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1.  PKC-δ mediates interferon-α-induced apoptosis through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation 
BMC Cell Biology  2012;13:7.
Background
Interferon-α (IFN-α) exerts an anti-tumor effect at least through induction of apoptosis in a variety of types including B lymphoma cells. We recently found that IFN-α induced a sustained activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase1 (JNK1), which is implicated in activation of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) promoter. In the present study, we explored upstream component(s) of the prolonged IFN-α-initiated activation of JNK1.
Results
IFN-α caused activation of PKC-δ in Daudi B lymphoma cells and myeloma U266 cells, as detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody specific for the phosphorylated form of PKC-δ. The dominant-negative form of mutant PKC-δ (dnPKC-δ) reduced the IFN-α-induced JNK1 activation, TRAIL promoter activity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and increase in propidium iodide (PI) positive cells. The IFN-α-induced activation of JNK1 and the TRAIL promoter was also attenuated by the PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin. Moreover, a constitutively active form of mutant PKC-δ enhanced the IFN-α-induced TRAIL promoter activity and loss of ΔΨm in Daudi B lymphoma cells. In addition, IFN-α-induced Ser727 phosphorylation of Stat1 was also abrogated by dnPKC-δ.
Conclusions
IFN-α induced JNK1 activation via PKC-δ, leading to upregulation of TRAIL. The interaction of the consequent enhanced TRAIL expression with TRAIL-receptor results in a loss of ΔΨm and increase in PI positive cells. The IFN-α-induced apoptotic events may also be affected by the Ser727-Stat1 induced by PKC-δ-mediated signaling component(s).
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-13-7
PMCID: PMC3353249  PMID: 22435755
Interferon-α; PKC-δ; JNKs; Apoptosis; B lymphoma cells
2.  Selective stimulation of IL-4 receptor on smooth muscle induces airway hyperresponsiveness in mice 
IL-4Rα expression on airway smooth muscle cells is sufficient for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Production of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 is increased in both human asthma and mouse asthma models, and Stat6 activation by the common IL-4/IL-13R drives most mouse model pathophysiology, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the precise cellular mechanisms through which IL-4Rα induces AHR remain unclear. Overzealous bronchial smooth muscle constriction is thought to underlie AHR in human asthma, but the smooth muscle contribution to AHR has never been directly assessed. Furthermore, differences in mouse versus human airway anatomy and observations that selective IL-13 stimulation of Stat6 in airway epithelium induces murine AHR raise questions about the importance of direct IL-4R effects on smooth muscle in murine asthma models and the relevance of these models to human asthma. Using transgenic mice in which smooth muscle is the only cell type that expresses or fails to express IL-4Rα, we demonstrate that direct smooth muscle activation by IL-4, IL-13, or allergen is sufficient but not necessary to induce AHR. Five genes known to promote smooth muscle migration, proliferation, and contractility are activated by IL-13 in smooth muscle in vivo. These observations demonstrate that IL-4Rα promotes AHR through multiple mechanisms and provide a model for testing smooth muscle–directed asthma therapeutics.
doi:10.1084/jem.20100023
PMCID: PMC3135339  PMID: 21464224

Results 1-2 (2)