PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of High-Dose Human Regular U-500 Insulin Versus Human Regular U-100 Insulin in Healthy Obese Subjects 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(12):2496-2501.
OBJECTIVE
Human regular U-500 (U-500R) insulin (500 units/mL) is increasingly being used clinically, yet its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) have not been well studied. Therefore, we compared PK and PD of clinically relevant doses of U-500R with the same doses of human regular U-100 (U-100R) insulin (100 units/mL).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a single-site, randomized, double-blind, crossover euglycemic clamp study. Single subcutaneous injections of 50- and 100-unit doses of U-500R and U-100R were administered to 24 healthy obese subjects.
RESULTS
Both overall insulin exposure (area under the serum insulin concentration versus time curve from zero to return to baseline [AUC0-t’]) and overall effect (total glucose infused during a clamp) were similar between formulations at both 50- and 100-unit doses (90% [CI] of ratios contained within [0.80, 1.25]). However, peak concentration and effect were significantly lower for U-500R at both doses (P < 0.05). Both formulations produced relatively long durations of action (18.3 to 21.5 h). Time-to-peak concentration and time to maximum effect were significantly longer for U-500R than U-100R at the 100-unit dose (P < 0.05). Time variables reflective of duration of action (late tRmax50, tRlast) were prolonged for U-500R versus U-100R at both doses (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Overall exposure to and action of U-500R insulin after subcutaneous injection were no different from those of U-100R insulin. For U-500R, peaks of concentration and action profiles were blunted and the effect after the peak was prolonged. These findings may help guide therapy with U-500R insulin for highly insulin-resistant patients with diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0721
PMCID: PMC3220843  PMID: 21994429
2.  Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial 
Background
Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use.
Methods
This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®]). Thirty-two healthy female subjects participated in an open-label, randomised, crossover trial with 3 treatment periods (oral contraceptive alone, 1 hour before exenatide, 30 minutes after exenatide). Subjects received a single dose of oral contraceptive on Day 8 of each period and QD doses on Days 10 through 28. During treatment periods of concomitant usage, exenatide was administered subcutaneously prior to morning and evening meals at 5 μg BID from Days 1 through 4 and at 10 μg BID from Days 5 through 22. Single- (Day 8) and multiple-dose (Day 22) pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed for each treatment period.
Results
Exenatide did not alter the bioavailability nor decrease daily trough concentrations for either oral contraceptive component. No substantive changes in oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics occurred when oral contraceptive was administered 1 hour before exenatide. Single-dose oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in mean (90% CI) Cmax reductions of 46% (42-51%) and 41% (35-47%) for EE and LV, respectively. Repeated daily oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in Cmax reductions of 45% (40-50%) and 27% (21-33%) for EE and LV, respectively. Peak oral contraceptive concentrations were delayed approximately 3 to 4 hours. Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events observed during the trial.
Conclusions
The observed reduction in Cmax is likely of limited importance given the unaltered oral contraceptive bioavailability and trough concentrations; however, for oral medications that are dependent on threshold concentrations for efficacy, such as contraceptives and antibiotics, patients should be advised to take those drugs at least 1 hour before exenatide injection.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00254800.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-12-8
PMCID: PMC3378442  PMID: 22429273
exenatide twice daily; pharmacokinetics; oral contraceptive
3.  Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide 
What is already known about this subject
Nonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is primarily cleared by the renal system.It was not known to what degree the clinical pharmacokinetics and tolerability would be affected by increasing renal impairment (RI).
What this study adds Patients with mild to moderate RI adequately tolerate current therapeutic doses of exenatide.However, exenatide is not recommended in patients with severe RI or end-stage renal disease.
Aims
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of a single exenatide dose in patients with renal impairment (RI).
Methods
Exenatide (5 or 10 µg) was injected subcutaneously in 31 subjects (one with Type 2 diabetes) stratified by renal function [Cockcroft–Gault creatinine clearance (CrCL), number of subjects]: normal (>80 ml min−1, n = 8), mild RI (51–80 ml min−1, n = 8), moderate RI (31–50 ml min−1, n = 7) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (n = 8). PK data were combined with four previous single-dose studies in patients with Type 2 diabetes to explore the relationship of exenatide clearance (CLp/F) and CrCL.
Results
Mean half-life for healthy, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD groups were 1.5, 2.1, 3.2 and 6.0 h, respectively. After combining data from multiple studies, least squares geometric means for CLp/F in subjects with normal renal function, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD were 8.14, 5.19, 7.11 and 1.3 l h−1, respectively. Exenatide was generally well tolerated in the mild and moderate RI groups, but not in subjects with ESRD due to nausea and vomiting. Simulations of exenatide plasma concentrations also suggest patients with ESRD should have a propensity for poor tolerability at the lowest available therapeutic dosage (5 µg q.d.).
Conclusions
Since tolerability and PK changes were considered clinically acceptable in patients with mild to moderate RI, it would be appropriate to administer exenatide to these patients without dosage adjustment. However, poor tolerability and significant changes in PK make the currently available therapeutic doses (5 and 10 µg) unsuitable in severe RI or ESRD.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02890.x
PMCID: PMC2000650  PMID: 17425627
end-stage renal disease; exenatide; incretin mimetic; pharmacokinetics; renal impairment; Type 2 diabetes
4.  Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide 
Aims
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of a single exenatide dose in patients with renal impairment (RI).
Methods
Exenatide (5 or 10 µg) was injected subcutaneously in 31 subjects (one with Type 2 diabetes) stratified by renal function [Cockcroft–Gault creatinine clearance (CrCL), number of subjects]: normal (>80 ml min−1, n = 8), mild RI (51–80 ml min−1, n = 8), moderate RI (31–50 ml min−1, n = 7) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (n = 8). PK data were combined with four previous single-dose studies in patients with Type 2 diabetes to explore the relationship of exenatide clearance (CLp/F) and CrCL.
Results
Mean half-life for healthy, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD groups were 1.5, 2.1, 3.2 and 6.0 h, respectively. After combining data from multiple studies, least squares geometric means for CLp/F in subjects with normal renal function, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD were 8.14, 5.19, 7.11 and 1.3 l h−1, respectively. Exenatide was generally well tolerated in the mild and moderate RI groups, but not in subjects with ESRD due to nausea and vomiting. Simulations of exenatide plasma concentrations also suggest patients with ESRD should have a propensity for poor tolerability at the lowest available therapeutic dosage (5 µg q.d.).
Conclusions
Since tolerability and PK changes were considered clinically acceptable in patients with mild to moderate RI, it would be appropriate to administer exenatide to these patients without dosage adjustment. However, poor tolerability and significant changes in PK make the currently available therapeutic doses (5 and 10 µg) unsuitable in severe RI or ESRD.
What is already known about this subjectNonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is primarily cleared by the renal system.It was not known to what degree the clinical pharmacokinetics and tolerability would be affected by increasing renal impairment (RI).
What this study addsPatients with mild to moderate RI adequately tolerate current therapeutic doses of exenatide.However, exenatide is not recommended in patients with severe RI or end-stage renal disease.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02890.x
PMCID: PMC2000650  PMID: 17425627
end-stage renal disease; exenatide; incretin mimetic; pharmacokinetics; renal impairment; Type 2 diabetes

Results 1-4 (4)