Elevated levels of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) occur in response to various pathological conditions including myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we adapted a fluid phase biopsy technology platform that successfully detects circulating tumor cells in blood of cancer patients (HD-CTC assay), to create a High-Definition Circulating Endothelial Cell (HD-CEC) assay for the detection and characterization of CECs. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 79 MI patients, 25 healthy controls and 6 patients undergoing vascular surgery (VS). CECs were defined by positive staining for DAPI, CD146 and von Willebrand Factor and negative staining for CD45. In addition, CECs exhibited distinct morphological features that enable differentiation from surrounding white blood cells. CECs were found both as individual cells and as aggregates. CEC numbers were higher in MI patients compared with healthy controls. VS patients had lower CEC counts when compared with MI patients but were not different from healthy controls. Both HD-CEC and CellSearch® assays could discriminate MI patients from healthy controls with comparable accuracy but the HD-CEC assay exhibited higher specificity while maintaining high sensitivity. Our HD-CEC assay may be used as a robust diagnostic biomarker in MI patients.
Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as a treatment option complementary to medication. However, information regarding putative effects of structured exercise programs on neurological symptoms is sparse. Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art incorporating physical exercise and mindfulness training, has been shown to yield health benefits in various neurological groups. It seems particularly suitable for patients with motoric deficits as it challenges coordination and balance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the therapeutic value of structured Tai Chi training for coordination, balance, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled MS patients.
A sample of 32 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS < 5) was examined. A structured Tai Chi course was devised and a Tai Chi group participated in two weekly sessions of 90 minutes duration for six months, while a comparison group received treatment as usual (TAU). Both groups were examined prior to and following the six-months interval with regards to balance and coordination performance as well as measures of fatigue, depression and life satisfaction.
Following the intervention, the Tai Chi group showed significant, consistent improvements in balance, coordination, and depression, relative to the TAU group (range of effect-sizes: partial η2 = 0.16 – 0.20). Additionally, life satisfaction improved (partial η2 = 0.31). Fatigue deteriorated in the comparison group, whereas it remained relatively stable in the Tai Chi group (partial η2 = 0.24).
The consistent pattern of results confirms that Tai Chi holds therapeutic potential for MS patients. Further research is needed to determine underlying working mechanisms, and to verify the results in a larger sample and different MS subgroups.
Multiple Sclerosis; Tai Chi; Mindfulness; Balance; Depression
Timely characterization of a cancer's evolution is required to predict treatment efficacy and to detect resistance early. High content analysis of single Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) enables sequential characterization of genotypic, morphometric and protein expression alterations in real time over the course of cancer treatment. This concept was investigated in a patient with castrate-resistant prostate cancer progressing through both chemotherapy and targeted therapy. In this case study, we integrate across four timepoints 41 genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) profiles plus morphometric parameters and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels. Remarkably, little change was observed in response to standard chemotherapy, evidenced by the fact that a unique clone (A), exhibiting highly rearranged CNV profiles and AR+ phenotype was found circulating before and after treatment. However, clinical response and subsequent progression after targeted therapy was associated with the drastic depletion of clone A, followed by the sequential emergence of two distinct CTC sub-populations that differed in both AR genotype and expression phenotype. While AR- cells with flat or pseudo-diploid CNV profiles (clone B) were identified at the time of response, a new tumor lineage of AR+ cells (clone C) with CNV altered profiles was detected during relapse. We showed that clone C, despite phylogenetically related to clone A, possessed a unique set of somatic CNV alterations, including MYC amplification, an event linked to hormone escape. Interesting, we showed that both clones acquired AR gene amplification by deploying different evolutionary paths. Overall, these data demonstrate the timeframe of tumor evolution in response to therapy and provide a framework for the multi-scale analysis of fluid biopsies to quantify and monitor disease evolution in individual patients.
The classic view of metastatic cancer progression is that it is a unidirectional process initiated at the primary tumor site, progressing to variably distant metastatic sites in a fairly predictable, though not perfectly understood, fashion. A Markov chain Monte Carlo mathematical approach can determine a pathway diagram that classifies metastatic tumors as ‘spreaders’ or ‘sponges’ and orders the timescales of progression from site to site. In light of recent experimental evidence highlighting the potential significance of self-seeding of primary tumors, we use a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, based on large autopsy data sets, to quantify the stochastic, systemic, and often multi-directional aspects of cancer progression. We quantify three types of multi-directional mechanisms of progression: (i) self-seeding of the primary tumor; (ii) re-seeding of the primary tumor from a metastatic site (primary re-seeding); and (iii) re-seeding of metastatic tumors (metastasis re-seeding). The model shows that the combined characteristics of the primary and the first metastatic site to which it spreads largely determine the future pathways and timescales of systemic disease.
For lung cancer, the main ‘spreaders’ of systemic disease are the adrenal gland and kidney, whereas the main ‘sponges’ are regional lymph nodes, liver, and bone. Lung is a significant self-seeder, although it is a ‘sponge’ site with respect to progression characteristics.
Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) (Lactuca sativa L.) was developed through somaclonal variation and selection in tissue culture. RSL may contain among the highest reported contents of polyphenols and antioxidants in the category of common fruits and vegetables (95.6 mg/g dry weight and 8.7 mg/g fresh weight gallic acid equivalents and 2721 µmol/g dry weight and 223 µmol/g fresh weight Trolox equivalents). Three main compounds accumulate at particularly high levels in RSL: chlorogenic acid, up to 27.6 mg/g dry weight, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, up to 20.5 mg/g dry weight, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, up to 35.7 mg/g dry weight. Major polyphenolic constituents of RSL have been associated with health promotion as well as anti-diabetic and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Daily oral administration of RSL (100 or 300 mg/kg) for up to eight days acutely reduced hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice compared to vehicle (water) control. Data presented here support possible use of RSL as a functional food for the dietary management of diabetes.
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes.
metabolic syndrome; diabetes; blueberry; soybean; anthocyanins; polyphenols
Collaboration is a cornerstone of many successful scientific research endeavors, which distributes risks and rewards to encourage progress in challenging areas. A striking illustration is the large-scale project that seeks to achieve a robust fundamental understanding of structure and function in the human G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The GPCR Network was created to achieve this goal based on an active outreach program addressing an interdisciplinary community of scientists interested in GPCR structure, chemistry and biology.
Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice at 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. To determine mechanisms of action, rat hepatoma cells were treated with CE and eluates of CDSF at a range of 1–25 µg/ml. CE and eluates of CDSF demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic glucose production with significant levels of inhibition at 25 µg/ml. Furthermore, CE decreased the gene expression of two major regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The hypoglycemic and insulin-like effects of CE and CDSF may help to ameliorate type 2 diabetes conditions.
Cinnamomum burmannii; cinnamon; diabetes; fasting blood glucose; glucose production
The present study demonstrated that defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb polyphenols from blueberry and cranberry juices while separating them from sugars. Depending on DSF concentration and juice dilution, the concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols sorbed to DSF ranged from 2 – 22 mg/g and 10 – 95 mg/g, respectively while the concentration of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF ranged from 2.5 – 17 mg/g and 21 – 101 mg/g, respectively. Blueberry polyphenols present in one serving of fresh blueberries (73g) were delivered in just 1.4 g of blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF. Similarly, one gram of cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF delivered the amount of proanthocyanidins available in three 240 ml servings of cranberry juice cocktail. The concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols eluted from DSF remained constant after 22 weeks of incubation at 37°C, demonstrating the high stability of the polyphenol-DSF matrix. LC-MS analysis of eluates confirmed DSF retained major cranberry and blueberry polyphenols remained intact. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF exhibited significant hypoglycemic activities in C57bl/6J mice, and cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF showed anti-microbial and anti-UTI activities in vitro, confirming its efficacy. The described sorption process provides a means to create protein-rich food ingredients containing concentrated plant bioactives without excess sugars, fats and water that can be incorporated in a variety of scientifically validated functional foods and dietary supplements.
polyphenols; anthocyanins; proanthocyanidins; soybean flour; nutrition; diabetes; antibacterial
We investigated the relationship of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with tumor glucose metabolism as defined by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake since both have been associated with patient prognosis.
Materials & Methods
We performed a retrospective screen of patients at four medical centers who underwent FDG PET-CT imaging and phlebotomy prior to a therapeutic intervention for NSCLC. We used an Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) independent fluid biopsy based on cell morphology for CTC detection and enumeration (defined here as High Definition CTCs or “HD-CTCs”). We then correlated HD-CTCs with quantitative FDG uptake image data calibrated across centers in a cross-sectional analysis.
We assessed seventy-one NSCLC patients whose median tumor size was 2.8 cm (interquartile range, IQR, 2.0–3.6) and median maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 7.2 (IQR 3.7–15.5). More than 2 HD-CTCs were detected in 63% of patients, whether across all stages (45 of 71) or in stage I disease (27 of 43). HD-CTCs were weakly correlated with partial volume corrected tumor SUVmax (r = 0.27, p-value = 0.03) and not correlated with tumor diameter (r = 0.07; p-value = 0.60). For a given partial volume corrected SUVmax or tumor diameter there was a wide range of detected HD-CTCs in circulation for both early and late stage disease.
CTCs are detected frequently in early-stage NSCLC using a non-EpCAM mediated approach with a wide range noted for a given level of FDG uptake or tumor size. Integrating potentially complementary biomarkers like these with traditional patient data may eventually enhance our understanding of clinical, in vivo tumor biology in the early stages of this deadly disease.
Cancer is currently diagnosed and treated based on the results of a tissue biopsy of the primary tumor or a metastasis using invasive techniques such as surgical resection or needle biopsy. New technology for retrieving cancer cells from the circulation, developed in the last 5 years, has made it possible to obtain a ‘fluid biopsy’ from the bloodstream without the need for an invasive procedure. This technological development makes it possible to diagnose and manage cancer from a blood test rather than from a traditional biopsy. It also allows the repeated sampling of cancer cells from a patient, making it possible, in a practical manner, to interrogate the disease repeatedly in order to understand the mechanisms by which cancer cells evolve within a given individual. The ability to obtain cancer cells repeatedly also has the potential to substantially advance drug development by enabling early ex vivo validation of both targets and early-stage compounds, as well as creating new efficiencies in the drug development process during clinical trials.
cancer diagnosis; circulating tumor cell; fluid biopsy; prognostic indicator
Acute myocardial infarction (MI), which involves the rupture of existing atheromatous plaque, remains highly unpredictable despite recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. Accordingly, a biomarker that can predict an impending MI is desperately needed. Here, we characterize circulating endothelial cells (CECs) using the first automated and clinically feasible CEC 3-channel fluorescence microscopy assay in 50 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 44 consecutive healthy controls. CEC counts were significantly elevated in MI cases versus controls with median numbers of 19 and 4 cells/ml respectively (p = 1.1 × 10−10). A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated an area under the ROC curve of 0.95, suggesting near dichotomization of MI cases versus controls. We observed no correlation between CECs and typical markers of myocardial necrosis (ρ=0.02, CK-MB; ρ=−0.03, troponin). Morphologic analysis of the microscopy images of CECs revealed a 2.5-fold increase (P<0.0001) in cellular area and 2-fold increase (P<0.0001) in nuclear area of MI CECs versus healthy control, age-matched CECs, as well as CECs obtained from patients with preexisting peripheral vascular disease. The distribution of CEC images containing from 2 up to 10 nuclei demonstrates that MI patients are the only group to contain more than 3 nuclei/image, indicating that multi-cellular and multi-nuclear clusters are specific for acute MI. These data indicate that CECs may serve as promising biomarkers for the prediction of atherosclerotic plaque rupture events.
The lyso-phospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates lymphocyte trafficking, endothelial development and integrity, heart rate, and vascular tone and maturation by activating G-protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 fused to T4-lysozyme (S1P1-T4L) in complex with an antagonist sphingolipid mimic. Access to the binding pocket is completely occluded by the N-terminus and extracellular loops of the receptor. Access is gained by ligands entering laterally between helices I and VII within the transmembrane region of the receptor. This structure, along with mutagenesis, agonist structure-activity relationship data and modeling, provides a detailed view of the molecular recognition and hydrophobic volume triggering that activates S1P1 resulting in the modulation of immune and stromal cell responses.
Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggests a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there is little published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology, and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced, and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (> 0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs/mL (range 0–515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs/mL. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n=31, range 0–178.2), stage III (n=34, range 0–515.6) and stages I/II (n=13, range 0–442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging.
Our results demonstrate that, despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early and late stage lung cancer CTCs. Larger studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of larger studies examining screening, therapy, and surveillance in lung cancer patients.
Hematologic spread of carcinoma results in incurable metastasis; yet, the basic characteristics and travel mechanisms of cancer cells in the bloodstream are unknown. We have established a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies circulating tumor cells (CTCs) without using surface protein-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. This “HD-CTC” assay finds >5 HD-CTCs/mL of blood in 80% of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (n=20), in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (n=30), in 50% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n=18), and in 0% of normal controls (n=15). Additionally, it finds HD-CTC clusters ranging from 2 HDCTCs to greater than 30 HD-CTCs in the majority of these cancer patients. This initial validation of an enrichment-free assay demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers.
circulating tumor cells; fluid biopsy; microtumor emboli; pancreatic cancer; prostate cancer; breast cancer
Many important experiments in cancer research are initiated with cell line data analysis due to the ease of accessibility and utilization. Recently, the ability to capture and characterize circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become more prevalent in the research setting. This ability to detect, isolate, and analyze CTCs allows us to directly compare specific protein expression levels found in patient CTCs to cell lines. In this study, we use immunocytochemistry to compare the protein expression levels of total cytokeratin (CK) and androgen receptor (AR) in CTCs and cell lines from patients with prostate cancer to determine what translational insights might be gained through the use of cell line data. A non-enrichment CTC detection assay enables us to compare cytometric features and relative expression levels of CK and AR by indirect immunofluorescence from prostate cancer patients against the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. We measured physical characteristics of these two groups and observed significant differences in cell size, fluorescence intensity, and nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio. We hope that these experiments will initiate a foundation to allow cell line data to be compared against characteristics of primary cells from patients.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been implicated as a population of cells that may seed metastasis and venous thromboembolism (VTE), two major causes of mortality in cancer patients. Thus far, existing CTC detection technologies have been unable to reproducibly detect CTC aggregates in order to address what contribution CTC aggregates may have on metastasis or VTE. We report here an enrichment-free immunofluorescence detection method that can reproducibly detect and enumerate homotypic CTC aggregates in patient samples. We identified CTC aggregates in 43% of 86 patient samples. The fraction of CTC aggregation was investigated in blood draws from 24 breast, 14 non-small cell lung (NSCLC), 18 pancreatic, 15 prostate stage IV cancer patients, and 15 normal blood donors (NBD). Both single CTCs and CTC aggregates were measured to determine whether differences exist in the physical characteristics of these two populations. Cells contained in CTC aggregates had less area and length, on average, than single CTCs. Nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio between single CTCs and CTC aggregates were similar. This detection method may assist future studies in determining which population of cells is more physically likely to contribute to metastasis and VTE.
Sampling circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood is ideally accomplished using assays that detect high numbers of cells and preserve them for downstream characterization. We sought to evaluate a method using enrichment free fluorescent labeling of CTCs followed by automated digital microscopy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Twenty-eight patients with non-small cell lung cancer and hematogenously seeded metastasis were analyzed with multiple blood draws. We detected CTCs in 68% of analyzed samples and found a propensity for increased CTC detection as the disease progressed in individual patients. CTCs were present at a median concentration of 1.6 CTCs per milliliter of analyzed blood in the patient population. Higher numbers of detected CTCs were associated with an unfavorable prognosis.
Circulating Tumor Cells; Cancer; Metastasis; prognosis; rare cell
The NG domain of the prokaryotic signal recognition protein Ffh is a two-domain GTPase that comprises part of the prokaryotic signal recognition particle (SRP) that functions in co-translational targeting of proteins to the membrane. The interface between the N and G domains includes two highly conserved sequence motifs and is adjacent in sequence and structure to one of the conserved GTPase signature motifs. Previous structural studies have shown that the relative orientation of the two domains is dynamic. The N domain of Ffh has been proposed to function in regulating the nucleotide-binding interactions of the G domain. However, biochemical studies suggest a more complex role for the domain in integrating communication between signal sequence recognition and interaction with receptor. Here, we report the structure of the apo NG GTPase of Ffh from Thermus aquaticus refined at 1.10 Å resolution. Although the G domain is very well ordered in this structure, the N domain is less well ordered, reflecting the dynamic relationship between the two domains previously inferred. We demonstrate that the anisotropic displacement parameters directly visualize the underlying mobility between the two domains, and present a detailed structural analysis of the packing of the residues, including the critical α4 helix, that comprise the interface. Our data allows us to propose a structural explanation for the functional significance of sequence elements conserved at the N/G interface.
ultrahigh resolution; SRP; Ffh; GTPase; X-ray crystallography
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are associated with survival of cancer patients. Several methods have been developed to detect circulating tumor cells. The number of CTCs in NSCLC is lower than in other solid tumors. To date, trials are ongoing for a better understanding of CTCs. Besides association with prognosis, CTCs can be used to assess the efficacy of treatment and they are important substrates for molecular profiling of the tumor..
CTC; circulating tumor cells; HD-CTC; CellSearch; ISET; NSCLC
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can efficiently sorb, concentrate, and stabilize polyphenols, but not sugars, from Concord grape juice, to yield grape polyphenol-enriched DSF. Sorption of grape polyphenols to DSF particles was dependent on the ratio of DSF and grape juice concentrate used, but not time of mixing or pH. Depending on ratios of starting materials, 1 g of grape polyphenol-enriched DSF contained 1.6–10.4 mg of anthocyanins, 7.5–93.1 mg of proanthocyanidins, and 20.5–144.5 mg of total polyphenols. LC-MS analysis of grape juice samples before and after addition and removal of DSF and eluate from grape polyphenol-enriched DSF confirmed that a broad range of grape compounds were sorbed to the DSF matrix. Finally, grape polyphenol-enriched DSF was able to significantly lower blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic C57BL/6J mice. The data indicate that grape polyphenol-enriched DSF can provide a high-protein, low-sugar ingredient for delivery of concentrated grape polyphenolics.
Concord grape juice; defatted soy flour; anthocyanins; proanthocyanidins; polyphenols; hypoglycemic; diabetes
A stochastic Markov chain model for metastatic progression is developed for primary lung cancer based on a network construction of metastatic sites with dynamics modeled as an ensemble of random walkers on the network. We calculate a transition matrix, with entries (transition probabilities) interpreted as random variables, and use it to construct a circular bi-directional network of primary and metastatic locations based on postmortem tissue analysis of 3827 autopsies on untreated patients documenting all primary tumor locations and metastatic sites from this population. The resulting 50 potential metastatic sites are connected by directed edges with distributed weightings, where the site connections and weightings are obtained by calculating the entries of an ensemble of transition matrices so that the steady-state distribution obtained from the long-time limit of the Markov chain dynamical system corresponds to the ensemble metastatic distribution obtained from the autopsy data set. We condition our search for a transition matrix on an initial distribution of metastatic tumors obtained from the data set. Through an iterative numerical search procedure, we adjust the entries of a sequence of approximations until a transition matrix with the correct steady-state is found (up to a numerical threshold). Since this constrained linear optimization problem is underdetermined, we characterize the statistical variance of the ensemble of transition matrices calculated using the means and variances of their singular value distributions as a diagnostic tool. We interpret the ensemble averaged transition probabilities as (approximately) normally distributed random variables. The model allows us to simulate and quantify disease progression pathways and timescales of progression from the lung position to other sites and we highlight several key findings based on the model.
Coactivator-associated arginine methyl transferase 1 (CARM1) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family member that functions as a coactivator in androgen and estrogen signaling pathways and plays a role in the progression of prostate and breast cancer. CARM1 catalyzes methylation of diverse protein substrates. Prior attempts to purify the full-length mouse CARM1 protein have proven unsatisfactory. The full-length protein expressed in E. coli forms insoluble inclusion bodies that are difficult to denature and to refold. The presented results demonstrate the use of a novel HaloTag™ technology to purify full-length CARM1 from both E. coli and mammalian HEK293T cells. A small amount of CARM1 was purified from E. coli; however, the protein was truncated on the N-terminus by 10–50 amino acids, most likely due to endogenous proteolytic activity. In contrast, substantial quantities of soluble full-length CARM1 were purified from transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The CARM1 from HEK293T cells was isolated alongside a number of co-purifying interacting proteins. The covalent bond formed between the HaloTag and the HaloLink resin allowed the use of stringent wash conditions without risk of eluting the CARM1 protein. The results also illustrate a highly effective approach for purifying and enriching both CARM1-associated proteins as well as substrates for CARM1’s methyltransferase activity.
CARM1; PRMT family; methyl transferase; HaloTag; HaloLink resin; affinity purification
Clinical studies have demonstrated that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of cancer patients with known metastatic disease across the major types of epithelial malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the concentration of CTCs in the blood is prognostic of overall survival in breast, prostate, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer. This study characterizes CTCs identified using the high-definition (HD)-CTC assay in an ovarian cancer patient with stage IIIC disease. We characterized the physical properties of 31 HD-CTCs and 50 normal leukocytes from a single blood draw taken just prior to the initial debulking surgery. We utilized a non-interferometric quantitative phase microscopy technique using brightfield imagery to measure cellular dry mass. Next we used a quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy technique to measure cellular volume. These techniques were combined to determine cellular dry mass density. We found that HD-CTCs were more massive than leukocytes: 33.6 ± 3.2 pg (HD-CTC) compared to 18.7 ± 0.6 pg (leukocytes), p < 0.001; had greater volumes: 518.3 ± 24.5 fL (HD-CTC) compared to 230.9 ± 78.5 fL (leukocyte), p < 0.001; and possessed a decreased dry mass density with respect to leukocytes: 0.065 ± 0.006 pg/fL (HD-CTC) compared to 0.085 ± 0.004 pg/fL (leukocyte), p < 0.006. Quantification of HD-CTC dry mass content and volume provide key insights into the fluid dynamics of cancer, and may provide the rationale for strategies to isolate, monitor or target CTCs based on their physical properties. The parameters reported here can also be incorporated into blood cell flow models to better understand metastasis.
circulating tumor cell; ovarian cancer; differential interference contrast; quantitative phase microscopy; cellular mass; cellular volume; cellular density