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1.  Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial 
Background
Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum concentration (Cmax). This study evaluated the drug interaction potential of exenatide when administered adjunctively with oral contraceptives, given their potential concomitant use.
Methods
This trial evaluated the effect of exenatide co-administration on single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol [EE] 30 μg, levonorgestrel [LV] 150 μg [Microgynon 30®]). Thirty-two healthy female subjects participated in an open-label, randomised, crossover trial with 3 treatment periods (oral contraceptive alone, 1 hour before exenatide, 30 minutes after exenatide). Subjects received a single dose of oral contraceptive on Day 8 of each period and QD doses on Days 10 through 28. During treatment periods of concomitant usage, exenatide was administered subcutaneously prior to morning and evening meals at 5 μg BID from Days 1 through 4 and at 10 μg BID from Days 5 through 22. Single- (Day 8) and multiple-dose (Day 22) pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed for each treatment period.
Results
Exenatide did not alter the bioavailability nor decrease daily trough concentrations for either oral contraceptive component. No substantive changes in oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics occurred when oral contraceptive was administered 1 hour before exenatide. Single-dose oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in mean (90% CI) Cmax reductions of 46% (42-51%) and 41% (35-47%) for EE and LV, respectively. Repeated daily oral contraceptive administration 30 minutes after exenatide resulted in Cmax reductions of 45% (40-50%) and 27% (21-33%) for EE and LV, respectively. Peak oral contraceptive concentrations were delayed approximately 3 to 4 hours. Mild-to-moderate nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events observed during the trial.
Conclusions
The observed reduction in Cmax is likely of limited importance given the unaltered oral contraceptive bioavailability and trough concentrations; however, for oral medications that are dependent on threshold concentrations for efficacy, such as contraceptives and antibiotics, patients should be advised to take those drugs at least 1 hour before exenatide injection.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00254800.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-12-8
PMCID: PMC3378442  PMID: 22429273
exenatide twice daily; pharmacokinetics; oral contraceptive
2.  Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, II: investigations of mechanism 
BMC Psychiatry  2010;10:45.
Background
Olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI) is a salt-based depot antipsychotic combining olanzapine and pamoic acid. The slow intramuscular dissolution of this practically insoluble salt produces an extended release of olanzapine lasting up to 4 weeks. However, in a small number of injections (< 0.1%), patients experienced symptoms suggestive of olanzapine overdose, a phenomenon that has been termed "post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome" (PDSS). The authors conducted a series of parallel investigations into the possible reasons PDSS events occur.
Methods
Healthcare providers involved in the PDSS cases were queried for clinical information around the events. Plasma samples from patients experiencing PDSS were collected when possible (12/30 cases) and olanzapine concentrations compared with the known pharmacokinetic profile for olanzapine LAI. Product batches and used vials from the PDSS cases were evaluated for compliance with established manufacturing standards and/or possible user error. Because this depot formulation depends upon slow dissolution at the intramuscular injection site, in-vitro experiments were conducted to assess solubility of olanzapine pamoate in various media.
Results
Injection administrators reported no unusual occurrences during the injection. No anomalies were found with the product batches or the remaining suspension in the used vials. Olanzapine concentrations during PDSS events were higher than the expected 5-73 ng/mL range, with concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL and in some cases reaching >600 ng/mL during the first hours after injection but then returning to the expected therapeutic range within 24 to 72 hours. Solubility and dissolution rate of olanzapine pamoate were also found to be substantially greater in plasma than in other media such as those approximating the environment in muscle tissue.
Conclusions
Manufacturing irregularities, improper drug reconstitution, and inappropriate dosing were ruled out as possible causes of PDSS. In-vitro solubility and in-vivo pharmacokinetic investigations suggest that PDSS is related to exposure of the injected product to a substantial volume of blood. This exposure is most likely the result of unintended partial intravascular injection or blood vessel injury during the injection (occurring even with proper injection technique) with subsequent seepage of the medication into the vasculature, which would produce higher than intended olanzapine concentrations and symptoms consistent with PDSS.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://http//www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00094640, NCT00088478, NCT00088491, NCT00088465, and NCT00320489
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-45
PMCID: PMC2895590  PMID: 20537130
3.  Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide 
What is already known about this subject
Nonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is primarily cleared by the renal system.It was not known to what degree the clinical pharmacokinetics and tolerability would be affected by increasing renal impairment (RI).
What this study adds Patients with mild to moderate RI adequately tolerate current therapeutic doses of exenatide.However, exenatide is not recommended in patients with severe RI or end-stage renal disease.
Aims
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of a single exenatide dose in patients with renal impairment (RI).
Methods
Exenatide (5 or 10 µg) was injected subcutaneously in 31 subjects (one with Type 2 diabetes) stratified by renal function [Cockcroft–Gault creatinine clearance (CrCL), number of subjects]: normal (>80 ml min−1, n = 8), mild RI (51–80 ml min−1, n = 8), moderate RI (31–50 ml min−1, n = 7) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (n = 8). PK data were combined with four previous single-dose studies in patients with Type 2 diabetes to explore the relationship of exenatide clearance (CLp/F) and CrCL.
Results
Mean half-life for healthy, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD groups were 1.5, 2.1, 3.2 and 6.0 h, respectively. After combining data from multiple studies, least squares geometric means for CLp/F in subjects with normal renal function, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD were 8.14, 5.19, 7.11 and 1.3 l h−1, respectively. Exenatide was generally well tolerated in the mild and moderate RI groups, but not in subjects with ESRD due to nausea and vomiting. Simulations of exenatide plasma concentrations also suggest patients with ESRD should have a propensity for poor tolerability at the lowest available therapeutic dosage (5 µg q.d.).
Conclusions
Since tolerability and PK changes were considered clinically acceptable in patients with mild to moderate RI, it would be appropriate to administer exenatide to these patients without dosage adjustment. However, poor tolerability and significant changes in PK make the currently available therapeutic doses (5 and 10 µg) unsuitable in severe RI or ESRD.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02890.x
PMCID: PMC2000650  PMID: 17425627
end-stage renal disease; exenatide; incretin mimetic; pharmacokinetics; renal impairment; Type 2 diabetes
4.  Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide 
Aims
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of a single exenatide dose in patients with renal impairment (RI).
Methods
Exenatide (5 or 10 µg) was injected subcutaneously in 31 subjects (one with Type 2 diabetes) stratified by renal function [Cockcroft–Gault creatinine clearance (CrCL), number of subjects]: normal (>80 ml min−1, n = 8), mild RI (51–80 ml min−1, n = 8), moderate RI (31–50 ml min−1, n = 7) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (n = 8). PK data were combined with four previous single-dose studies in patients with Type 2 diabetes to explore the relationship of exenatide clearance (CLp/F) and CrCL.
Results
Mean half-life for healthy, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD groups were 1.5, 2.1, 3.2 and 6.0 h, respectively. After combining data from multiple studies, least squares geometric means for CLp/F in subjects with normal renal function, mild RI, moderate RI and ESRD were 8.14, 5.19, 7.11 and 1.3 l h−1, respectively. Exenatide was generally well tolerated in the mild and moderate RI groups, but not in subjects with ESRD due to nausea and vomiting. Simulations of exenatide plasma concentrations also suggest patients with ESRD should have a propensity for poor tolerability at the lowest available therapeutic dosage (5 µg q.d.).
Conclusions
Since tolerability and PK changes were considered clinically acceptable in patients with mild to moderate RI, it would be appropriate to administer exenatide to these patients without dosage adjustment. However, poor tolerability and significant changes in PK make the currently available therapeutic doses (5 and 10 µg) unsuitable in severe RI or ESRD.
What is already known about this subjectNonclinical studies have shown that exenatide is primarily cleared by the renal system.It was not known to what degree the clinical pharmacokinetics and tolerability would be affected by increasing renal impairment (RI).
What this study addsPatients with mild to moderate RI adequately tolerate current therapeutic doses of exenatide.However, exenatide is not recommended in patients with severe RI or end-stage renal disease.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02890.x
PMCID: PMC2000650  PMID: 17425627
end-stage renal disease; exenatide; incretin mimetic; pharmacokinetics; renal impairment; Type 2 diabetes

Results 1-4 (4)