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1.  Attitude towards informed consent practice in a developing country: a community-based assessment of the role of educational status 
BMC Medical Ethics  2014;15(1):77.
Background
It has been reported by some studies that the desire to be involved in decisions concerning one’s healthcare especially with regard to obtaining informed consent is related to educational status. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the influence of educational status on attitude towards informed consent practice in three south-eastern Nigerian communities.
Methods
Responses from consenting adult participants from three randomly selected communities in Enugu State, southeast Nigeria were obtained using self-/interviewer-administered questionnaire.
Results
There were 2545 respondents (1508 males and 1037 females) with an age range of 18 to 65 years. More than 70% were aged 40 years and below and 28.4% were married. More than 70% of the respondents irrespective of educational status will not leave all decisions about their healthcare to the doctor. A lower proportion of those with no formal education (18.5%) will leave this entire decision-making process in the hands of the doctor compared to those with tertiary education (21.9%). On being informed of all that could go wrong with a procedure, 61.5% of those with no formal education would consider the doctor unsafe and incompetent while 64.2% of those with tertiary education would feel confident about the doctor. More than 85% of those with tertiary education would prefer consent to be obtained by the doctor who will carry out the procedure as against 33.8% of those with no formal education. Approximately 70% of those who had tertiary education indicated that informed consent was necessary for procedures on children, while the greater number of those with primary (64.4%) and no formal education (76.4%) indicated that informed consent was not necessary for procedures on children. Inability to understand the information was the most frequent specific response among those without formal education on why they would leave all the decisions to the doctor.
Conclusion
The study showed that knowledge of the informed consent practice increased with level of educational attainment but most of the participants irrespective of educational status would want to be involved in decisions about their healthcare. This knowledge will be helpful to healthcare providers in obtaining informed consent.
doi:10.1186/1472-6939-15-77
PMCID: PMC4216367  PMID: 25339067
Informed consent; Educational status; Attitude
2.  Prevalence, Morbidity, and Mortality Patterns of Typhoid Ileal Perforation as Seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu Nigeria: An 8-year Review 
World Journal of Surgery  2014;38(10):2514-2518.
Background
Some recent studies have reported a decrease in mortality from typhoid ileal perforation. The present report aims to determine the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of this disease in patients mostly drawn from a rural area.
Methods
This is a retrospective study of 50 patients treated between January 1999 and December 2007 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The variables studied included patient demographics, clinical features, intraoperative findings, complications, and mortality. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 13.
Results
Of the 50 patients included in the study, 22 were males with the highest rate in patients aged 20 years and younger. Fever was the commonest symptom and at initial presentation, the mean pulse and respiratory rates were significantly higher in the patients who subsequently died than in those who survived (P < 0.05). All the perforations occurred in the ileum; 62 % of the patients had solitary perforations, 28 % had double perforations, and 10 % had three or more. Fifty-eight perforations were treated by simple closure in two layers, 4 patients had ileal resection and anastomosis, and 2 underwent right hemicolectomy. The mean interval between operation and death was 1.7 days. The overall mortality rate was 30 %, but among those with three or more perforations, mortality was 100 %.
Conclusions
Typhoid ileal perforation still carries a high mortality especially in rural areas. Those with tachycardia and tachypnea at presentation and those with three or more perforations are at a higher risk of dying from the disease.
doi:10.1007/s00268-014-2637-5
PMCID: PMC4161930  PMID: 24858189
3.  The Incidence and Types of Medication Errors in Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87338.
Purpose
This study assessed the incidence and types of medication errors, interventions and outcomes in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in selected HIV treatment centres in Nigeria.
Methods
Of 69 health facilities that had program for active screening of medication errors, 14 were randomly selected for prospective cohort assessment. All patients who filled/refilled their antiretroviral medications between February 2009 and March 2011 were screened for medication errors using study-specific pharmaceutical care daily worksheet (PCDW). All potential or actual medication errors identified, interventions provided and the outcomes were documented in the PCDW. Interventions included pharmaceutical care in HIV training for pharmacists amongst others. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics and P<0.05 indicated statistical significance.
Results
Of 6,882 participants, 67.0% were female and 93.5% were aged ≥15years old. The participants had 110,070 medications filling/refilling visits, average (±SD) of 16.0 (±0.3) visits per patient over the observation period. Patients were followed up for 9172.5 person-years. The number of drug items dispensed to participants was 305,584, average of 2.8 (±0.1) drug items per patient. The incidence rate of medication errors was 40.5 per 100 person-years. The occurrence of medication errors was not associated with participants’ sex and age (P>0.05). The major medications errors identified were 26.4% incorrect ART regimens prescribed; 19.8% potential drug-drug interaction or contraindication present; and 16.6% duration and/or frequency of medication inappropriate. Interventions provided included 67.1% cases of prescriber contacted to clarify/resolve errors and 14.7% cases of patient counselling and education; 97.4% of potential/actual medication error(s) were resolved.
Conclusion
The incidence rate of medication errors was somewhat high; and majority of identified errors were related to prescription of incorrect ART regimens and potential drug-drug interactions; the prescriber was contacted and the errors were resolved in majority of cases. Active screening for medication errors is feasible in resource-limited settings following a capacity building intervention.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087338
PMCID: PMC3904988  PMID: 24489899
4.  Improving pharmacy practice through public health programs: experience from Global HIV/AIDS initiative Nigeria project 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:525.
Background
The use of medicines is an essential component of many public health programs (PHPs). Medicines are important not only for their capacity to treat and prevent diseases. The public confidence in healthcare system is inevitably linked to their confidence in the availability of safe and effective medicines and the measures for ensuring their rational use. However, pharmacy services component receives little or no attention in most public health programs in developing countries. This article describes the strategies, lessons learnt, and some accomplishments of Howard University Pharmacists and Continuing Education (HU-PACE) Centre towards improving hospital pharmacy practice through PHP in Nigeria.
Method
In a cross-sectional survey, 60 hospital pharmacies were randomly selected from 184 GHAIN-supported health facilities. The assessment was conducted at baseline and repeated after at least 12 months post-intervention using a study-specific instrument. Interventions included engagement of stakeholders; provision of standards for infrastructural upgrade; development of curricula and modules for training of pharmacy personnel; provision of job aids and tools amongst others. A follow-up hands-on skill enhancement based on identified gaps was conducted. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics. All reported p-values were 2-tailed at 95% confidence interval.
Results
The mean duration of service provision at post-intervention assessment was 24.39 (95% CI, 21.70–27.08) months. About 16.7% of pharmacies reported been trained in HIV care at pre-intervention compared to 83.3% at post-intervention. The proportion of pharmacies with audio-visual privacy for patient counseling increased significantly from 30.9% at pre-intervention to 81.4% at post-intervention. Filled prescriptions were cross-checked by pharmacist (61.9%) and pharmacy technician (23.8%) before dispensing at pre-intervention compared to pharmacist (93.1%) and pharmacy technician (6.9%) at post intervention. 40.0% of pharmacies reported tracking consumption of drugs at pre-intervention compared to 98.3% at post-intervention; while 81.7% of pharmacies reported performing periodic stock reconciliation at pre-intervention compared to 100.0% at post-intervention. 36.5% of pharmacies were observed providing individual counseling on medication use to patients at pre-intervention compared to 73.2% at post-intervention; and 11.7% of pharmacies had evidence of monitoring and reporting of suspected adverse drug reaction at pre-intervention compared to 73.3% at post-intervention. The institution of access to patients’ clinical information by pharmacists in all pharmacies at post-intervention was a paradigm shift.
Conclusion
Through public health program, HU-PACE created an enabling environment and improved capacity of pharmacy personnel for quality HIV/AIDS and TB services. This has contributed in diverse ways to better monitoring of patients on pharmacotherapy by pharmacists through access of pharmacists to patients’ clinical information.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-525
PMCID: PMC3824707  PMID: 24255831
Pharmaceutical care; HIV/AIDS; Public health programs; Patients; Nigeria
5.  Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy: Results from spontaneous reporting system in Nigeria 
Aim:
This study evaluated the suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported from a spontaneous reporting program in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria
Materials and Methods:
This descriptive study analyzed individual case safety reports (ICSRs) in HIV-positive patients receiving ART between January 2011 and December 2011 in 38 secondary hospitals. All ICSRs during this period were included. Chi-square was used to test the association between variables at 95% confidence interval.
Results:
From 1237 ICSRs collated, only 1119 (90.5%) were valid for analysis. Mean age of patients was 35.3 (95%CI, 35.1–35.5) years; and 67.1% were females. A total of 1679 ADR cases were reported, a mean (± Standard Deviation, SD) of 1.5 (± 0.8) ADR cases per patient. Of reported ADRs, 63.2%, 8.2% and 19.3% occurred in patients on Zidovudine-based, Stavudine-based and Tenofovir-based regimens, respectively. The commonest ADRs included (12.0%) peripheral neuropathy, (11.4%) skin rash, (10.1%) pruritus and (6.5%) dizziness. ADR occurrence was associated with ART regimens, concomitant medicines and age (P < 0.05) unlike gender. Anaemia was associated with Zidovudine (AZT)/ Lamivudine (3TC) /Nevirapine (NEV) regimen [Odds ratio, OR = 6.4 (3.0–13.8); P < 0.0001], and peripheral neuropathy with Stavudine (d4T)/3TC/NEV regimen [OR = 8.7 (5.8–30.0), P < 0.0001] and Tenofovir (TDF)/Emtricitabine (FTC)/Efavirenz (EFV) regimen [OR = 2.1 (1.0–4.1), P = 0.0446]. Skin rash and peripheral neuropathy were associated with patients aged < 15years [OR = 3.0 (1.3–6.6), P = 0.0056] and 45–59years [OR = 1.9 (1.3–2.7), P = 0.0006] respectively. Palpitation and polyuria were associated with Salbutamol [OR = 55.7 (4.9–349.6), P = 0.0000] and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) [OR = 50.2 (0.9–562.1), P = 0.0040] respectively.
Conclusion:
ADRs were less likely to occur in patients on stavudine-based and tenofovir-based regimens compared to zidovudine-based regimens. Peripheral neuropathy was also found to be associated with tenofovir-based regimen. This may require further studies and evaluation.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.111784
PMCID: PMC3700325  PMID: 23833736
Adverse effects; human immunodeficiency virus; medicines; pharmacovigilance; Nigeria
6.  Knowledge and attitudes of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy regarding adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in selected hospitals in Nigeria 
Purpose:
The study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of HIV-infected patients on ART regarding ADRs following routine patient counseling and education in selected hospitals in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods:
From 36,459 HIV-infected patients on ART in the 36 selected hospitals, a study-specific instrument was administered to 3,650 patients in a cross-sectional study. Patients were provided counseling and education on ADRs before and after commencing ART. Factor analysis was performed using principal components extraction. Item score means above midpoint (3.7) on a 5-point scale were regarded as positive attitudes and below as negative attitudes. A chi-square test was used for inferential statistics; P<0.05 was used to determine statistical significance.
Results:
The mean questionnaire return rate was 47.5%. Data from 2329 (63.8%) participants were analyzed, 63.1% females and 34.4% aged 25-34 years old. A total of 80.1% participants accepted to have been counseled on ADRs; 65.8% knew that all medicines cause some kind of adverse effects; 55.1% knew the adverse effects of their medicines; 60.8% knew what to do when they suspect ADRs and it included mainly reporting to the healthcare provider (88.1%). However, only 31.9% had experienced ADRs previously. The knowledge of ADRs was associated with gender and educational and employment status of the patients (P<0.05). A total of 95.6% reported self-efficacy to ART. Majority of the rated attitude score means were >3.7 which denotes positive attitudes to ADRs. Three extracted factors accounted for 73.1% of cumulative variability. All attitude items had very significant loadings of ≥0.5.
Conclusion:
Overall, participants reported good knowledge and positive attitudes to adverse effects of their medicines compared to what was reported previously. The patient counseling and education on drug therapy provided to patients may have contributed to these findings and are highly recommended.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.100657
PMCID: PMC3487232  PMID: 23125960
ART; attitudes; adverse drug reactions; HIV; knowledge; Nigeria; patients
8.  Improving Monitoring and Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in HIV positive patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Nigeria 
Under-reporting of ADR may be associated with poor knowledge, attitudes and practices to pharmacovigilance. This study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals about ADR monitoring and reporting following interventions. This longitudinal study included 36 healthcare professionals participating in ART program in a tertiary hospital. Interventions included group training on pharmacovigilance (PV) and provision of ADR reporting forms amongst others. Assessments were conducted at months 0 and 6 post-interventions using study-specific Likert-type instruments. Mean attitude scores above midpoint of 3.6 on 5-point scale were regarded as positive and below as negative. P<0.05 used to determine statistical significance. Mean age of participants was 36.6 (95%CI, 34.5–38.7) years; 61.1% males; 44.4% doctors, 13.9% pharmacists, 19.4% nurses, 8.3% laboratory scientists, 8.3% record officers and 5.6% welfare officers. None had received training on PV previously. Mean knowledge test score increased from 53.6% (95%CI, 44.6–63.6) at pre-intervention to 77.1% (95%CI, 72.8–81.4) at post-intervention with a mean change of 146.9% (95%CI, 60.5–233.3; p=0.000). Mean rated attitude scores increased from 3.6 (95%CI, 3.4–3.8) at pre-intervention to 4.2 (95%CI, 4.0–4.4) at post-intervention; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.000). 75.8% reported that ADR reporting forms were not readily available at pre-intervention compared to 18.2% at postintervention; 15.2% had reported ADR previously at pre-intervention compared to 69.7% at post-intervention; 12.1% reported providing information regarding ADRs and its management always at pre-intervention compared to 45.5% at post-intervention; these differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Lack/inadequate knowledge, unavailability of reporting forms and negative attitudes were barriers identified; and addressing them resulted in significant improvement in this setting. Scaling up these interventions to other hospitals can better the situation of under-reporting of ADRs in Nigeria.
PMCID: PMC3979259  PMID: 24826040
Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; ADR monitoring; Health workers; Nigeria

Results 1-10 (10)