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author:("Saini, ruksha")
1.  Preconditioning Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Caspase Inhibition and Hyperoxia Prior to Hypoxia Exposure Increases Cell Proliferation 
Journal of cellular biochemistry  2013;114(11):2612-2623.
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Occlusion of a coronary artery produces ischemia and myocardial necrosis that leads to left ventricular (LV) remodeling, dysfunction, and heart failure. Stem cell therapy may decrease infarct size and improve LV function; the hypoxic environment, however, following a myocardial infarction may result in apoptosis, which in turn decreases survival of transplanted stem cells. Therefore, the effects of preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with hyperoxia (100% oxygen), Z-VAD-FMK pan-caspase inhibitor (CI), or both in a hypoxic environment in order to mimic conditions seen in cardiac tissue post-myocardial infarction were studied in vitro. MSCs preconditioned with hyperoxia or CI significantly decreased apoptosis as suggested by TUNEL assay and Annexin V analysis using fluorescence assisted cell sorting. These effects were more profound when both, hyperoxia and CI, were used. Additionally, gene and protein expression of caspases 1, 3, 6, 7, and 9 were down-regulated significantly in MSCs preconditioned with hyperoxia, CI, or both, while the survival markers Akt1, NF-κB, and Bcl-2 were significantly increased in preconditioned MSCs. These changes ultimately resulted in a significant increase in MSC proliferation in hypoxic environment as determined by BrdU assays compared to MSCs without preconditioning. These effects may prove to be of great clinical significance when transplanting stem cells into the hypoxic myocardium of post-myocardial infarction patients in order to attenuate LV remodeling and improve LV function.
PMCID: PMC4017598  PMID: 23794477
2.  Type of Valvular Heart Disease Requiring Surgery in the 21st Century: Mortality and Length-of-Stay Related to Surgery 
While the incidence of rheumatic heart disease has declined dramatically over the last half-century, the number of valve surgeries has not changed. This study was undertaken to define the most common type of valvular heart disease requiring surgery today, and determine in-hospital surgical mortality and length-of-stay (LOS) for isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery in a United States tertiary-care hospital.
Patients with valve surgery between January 2002 to June 2008 at The Ohio State University Medical Center were studied. Patients only with isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery were analyzed.
From 915 patients undergoing at least aortic or mitral valve surgery, the majority had concomitant cardiac proce-dures mostly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); only 340 patients had isolated aortic (n=204) or mitral (n=136) valve surgery. In-hospital surgical mortality for mitral regurgitation (n=119), aortic stenosis (n=151), aortic insufficiency (n=53) and mitral stenosis (n=17) was 2.5% (replacement 3.4%; repair 1.6%), 3.9%, 5.6% and 5.8%, respectively (p=NS). Median LOS for aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis was 7, 8, 9 (replacement 11.5; repair 7) and 11 days, respectively (p<0.05 for group). In-hospital surgical mortality for single valve surgery plus CABG was 10.2% (p<0.005 compared to single valve surgery).
Aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation are the most common valvular lesions requiring surgery today. Surgery for isolated aortic or mitral valve disease has low in-hospital mortality with modest LOS. Concomitant CABG with valve surgery increases mortality substantially. Hospital analysis is needed to monitor quality and stimulate improvement among Institutions.
PMCID: PMC3856389  PMID: 24339838
Heart valve; aortic valve; mitral valve; surgery; outcomes.
3.  Chemical modification of L-glutamine to alpha-amino glutarimide on autoclaving facilitates Agrobacterium infection of host and non-host plants: A new use of a known compound 
BMC Chemical Biology  2011;11:1.
Accidental autoclaving of L-glutamine was found to facilitate the Agrobacterium infection of a non host plant like tea in an earlier study. In the present communication, we elucidate the structural changes in L-glutamine due to autoclaving and also confirm the role of heat transformed L-glutamine in Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of host/non host plants.
When autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 or 40 min, L-glutamine was structurally modified into 5-oxo proline and 3-amino glutarimide (α-amino glutarimide), respectively. Of the two autoclaved products, only α-amino glutarimide facilitated Agrobacterium infection of a number of resistant to susceptible plants. However, the compound did not have any vir gene inducing property.
We report a one pot autoclave process for the synthesis of 5-oxo proline and α-amino glutarimide from L-glutamine. Xenobiotic detoxifying property of α-amino glutarimide is also proposed.
PMCID: PMC3130638  PMID: 21624145

Results 1-3 (3)