best model, and evidenced accurate and precise estimation of model parameters and prediction of the time course of the percentage of reticulocytes. At baseline, the estimated circulating reticulocyte maturation time was 2.6 days, whereas the lifespan of the precursors in the bone marrow was about 5 days. The rHuEPO potency for the stimulatory effect (7.61 IU/L) was higher than that for the increase in reticulocyte maturation times (56.3 IU/L). There was a significant 1- to 2-day lag time in the reticulocyte response. The effect of rHuEPO on the reticulocyte age distribution consisted of a transient increase in the reticulocyte maturation time from baseline up to 6–7 days, occurring 1 day after administration. The dose-dependent amplitude of the changes in the age distribution lasted for 12–14 days. The model-predicted peak increase in the reticulocyte release rate ranged from 140% to 160% of the baseline value and was maximal on days 7–8 following rHuEPO administration.
A semiphysiological model quantifying the effect of rHuEPO on the reticulocyte production rate and age distribution was developed. The validated model predicts that rHuEPO increases the reticulocyte production rate and modifies the reticulocyte age distribution in a dose-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC3145321  PMID: 18479174
2.  Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin-Induced Neutropenia in Subjects with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis 
The AAPS Journal  2011;13(1):72-82.
The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and the time course of the neutropenia-induced by hyperthermic intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (HIO) after cytoreductive surgery in cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Data from 30 patients who received 360 mg/m2 of HIO following cytoreductive surgery were used for pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. The oxaliplatin plasma concentrations were characterized by an open two-compartment pharmacokinetic model after first-order absorption from peritoneum to plasma. An oxaliplatin-sensitive progenitor cell compartment was used to describe the absolute neutrophil counts in blood. The reduction of the proliferation rate of the progenitor cells was modeled by a linear function of the oxaliplatin plasma concentrations. The typical values of oxaliplatin absorption and terminal half-lives were estimated to be 2.2 and 40 h, with moderate interindividual variability. Oxaliplatin reduced the proliferation rate of the progenitor cells by 18.2% per mg/L. No patient’s covariates were related to oxaliplatin PK/PD parameters. Bootstrap and visual predictive check evidenced the model was deemed appropriate to describe oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics and the incidence and severity of neutropenia. A peritoneum oxaliplatin exposure of 65 and 120 mg·L/h was associated with a 20% and 33% incidence of neutropenia grade 4. The time course of neutropenia following HIO administration was well described by the semiphysiological PK/PD model. The maximum tolerated peritoneum oxaliplatin exposure is 120 mg L/h and higher exposures should be avoided in future studies. We suggest the prophylactic use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor for patients treated with HIO exposure higher than 65 mg L/h.
PMCID: PMC3032095  PMID: 21210260
hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC); NONMEM; oxaliplatin; peritoneal carcinomatosis; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics
3.  Immunogenicity of panitumumab in combination chemotherapy clinical trials 
Panitumumab is a fully human antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor that is indicated for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after disease progression on standard chemotherapy. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the immunogenicity of panitumumab and to evaluate the effect of anti-panitumumab antibodies on pharmacokinetic and safety profiles in patients with mCRC receiving panitumumab in combination with oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapies.
Three validated assays (two screening immunoassays and a neutralizing antibody bioassay) were used to detect the presence of anti-panitumumab antibodies in serum samples collected from patients enrolled in four panitumumab combination chemotherapy clinical trials. The impact of anti-panitumumab antibodies on pharmacokinetic and safety profiles was analyzed using population pharmacokinetic analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively.
Of 1124 patients treated with panitumumab in combination with oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy with postbaseline samples available for testing, 20 (1.8%) patients developed binding antibodies and 2 (0.2%) developed neutralizing antibodies. The incidence of anti-panitumumab antibodies was similar in patients with tumors expressing wild-type or mutant KRAS and in patients receiving oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapies. No evidence of an altered pharmacokinetic or safety profile was found in patients who tested positive for anti-panitumumab antibodies.
The immunogenicity of panitumumab in the combination chemotherapy setting was infrequent and similar to the immunogenicity observed in the monotherapy setting. Panitumumab immunogenicity did not appear to alter pharmacokinetic or safety profiles. This low rate of immunogenicity may be attributed to the fully human nature of panitumumab.
Trial registration NCT00339183 (study 20050181), NCT00411450 (study 20060277), NCT00332163 (study 20050184), and NCT00364013 (study 20050203).
PMCID: PMC3231982  PMID: 22070868

Results 1-3 (3)