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1.  Cyclic fatigue resistance of OneShape, Reciproc, and WaveOne: An in vitro comparative study 
Aims:
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of three single-use nickel–titanium (NiTi) instruments.
Materials and Methods:
Forty files each of OneShape (OS), Reciproc R25 (R25), WaveOne Primary (WO) file, and ProTaper (PT) F2 (as control) were tested in four curved artificial canals with different angles and radii of curvature. The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was determined and the data were compared for differences by using two-way analysis of variance (P < 0.05).
Results:
In general, all single-use instruments were more resistant than traditional rotary instrument used as control. R25 showed the highest cyclic fatigue resistance. One Shape and WO files showed similar cyclic fatigue resistance values, higher than PT F2.
Conclusions:
Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that R25 was the most fatigue resistant. OS rotary instruments seem to have good mechanical resistance, similar to NiTi files developed for reciprocating motion.
doi:10.4103/0972-0707.131788
PMCID: PMC4056397  PMID: 24944449
Cyclic fatigue; NiTi; reciprocating motion; rotary files; single-use instruments
2.  Forward 
Journal of Ultrasound  2012;15(1):1.
doi:10.1016/j.jus.2012.02.004
PMCID: PMC3558055  PMID: 23397472
3.  Use of antipsychotic and antidepressant within the Psychiatric Disease Centre, Regional Health Service of Ferrara 
Background
This study aimed at describing the type and dosage of psychopharmaceuticals dispensed to patients with psychiatric disorders and to assess the percentage of patients treated with antipsychotics and antidepressants, the associated therapies, treatment adherence, and dosages used in individuals registered at the Psychiatric Disease Center (PDC), Regional Health Service of Ferrara.
Methods
The analysis focused on therapeutic programmes presented to the Department of Pharmacy of the University Hospital of Ferrara of 892 patients treated by the PDC (catchment area of 134605 inhabitants). All diagnoses were made according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9). The analysis focused on prescriptions from September 2007 to June 2009. Data on adherence to prescribed therapy have were processed by analysis of variance.
Results
Among the patients 63% were treated with antipsychotics and 40% with antidepressants. Among patients receiving antipsychotics 92% used second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) whereas the remaining 8% used first generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Antipsychotic doses were lower than Daily Defined Dose (DDDs), and SGAs were often given with anticholinergics to decrease side effects. Mean adherence to antipsychotic therapy was 64%. Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most often prescribed, 55%. Dosages of these were within the limits indicated by the technical datasheet but higher than DDDs. Only 26% of patients underwent monotherapy. In antidepressants polytherapy, medication was associated with another antidepressant, 6% or with an antipsychotic, 51%. Mean adherence to the antidepressant therapy was 64%.
Conclusions
Patients treated with antipsychotics tend to use doses lower than DDDs. The opposite tendency was noted in patients treated with antidepressants. Only a small percentage of patients (14%) modified their neuroleptic therapy by increasing the dosage. On the contrary, patients treated with antidepressants mainly tended to reduce the doses of their drugs. This study highlights the tendency to follow combination therapies, prescribing SGAs together with anticholinergics in order to minimize extrapyramidal side effects or by combining two antidepressants. The study showed low adherence for both pharmaceutical therapies, which is typical in the setting of the analyzed diseases.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-11-21
PMCID: PMC3293025  PMID: 22185397
4.  Ventricular Dyssynchrony: 12-month Evaluation In Ischemic Versus Nonischemic CRT Patients 
Objective
Few data exist about the potential differences in the dyssynchrony status of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) candidates stratified by etiology of heart failure, and about the evolution of dyssynchrony at long-term follow-up. We provided a description of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony at baseline, 6 months and 12 months in ischemic and nonischemic CRT patients.
Methods
Tissue Doppler Imaging was performed in 35 CRT candidates (18 ischemic, 17 nonischemic) at baseline, and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. A group of 11 healthy subjects was considered for comparison.
Results
At baseline, the standard deviation and the maximum activation delay between any 2 segments were significantly greater in ischemic (38±33ms, 94±76ms) and nonischemic (38±24ms, 96±62ms) patients versus controls (9±7ms, 22±15ms) (all p<0.05). The average time to activation for posterior and lateral wall was significantly higher in nonischemic patients, while the anterior septum activated later in ischemic patients.
At 6-month follow-up, standard deviation and maximum delay did not vary in nonischemic while decreased in ischemic group. All changes persisted at 12 months.
Conclusions
No baseline differences were observed between ischemic and nonischemic patients using studied indices. At 6- and 12-month follow-up, only ischemic patients presented a significant reduction in dyssynchrony values, although in both groups CRT did not lead to a complete normalization of LV synchronism.
PMCID: PMC2615059  PMID: 19165356
Heart Failure; Resynchronization; Dyssynchrony; Echocardiography; Etiology

Results 1-4 (4)