In vivo imaging using Annexin A5-based radioligands is a powerful technique for visualizing massive cell death, but has been less successful in monitoring the modest cell death typically seen in solid tumors after chemotherapy. Here we combined dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using Annexin A5 with a serum-based apoptosis marker, for improved sensitivity and specificity in assessment of chemotherapy-induced cell death in a solid tumor model.
Modest cell death was induced by doxorubicin in a mouse xenograft model with human FaDu head and neck cancer cells. PET imaging was based on 11C-labeled Sel-tagged Annexin A5 ([11C]-AnxA5-ST) and a size-matched control. 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) was utilized as a tracer of tissue metabolism. Serum biomarkers for cell death were ccK18 and K18 (M30 Apoptosense® and M65). Apoptosis in tissue sections was verified ex vivo for validation. Both PET imaging using [11C]-AnxA5-ST and serum ccK18/K18 levels revealed treatment-induced cell death, with ccK18 displaying the highest detection sensitivity. [18F]-FDG uptake was not affected by this treatment in this tumor model. [11C]-AnxA5-ST gave robust imaging readouts at one hour and its short half-life made it possible to perform paired scans in the same animal in one imaging session.
The combined use of dynamic PET with [11C]-AnxA5-ST, showing specific increases in tumor binding potential upon therapy, with ccK18/K18 serum measurements, as highly sensitive markers for cell death, enabled effective assessment of modest therapy-induced cell death in this mouse xenograft model of solid human tumors.
Selective small-molecule inhibitors represent powerful tools for the dissection of complex biological processes. ESI (eeyarestatin I) is a novel modulator of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) function. In the present study, we show that in addition to acutely inhibiting ERAD (ER-associated degradation), ESI causes production of mislocalized polypeptides that are ubiquitinated and degraded. Unexpectedly, our results suggest that these non-translocated polypeptides promote activation of the UPR (unfolded protein response), and indeed we can recapitulate UPR activation with an alternative and quite distinct inhibitor of ER translocation. These results suggest that the accumulation of non-translocated proteins in the cytosol may represent a novel mechanism that contributes to UPR activation.
eeyarestatin; endoplasmic reticulum; non-translocated protein; Sec61; unfolded protein response; CHX, cycloheximide; cpd A, translocation inhibitor compound A; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; DTT, dithiothreitol; eIF2α, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α; EndoH, endoglycosidase H; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; EDEM-1, ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like 1; ERAD, ER-associated degradation; ES, eeyarestatin; HEK, human embryonic kidney; IP, immunoprecipitation; IRE1, inositol-requiring enzyme 1; PDI, protein disulfide-isomerase; PERK, PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase)-like ER kinase; PS2, proteasome inhibitor 2; RT, reverse transcription; TCRα, T-cell receptor α subunit; UPR, unfolded protein response; UPS, ubiquitin–proteasome system; XBP1, X-box-binding protein 1
Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology.
Method and Findings
A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo.
The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids.
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is frequently upregulated in human cancer. Activation of this pathway has been reported to be associated with resistance to various chemotherapeutical agents. We here used a chemical biology/chemical informatic approach to identify apoptotic mechanisms that are insensitive to activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Mechanistic Set drug library was screened for agents that induce apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells expressing a constitutively active form of AKT1. The cytotoxicity screening data available as self-organized maps at the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the NCI was then used to classify the identified compounds according to mechanism of action. The results showed that drugs that interfere with the mitotic process induce apoptosis which is comparatively insensitive to constitutive AKT1 activity. The conditional screening approach described here is expected to be useful for identifying relationships between the state of activation of signaling pathways and sensitivity to anticancer agents.
Chemical biology; Apoptosis; AKT; Microtubuli-interacting agents
Intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) is a key element in apoptotic signaling and a number of calcium-dependent apoptosis pathways have been described. We here used a chemical biology strategy to elucidate the relative importance of such different pathways.
A set of 40 agents ("bioprobes") that induce apoptosis was first identified by screening of a chemical library. Using p53, AP-1, NFAT and NF-κB reporter cell lines, these bioprobes were verified to induce different patterns of signaling. Experiments using the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM showed that Ca2+ was involved in induction of apoptosis by the majority of the bioprobes and that Ca2+ was in general required several hours into the apoptosis process. Further studies showed that the calmodulin pathway was an important mediator of the apoptotic response. Inhibition of calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) resulted in more effective inhibition of apoptosis compared to inhibition of calpain, calcineurin/PP2B or DAP kinase. We used one of the bioprobes, the plant alkaloid helenalin, to study the role of CaMKII in apoptosis. Helenalin induced CaMKII, ASK1 and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, and inhibition of these kinases inhibited apoptosis.
Our study shows that calcium signaling is generally not an early event during the apoptosis process and suggests that a CaMKII/ASK1 signaling mechanism is important for sustained JNK activation and apoptosis by some types of stimuli.
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are two diseases caused by hantaviruses. Capillary leakage is a hallmark of hantavirus infection. Pathogenic hantaviruses are not cytotoxic, but elevated levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicative of cellular damage, are observed in patients. We report increased levels of serum perforin, granzyme B, and the epithelial cell apoptosis marker caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 during Puumala hantavirus infection. Significant correlation was observed between the levels of LDH and perforin and the levels of LDH and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18, suggesting that tissue damage is due to an immune reaction and that epithelial apoptosis contributed significantly to the damage.
The term "translational research" is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensitive cell lines and fast growing experimental tumors as targets for novel therapies, and the use of unrealistic drug concentrations and radiation doses. We also argue that aggressive interpretation of data, successful in hypothesis-building biological research, does not form a solid base for development of clinically useful treatment modalities. We question whether "clean" results obtained in simplified models, expected for publication in high-impact journals, represent solid foundations for improved treatment of patients. Open-access journals such as Radiation Oncology have a large mission to fulfill by publishing relevant data to be used for making actual progress in translational cancer research.
Calpain is a ubiquitous protease with potential involvement in apoptosis. We report that in human melanoma cells, cisplatin-induced calpain activation occurs early in apoptosis. Calpain activation and subsequent apoptosis were inhibited by calpeptin and PD150606, two calpain inhibitors with different modes of action. Furthermore, cisplatin induced cleavage of the BH3-only protein Bid, yielding a 14-kDa fragment similar to proapoptotic, caspase-cleaved Bid. However, Bid cleavage was inhibited by inhibitors of calpain, but not by inhibitors of caspases or of cathepsin L. Recombinant Bid was cleaved in vitro by both recombinant calpain and by lysates of cisplatin-treated cells. Cleavage was calpeptin sensitive, and the cleavage site was mapped between Gly70 and Arg71. Calpain-cleaved Bid induced cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria. While calpeptin did not affect cisplatin-induced modulation of Bak to its proapoptotic conformation, a dominant-negative mutant of MEKK1 (dnMEKK) inhibited Bak modulation. dnMEKK did not, however, block Bid cleavage. The combination of dnMEKK and calpeptin had an additive inhibitory effect on apoptosis. In summary, calpain-mediated Bid cleavage is important in drug-induced apoptosis, and cisplatin induces at least two separate apoptotic signaling pathways resulting in Bid cleavage and Bak modulation, respectively.
In a panel of four human melanoma cell lines, equitoxic doses of cisplatin induced the proapoptotic conformation of the Bcl-2 family protein Bak prior to the execution phase of apoptosis. Because cisplatin-induced modulation of the related Bax protein was seen in only one cell line, a degree of specificity in the signal to Bak is indicated. Little is known about upstream regulation of Bak activity. In this study, we examined whether the apoptosis-specific pathway mediated by a kinase fragment of MEKK1 (ΔMEKK1) is involved in the observed Bak modulation. We report that expression of a kinase-inactive fragment of MEKK1 (dominant negative MEKK [dnMEKK]) efficiently blocked cisplatin-induced modulation of Bak and cytochrome c release and consequently also reduced DEVDase activation and nuclear fragmentation. Accordingly, expression of a kinase-active MEKK1 fragment (dominant positive MEKK) was sufficient to induce modulation of Bak in three cell lines and to induce apoptosis in two of these. dnMEKK did not block cisplatin-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, in agreement with a specifically proapoptotic role for the ΔMEKK1 pathway. Finally, we show that reduction of Bak expression by antisense Bak reduced cisplatin-induced loss of mitochondrial integrity and caspase cleavage activity in breast cancer cell lines. In summary, we have identified Bak as a cisplatin-regulated component downstream in a proapoptotic, JNK-independent ΔMEKK1 pathway.
Two new adenovirus vector systems based on the tetracycline-regulated Tet-ON- (Gossen, M., et al., Science 268:1766–1769, 1995) and the RU 486-regulated progesterone antagonist (Wang, Y., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:8180–8184, 1994)-induced gene expression systems are described. We show that both systems permit a tight control of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene expression in a variety of cell types, with induction levels of approximately 1,800-fold (Tet-ON system) and 600-fold (RU 486-regulated system), respectively. A significant advantage of our vector systems is that reporter protein expression can be adjusted over a wide range by varying the amount of inducer. The Tet-ON system is also shown to permit an efficient control of reporter gene expression in mice.