Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, numerous other disease states and senescence. The ability to monitor reactive oxygen species (ROS) within tissues and over time in animal model systems is of significant research value. Recently, redox-sensitive fluorescent proteins have been developed. Transgenic flies expressing genetically encoded redox-sensitive GFPs (roGFPs) targeted to the mitochondria function as a useful in vivo assay of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS. We have generated transgenic flies expressing a mitochondrial-targeted roGFP2, demonstrated its responsiveness to redox changes in cultured cells and in vivo and utilized this protein to discover elevated ROS as a contributor to pathogenesis in a characterized neurodegeneration mutant and in a model of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. These studies identify the role of ROS in pathogenesis associated with mitochondrial disease and demonstrate the utility of genetically encoded redox sensors in Drosophila.
Drosophila melanogaster; ATP6; ATPalpha; mitochondrial dysfunction; ROS; redox sensor
Nucleophilic imine additions with vinyl organometallics have developed into efficient, high yielding, and robust methodologies to generate structurally diverse allylic amines. We have used the hydrozirconation-transmetalation-imine addition protocol in the synthesis of allylic amine intermediates for peptide bond isosteres, phosphatase inhibitors, and mitochondria-targeted peptide mimetics. The gramicidin S-derived XJB-5-131 and JP4-039 and their analogs have been prepared on up to 160 g scale for preclinical studies. These (E)-alkene peptide isosteres adopt type II′ β-turn secondary structures and display impressive biological properties, including selective reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevention of apoptosis.
Imine additions; allylic amines; alkene peptide isosteres; mitochondrial targeting; gramicidin S; XJB-5-131; JP4-039
Esophagitis is a significant toxicity of radiation therapy for lung cancer. In this study, reduction of irradiation esophagitis in mice, by orally administered p53/Mdm2/Mdm4 inhibitor, BEB55, or the GS-nitroxide, JP4-039, was evaluated.
Materials and Methods
BEB55 or JP4-039 in F15 (liposomal) formulation was administered intraesophageally to C57BL/6 mice prior to thoracic irradiation of 29 Gy × 1 or 11.5 Gy × 4 thoracic irradiation. Progenitor cells were sorted from excised esophagus, and nitroxide was quantified, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) orthotopic lung tumors were treated with BEB55 or JP4-039 prior to 20 Gy to determine if the drugs would protect the tumor cells from radiation.
Intraesophageal BEB55 and JP4-039 compared to formulation alone increased survival after single fraction (p=0.0209 and 0.0384, respectively) and four fraction thoracic irradiation (p=0.0241 and 0.0388, respectively). JP4-039 was detected in esophagus, liver, bone marrow, and orthotopic Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) tumor. There was no significant radiation protection of lung tumors by BEB55 or JP4-039 compared to formulation only as assessed by survival (p=0.3021 and 0.3693, respectively). Thus, BEB55 and JP4-039 safely ameliorate radiation esophagitis in mice.
Radiation protection; JP4-039; BEB55; esophagitis; p53; Mdm2; Mdm4
This study evaluated esophageal radioprotection by the Gramicidin S (GS) derived-nitroxide, JP4-039, a mitochondrial targeting peptide-isostere covalently-linked to 4-amino-Tempo, delivered in a novel swallowed oil-based (F15) formulation.
Materials and Methods
C57BL/6HNsd female mice received intraesophageal F15 formulation containing JP4-039 (4 mg/ml in 100 μl volumes) 10 minutes before 28 or 29 Gy upper body irradiation compared to MnSOD-PL (100 μl containing 100 μg plasmid) 24 hours prior to irradiation. Subgroups received 1×107 C57BL/6HNsd, GFP+ male bone marrow cells intravenously 5 days after irradiation.
JP4-039/F15 or MnSOD-PL increased survival compared to irradiated controls (p<0.0001 for either). Marrow injection further increased survival (p=0.0462 and 0.0351, respectively). Esophagi removed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 24, or 60 days showed bone marrow-derived cells in the esophagi.
Intraesophageal GS-nitroxide radioprotection is mediated primarily through recovery of endogenous esophageal progenitor cells.
Radiation protection; antioxidant therapy; progenitor cells; gramicidin S; GS-nitroxide; esophagitis
Oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Many naturally occurring antioxidants have been tested to correct for deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species, but often they lack specificity, are tissue variable, and the efficacy is marginal in human clinical trials. To increase specificity and efficacy, we have designed a synthetic antioxidant, XJB-5-131, to target mitochondria. We demonstrate in a mouse model of HD that XJB-5-131 has remarkably beneficial effects. XJB-5-131 reduces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, maintains mitochondrial DNA copy number, suppresses motor decline and weight loss, enhances neuronal survival, and improves mitochondrial function. The findings poise XJB-5-131 as a promising therapeutic compound.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder characterized by defective DNA repair and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. Clinically, FA is associated with high risk for marrow failure, leukemia and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Radiosensitivity in FA patients compromises the use of total-body irradiation for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and radiation therapy for HNSCC. A radioprotector for the surrounding tissue would therefore be very valuable during radiotherapy for HNSCC. Clonogenic radiation survival curves were determined for pre- or postirradiation treatment with the parent nitroxide Tempol or JP4-039 in cells of four FA patient-derived cell lines and two transgene-corrected subclonal lines. FancG–/– (PD326) and FancD2–/– (PD20F) patient lines were more sensitive to the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC) than their transgene-restored subclonal cell lines (both P < 0.0001). FancD2–/– cells were more radiosensitive than the transgene restored subclonal cell line (ñ = 2.0 ± 0.7 and 4.7 ± 2.2, respectively, P = 0.03). In contrast, FancG–/– cells were radioresistant relative to the transgene-restored subclonal cell line (ñ = 9.4 ± 1.5 and 2.2 ± 05, respectively, P = 0.001). DNA strand breaks measured by the comet assay correlated with radiosensitivity. Cell lines from a Fanc-C and Fanc-A patients showed radiosensitivity similar to that of Fanc-D2–/– cells. A fluorophore-tagged JP4-039 (BODIPY-FL) analog targeted the mitochondria of the cell lines. Preirradiation or postirradiation treatment with JP4-039 at a lower concentration than Tempol significantly increased the radioresistance and stabilized the antioxidant stores of all cell lines. Tempol increased the toxicity of MMC in FancD2–/– cells. These data provide support for the potential clinical use of JP4-039 for normal tissue radioprotection during chemoradiotherapy in FA patients.
Protein kinase D (PKD) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in multiple pathological conditions, including cancer and heart diseases. Potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of PKD are valuable for dissecting PKD-mediated cellular signaling pathways and for therapeutic application. In this study, we evaluated a targeted library of 235 small organic kinase inhibitors for PKD1 inhibitory activity at a single concentration. Twenty-eight PKD inhibitory chemotypes were identified and six exhibited excellent PKD1 selectivity. Five of the six lead structures share a common scaffold, with compound 139 being the most potent and selective for PKD vs PKC and CAMK. Compound 139 was an ATP-competitive PKD1 inhibitor with a low double-digit nanomolar potency and was also cell-active. Kinase profiling analysis identified this class of small molecules as pan-PKD inhibitors, confirmed their selectivity again PKC and CAMK, and demonstrated an overall favorable selectivity profile that could be further enhanced through structural modification. Furthermore, using a PKD homology model based on similar protein kinase structures, docking modes for compound 139 were explored and compared to literature examples of PKD inhibition. Modeling of these compounds at the ATP-binding site of PKD was used to rationalize its high potency and provide the foundation for future further optimization. Accordingly, using biochemical screening of a small number of privileged scaffolds and computational modeling, we have identified a new core structure for highly potent PKD inhibition with promising selectivity against closely related kinases. These lead structures represent an excellent starting point for the further optimization and the design of selective and therapeutically effective small molecule inhibitors of PKD.
The synthesis of fused heterocycles such as thiazolidinyl-oxazolidine 3 is described starting from Tris.HCl. The mercaptomethyl bisoxazolidine 8 was found to convert to the corresponding thiazolidinyloxazolidine 3 and the spiro-heterocycle 4 by a ring-chain-ring tautomerism, depending on the electronic nature of the ring substituents as well as the reaction conditions. This equilibration pathway is absent in the hydroxymethyl bisoxazolidines 2. Computational studies confirm that both kinetic and thermodynamic control features play a role in the product distribution.
The total synthesis of a bis-cyclopropane analog of the antimitotic natural product (-)-disorazole C1 was accomplished in 23 steps and 1.1% overall yield. A vinyl cyclopropane cross-metathesis reaction generated a key (E)-alkene segment of the target molecule. IC50 determinations of (-)-CP2-disorazole C1 in human colon cancer cell lines indicated low nanomolar cytotoxic properties. Accordingly, this synthetic bioisostere represents the first biologically active disorazole analog not containing a conjugated diene or polyene substructure element.
Novel routes to the naturally occurring indole alkaloid cycloclavine and its unnatural C(5)-epimer are described. Key features include the rapid construction of the heterocyclic core segments by two Diels-Alder reactions. An indole annulation was accomplished by a late-stage intramolecular Diels-Alder furan cycloaddition, and a methylenecyclopropane dienophile was used for a stereoselective intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition to give the cyclopropa[c]indoline building block present in cycloclavine.
Ergot alkaloids; cycloclavine; methylenecyclopropane Diels-Alder; IMDAF reaction; indole
A convergent route featuring [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements of a linchpin azepinopyrrolidine served to install two of the four contiguous stereocenters present in the tricyclic Stemona alkaloids sessilifoliamide and stemoamide. In addition to the first total synthesis of (−)-sessilifoliamide C, a potential biosynthetic relationship between the sessilifoliamides and previously reported Stemona alkaloids is presented.
JP4-039 is a novel nitroxide conjugate capable of crossing lipid bilayer membranes and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). An efficient and scalable one-pot hydrozirconation-transmetalation-imine addition methodology has been developed for its asymmetric preparation. Furthermore, this versatile methodology allows for the synthesis of cyclopropyl and fluorinated analogs of the parent lead structure.
Total-body irradiation (TBI) doses in the range of 2–8 Gy are associated with a drop in peripheral blood counts, decreased bone marrow cellularity, and hematopoietic syndrome. Radiation mitigators must be safe for individuals likely to recover spontaneously.
Materials and Methods
Female C57BL/6HNsd mice exposed to 9.0 and 9.15 Gy TBI, received intraperitoneal (10 mg/kg) JP4-039, a novel radiation mitigator, 24 hours after irradiation and were followed for hematopoietic recovery.
Irradiated mice showed reduced peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophils and bone marrow cellularity at day 5. Serum electrolytes, liver and renal function tests showed no deleterious effect of JP4-039-after irradiation, and no reduction in survival compared to irradiated controls. Marrow recovery measured as cellularity, and hematopoietic colony-forming cells including primitive granulocyte-erythroid-megakaryocyte-monocytes (GEMM), reached pre-irradiation levels by day 30 in JP4-039 treated groups. Mice receiving single or multiple administrations of JP4-039 showed an early return of CFU-GEMM.
JP4-039 (GS-Nitroxide) is a safe radiation mitigator in mice warranting studies in larger animals and potentially a Phase I Clinical Trial.
Hematopoietic syndrome; GS-nitroxide; radiation mitigation; total body irradiation
Drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a continuing public health concern, both in the hospital and community settings. Antibacterial compounds that possess novel structural scaffolds and are effective against multiple S. aureus strains, including current drug-resistant ones, are needed. Previously, we have described the chrysophaentins, a family of bisdiarylbutene macrocycles from the chrysophyte alga Chrysophaeum taylori that inhibit the growth of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study we have analyzed the geographic variability of chrysophaentin production in C. taylori located at different sites on the island of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, and identified two new linear chrysophaentin analogs, E2 and E3. In addition, we have expanded the structure activity relationship through synthesis of fragments comprising conserved portions of the chrysophaentins, and determined the antimicrobial activity of natural chrysophaentins and their synthetic analogs against five diverse S. aureus strains. We find that the chrysophaentins show similar activity against all S. aureus strains, regardless of their drug sensitivity profiles. The synthetic chrysophaentin fragments indeed mimic the natural compounds in their spectrum of antibacterial activity, and therefore represent logical starting points for future medicinal chemistry studies of the natural products and their analogs.
chrysophaentins; Staphylococcus aureus; antibacterial
The interaction between small molecules and proteins is one of the major concerns for structure-based drug design since the principles of protein-ligand interactions and molecular recognition are not thoroughly understood. Fortunately, the analysis of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) enables unprecedented possibilities for new insights. Herein, we applied molecule-fragmentation algorithms to split the ligands extracted from PDB crystal structures into small fragments. Subsequently, we have developed a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) algorithm to map the profiles of the interactions between these fragments and the 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues.
A total of 4,032 fragments were generated from 71,798 PDB ligands by a ring cleavage (RC) algorithm. Among these ligand fragments, 315 unique fragments were characterized with the corresponding fragment-residues interaction profiles by counting residues close to these fragments. The interaction profiles revealed that these fragments have specific preferences for certain types of residues. The applications of these interaction profiles were also explored and evaluated in case studies, showing great potential for the study of protein-ligand interactions and drug design.
Our studies demonstrated that the fragment-residues interaction profiles generated from the PDB ligand fragments can be used to detect whether these fragments are in their favorable or unfavorable environments. The algorithm for a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) developed here also has the potential to guide lead chemistry modifications as well as binding residues predictions.
Protein kinase D (PKD) is a member of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate fundamental cellular processes. PKD is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Progress in understanding the biological functions and therapeutic potential of PKD has been hampered by the lack of specific inhibitors. The benzoxoloazepinolone CID755673 was recently identified as the first potent and selective PKD inhibitor. The study of structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this lead structure led to further improvements in PKD1 potency. We describe herein the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzothienothiazepinone analogs. We achieved a ten-fold increase in the in vitro PKD1 inhibitory potency for the second generation lead kb-NB142-70 and accomplished a transition to an almost equally potent novel pyrimidine scaffold, while maintaining excellent target selectivity. These promising results will guide the design of pharmacological tools to dissect PKD function and pave the way for the development of potential anti-cancer agents.
Protein kinase D; small molecule inhibitor; benzothienothiazepinone; pyrimidines; CID755673
Protein kinase D (PKD) belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in basic cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Progress in our understanding of the biological functions of PKD has been limited due to the lack of a PKD-specific inhibitor. The benzoxoloazepinolone CID755673 was recently reported as the first potent and kinase-selective inhibitor for this enzyme. For structure-activity analysis purposes, a series of analogs was prepared and their in vitro inhibitory potency evaluated.
protein kinase D; small molecule inhibitor; benzothienothiazepinone; pyrimidines; CID755673; thiazepinothiophenopyrimidinone
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) function as molecular chaperones during the folding and trafficking of proteins within most cell types. However, the Hsp70–Hsp40 chaperone partnerships within the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, have not been elucidated. Only one of the 43 P. falciparum Hsp40s is predicted to be a cytosolic, canonical Hsp40 (termed PfHsp40) capable of interacting with the major cytosolic P. falciparum-encoded Hsp70, PfHsp70. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that PfHsp40 is upregulated under heat shock conditions in a similar pattern to PfHsp70. In addition, PfHsp70 and PfHsp40 reside mainly in the parasite cytosol, as assessed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Recombinant PfHsp40 stimulated the ATP hydrolytic rates of both PfHsp70 and human Hsp70 similar to other canonical Hsp40s of yeast (Ydj1) and human (Hdj2) origin. In contrast, the Hsp40-stimulated plasmodial and human Hsp70 ATPase activities were differentially inhibited in the presence of pyrimidinone-based small molecule modulators. To further probe the chaperone properties of PfHsp40, protein aggregation suppression assays were conducted. PfHsp40 alone suppressed protein aggregation, and cooperated with PfHsp70 to suppress aggregation. Together, these data represent the first cellular and biochemical evidence for a PfHsp70–PfHsp40 partnership in the malaria parasite, and furthermore that the plasmodial and human Hsp70–Hsp40 chaperones possess unique attributes that are differentially modulated by small molecules.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-010-0250-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Aggregation; ATPase; Codon harmonisation; Heat shock protein; Malaria; Molecular chaperone
Protein kinase D is a novel family of serine/threonine kinases and diacylglycerol receptors that belongs to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase superfamily. Evidence has established that specific PKD isoforms are dysregulated in several cancer types, and PKD involvement has been documented in a variety of cellular processes important to cancer development, including cell growth, apoptosis, motility, and angiogenesis. In light of this, there has been a recent surge in the development of novel chemical inhibitors of PKD. This review focuses on the potential of PKD as a chemotherapeutic target in cancer treatment and highlights important recent advances in the development of PKD inhibitors.
Protein kinase D; cancer; small molecule inhibitors
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the deadliest of microbial toxins. The enzymes’ Zinc(II) metalloprotease, referred to as the light chain (LC) component, inhibits acetylcholine release into neuromuscular junctions, resulting in the disease botulism. Currently, no therapies counter BoNT poisoning post-neuronal intoxication; however, it is hypothesized that small molecules may be used to inhibit BoNT LC activity in the neuronal cytosol. Herein, we describe the pharmacophore-based design and chemical synthesis of potent (non-Zinc(II) chelating) small molecule (non-peptidic) inhibitors (SMNPIs) of the BoNT serotype A LC (the most toxic of the BoNT serotype LCs). Specifically, the three-dimensional superimpositions of 2-[4-(4-amidinephenoxy)-phenyl]-indole-6-amidine-based SMNPI regioisomers (Ki = 0.600 μM (± 0.100 μM)), with a novel lead bis-[3-amide-5-(imidazolino)-phenyl]-terephthalamide (BAIPT)-based SMNPI (Ki = 8.52 μM (± 0.53 μM)), resulted in a refined 4-zone pharmacophore. The refined model guided the design of BAIPT-based SMNPIs possessing Ki values = 0.572 μM (± 0.041 μM) and 0.900 μM (± 0.078 μM).
botulinum neurotoxin; small molecule inhibitor; gas-phase pharmacophore; rational design; biothreat agent
Protein kinase D (PKD) is a novel family of serine/threonine kinases regulated by diacylglycerol, which is involved in multiple cellular processes and various pathological conditions. The limited number of cell-active, selective inhibitors has historically restricted biochemical and pharmacological studies of PKD. We now markedly expand the PKD1 inhibitory chemotype inventory with eleven additional novel small molecule PKD1 inhibitors derived from our high throughput screening campaigns. The in vitro IC50s for these eleven compounds ranged in potency from 0.4 to 6.1 µM with all of the evaluated compounds being competitive with ATP. Three of the inhibitors (CID 1893668, (1Z)-1-(3-ethyl-5-methoxy-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)propan-2-one; CID 2011756, 5-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-[4-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenyl]furan-2-carboxamide; CID 5389142, (6Z)-6-[4-(3-aminopropylamino)-6-methyl-1H-pyrimidin-2-ylidene]cyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-one) inhibited phorbol ester-induced endogenous PKD1 activation in LNCaP prostate cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The specificity of these compounds for PKD1 inhibitory activity was supported by kinase assay counter screens as well as by bioinformatics searches. Moreover, computational analyses of these novel cell-active PKD1 inhibitors indicated that they were structurally distinct from the previously described cell-active PKD1 inhibitors while computational docking of the new cell-active compounds in a highly conserved ATP-binding cleft suggests opportunities for structural modification. In summary, we have discovered novel PKD1 inhibitors with in vitro and cell-based inhibitory activity, thus successfully expanding the structural diversity of small molecule inhibitors available for this important pharmacological target.
(MM) is the second most common hematologic
malignancy and remains incurable, primarily due
to the treatment-refractory/resistant nature of
the disease. A rational approach to this
compelling challenge is to develop new drugs
that act synergistically with existing effective
agents. This approach will reduce drug
concentrations, avoid treatment resistance, and
also improve treatment effectiveness by
targeting new and nonredundant pathways in MM.
Toward this goal, we examined the antimyeloma
effects of MAL3-101, a member of a new class of
non-ATP-site inhibitors of the heat shock
protein (Hsp) 70 molecular chaperone. We
discovered that MAL3-101 exhibited antimyeloma
effects on MM cell lines in
vitro and in vivo in a
xenograft plasmacytoma model, as well as on
primary tumor cells and bone marrow endothelial
cells from myeloma patients. In combination with
a proteasome inhibitor, MAL3-101 significantly
potentiated the in vitro and
in vivo antimyeloma effects.
These data support a preclinical rationale for
small molecule inhibition of Hsp70 function,
either alone or in combination with other
agents, as an effective therapeutic strategy for
Mono- and bis-tetrahydrofuran-based chemical libraries with diverse structural features have been prepared using the Sharpless azide-alkyne Click reaction and multi-component reactions (MCRs) such as Ugi and Biginelli reactions. Mono- and bis-tetrahydrofuran methyl azides, amines and ureas were key intermediates in these processes, and they were synthesized from the corresponding tetrahydrofuran methyl alcohols by mesylation followed by substitution with azide, reduction of the azide to the amine, and urea formation, as needed. Most mono- and tetrahydrofuran methyl alcohols were obtained by a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction. Alternatively, several mono-tetrahydrofurans were prepared by a cobalt(II) complex-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of bis-homoallylic alcohols, which were obtained by copper(I) iodide-catalyzed epoxide opening of 5,6-epoxyhex-1-ene with various alkyl and aryl Grignard reagents. These compounds are examples of an entirely new class of molecules in hitherto unknown chemical space, though their functions are yet to be determined presumably through random screening.
Tetrahydrofuran; Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation; oxidative cyclization; Biginelli reaction; Ugi reaction and Click chemistry
To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondria-targeted small molecules.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated the nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 inhibitor BEB55 in radiation mitigation by clonogenic survival curves with the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3, human bone marrow stromal (KM101) and pulmonary epithelial (IB3) cell line. The p53 dependent mechanism of action was tested with p53 +/+ and p53 −/− murine bone marrow stromal cell lines. C57BL/6 NHsd female mice were injected I.P. after 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55 individually or in combination.
Each drug, JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55, individually or as a mixture of all 3 compounds, increased the survival of 32D cl 3 cells and IB3 cells significantly over control irradiated cells (p=0.0021, p=0.0011, p=0.0038, and p=0.0073, respectively), and (p=0.0193, p=0.0452, p=0.0017, and p=0.0019 respectively). KM101 cells were protected by individual drugs (p=0.0007, p=0.0235, p=0.0044, respectively). JP4-039 and MCF201-89 increased irradiation survival of both p53+/+ (p=0.0396 and p=0.0071, respectively) and p53−/− cells (p=0.0007 and p=0.0188 respectively), while BEB55 was ineffective with (p53−/−) cells. Drugs administered individually or as a mixtures of all 3 after TBI significantly increased mouse survival (p=0.0234, 0.0009, 0.0052 and 0.0167 respectively).
Mitochondrial targeting of small molecule radiation mitigators decreases irradiation-induced cell death in vitro and prolongs survival of lethally irradiated mice.
radiation injury; mitigation; antioxidant; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; p53 inhibitor; mitochondrial-targeting
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that plays multiple roles in protein homeostasis. In these various tasks, the activity of Hsp70 is shaped by interactions with co-chaperones, such as Hsp40. The Hsp40 family of co-chaperones binds to Hsp70 through a conserved J-domain, and these factors stimulate ATPase and protein-folding activity. Using chemical screens, we identified a compound, 115-7c, which acts as an artificial co-chaperone for Hsp70. Specifically, the activities of 115-7c mirrored those of a Hsp40; the compound stimulated the ATPase and protein-folding activities of a prokaryotic Hsp70 (DnaK) and partially compensated for a Hsp40 loss-of-function mutation in yeast. Consistent with these observations, NMR and mutagenesis studies indicate that the binding site for 115-7c is adjacent to a region on DnaK that is required for J-domain-mediated stimulation. Interestingly, we found that 115-7c and the Hsp40 do not compete for binding but act in concert. Using this information, we introduced additional steric bulk to 115-7c and converted it into an inhibitor. Thus, these chemical probes either promote or inhibit chaperone functions by regulating Hsp70–Hsp40 complex assembly at a native protein–protein interface. This unexpected mechanism may provide new avenues for exploring how chaperones and co-chaperones cooperate to shape protein homeostasis.