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BMC Chemical Biology (1)
Molecular Biology of the Cell (1)
Zouhar, Jan (2)
Hicks, Glenn R (1)
Hong, Seho (1)
Kovaleva, Valentina (1)
Norambuena, Lorena (1)
Preuss, Daphne (1)
Raikhel, Natasha V (1)
Raikhel, Natasha V. (1)
Rojo, Enrique (1)
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Identification of cellular pathways affected by Sortin2, a synthetic compound that affects protein targeting to the vacuole in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Hicks, Glenn R
Raikhel, Natasha V
BMC Chemical Biology
Sortin2 is a low mass compound that interferes with vacuolar delivery of proteins in plants and yeast. The Sortin2 phenotype was tested in Arabidopsis thaliana and found to be reversible upon drug removal, demonstrating the ability of chemical genomics to induce reversible phenotypes that would be difficult to achieve using conventional genetics . However, standard genetic methods can be used to identify drug target pathways in a high-throughput manner.
In this study, we analyzed structure-function relationships of Sortin2 using structural analogues. The results show the key roles of sulphite substitution and a benzoic acid group. A Sortin 2 hypersensitivity screen for the induced secretion of a vacuolar cargo protein was done utilizing a yeast haploid deletion library. Using bioinformatics approaches, we highlighted functional information about the cellular pathways affected by drug treatment which included protein sorting and other endomembrane system-related processes.
Chemical, genomic and genetics approaches were used to understand the mode of action of Sortin2, a bioactive chemical that affects the delivery of a vacuolar protein. Critical features of Sortin2 structure necessary for bioactivity suggest a binding pocket that may recognize two ends of Sortin2. The genome-wide screen shows that Sortin2 treatment in yeast affects primarily components within the endomembrane system. This approach allowed us to assign putative functions in protein sorting for fifteen genes of previously unknown function.
The AtC–VPS Protein Complex Is Localized to the Tonoplast and the Prevacuolar Compartment in Arabidopsis
Raikhel, Natasha V.
Molecular Biology of the Cell
Plant cells contain several types of vacuoles with specialized functions. Although the biogenesis of these organelles is well understood at the morphological level, the machinery involved in plant vacuole formation is largely unknown. We have recently identified an Arabidopsis mutant, vcl1, that is deficient in vacuolar formation. VCL1 is homologous to a protein that regulates membrane fusion at the tonoplast in yeast. On the basis of these observations, VCL1 is predicted to play a direct role in vacuolar biogenesis and vesicular trafficking to the vacuole in plants. In this work, we show that VCL1 forms a complex with AtVPS11 and AtVPS33 in vivo. These two proteins are homologues of proteins that have a well-characterized role in membrane fusion at the tonoplast in yeast. VCL1, AtVPS11, and AtVPS33 are membrane-associated and cofractionate with tonoplast and denser endomembrane markers in subcellular fractionation experiments. Consistent with this, VCL1, AtVPS11, and AtVPS33 are found on the tonoplast and the prevacuolar compartment (PVC) by immunoelectron microscopy. We also show that a VCL1-containing complex includes SYP2-type syntaxins and is most likely involved in membrane fusion on both the PVC and tonoplast in vivo. VCL1, AtVPS11, and AtVPS33 are the first components of the vacuolar biogenesis machinery to be identified in plants.
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