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1.  What Are the Causes of Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in Japan? 
Background
There is limited information regarding the cause of revision TKA in Asia, especially Japan. Owing to differences in patient backgrounds and lifestyles, the modes of TKA failures in Asia may differ from those in Western countries.
Questions/purposes
We therefore determined (1) causes of revision TKA in a cohort of Japanese patients with revision TKA and (2) whether patient demographic features and underlying diagnosis of primary TKA are associated with the causes of revision TKA.
Methods
We assessed all revision TKA procedures performed at five major centers in Hokkaido from 2006 to 2011 for the causes of failures. Demographic data and underlying diagnosis for index primary TKA of the revision cases were compared to those of randomly selected primary TKAs during the same period.
Results
One hundred forty revision TKAs and 4047 primary TKAs were performed at the five centers, indicating a revision burden of 3.3%. The most common cause of revision TKA was mechanical loosening (40%) followed by infection (24%), wear/osteolysis (9%), instability (9%), implant failure (6%), periprosthetic fracture (4%), and other reasons (8%). The mean age of patients with periprosthetic fracture was older (77 versus 72 years) and the male proportion in patients with infection was higher (33% versus 19%) than those of patients in the primary TKA group. There was no difference in BMI between primary TKAs and any type of revision TKA except other causes.
Conclusions
The revision burden at the five referral centers in Hokkaido was 3.3%, and the most common cause of revision TKA was mechanical loosening followed by infection. Demographic data such as age and sex might be associated with particular causes of revision TKA.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-2820-2
PMCID: PMC3613556  PMID: 23385774
2.  LeukoCatch, a quick and efficient tool for the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood 
Background
Whole-protein extracts from peripheral blood leukocytes are ideal for basic and clinical research. However, lack of a simple preparation technique has limited the use of such extracts. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and easy system that can selectively obtain leukocyte extracts without hemoglobin.
Methods
A filter that captures the leukocytes but not RBCs was set at the bottom of a 10-mL medical syringe by sandwiching it between plastic stoppers. The capturing efficiency of leukocytes with this tool, called LeukoCatch, was examined using human macrophage cells (MONO-MAC-6). The abilities of LeukoCatch system to capture the leukocyte proteins and to remove the hemoglobin from RBCs were tested by western blot analysis using human blood samples.
Results
This study presents the development of LeukoCatch, a novel tool that allows the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood samples within 3 min without centrifugation. Tissue-cultured human macrophage cells were tested to determine the optimal filter numbers and pass-through frequencies of LeukoCatch, which was then applied to 2-mL blood samples. Samples were passed 2~5 times through a LeukoCatch equipped with 5 filters, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline for red cell removal, and leukocyte proteins were extracted with 0.5 mL of elution buffer. Western blot analysis of the purified extract indicated that more than 90% of hemoglobin was removed by the LeukoCatch and that the protein recovery rate of leukocytes was at least 4 times better than that of the conventional centrifugation method.
Conclusion
We conclude that LeukoCatch is useful not only for diagnosis at the bedside but also for basic research using blood samples or tissue culture cells.
doi:10.1186/1472-6890-11-9
PMCID: PMC3170244  PMID: 21849019
cell extract; leukocyte; diagnosis; PBMC; proteomics

Results 1-2 (2)