Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are initially discovered as the essential hematopoietic growth factors regulating bone marrow stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and SCF in combination with G-CSF (SCF+G-CSF) has synergistic effects on bone marrow stem cell mobilization. In this study we have determined the effect of SCF and G-CSF on neurite outgrowth in rat cortical neurons. Using molecular and cellular biology and live cell imaging approaches, we have revealed that receptors for SCF and G-CSF are expressed on the growth core of cortical neurons, and that SCF+G-CSF synergistically enhances neurite extension through PI3K/AKT and NFκB signaling pathways. Moreover, SCF+G-CSF induces much greater NFκB activation, NFκB transcriptional binding and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production than SCF or G-CSF alone. In addition, we have also observed that BDNF, the target gene of NFκB, is required for SCF+G-CSF-induced neurite outgrowth. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF has synergistic effects to promote neurite growth. This study provides new insights into the contribution of hematopoietic growth factors in neuronal plasticity.
TonB is known to be a bacterial periplasmic protein that transduces proton from the inner membrane to the outer membrane receptor in complex with the ExbB and ExbD proteins. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae TonB2 protein is the second TonB protein that is important for iron acquisition and virulence. The TonB2 protein was verified to be immunogenic and could afford partial protection for animals from lethal infection. In the present study, the recombinant TonB2 (rTonB2) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified. The rTonB2 was then used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Four clones of TonB2-specific MAb secretion hybridomas—2F2, 2G8, 3D2, and 6F10—were selected. The MAbs 2F2, 3D2, and 6F10 were classified as IgG1 isotype and 2G8 was of IgG2a isotype. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that MAbs had specific binding activity to rTonB2. The MAbs generated here will be used for further functional analyses of the TonB2 protein.
Klebsiella pneumoniae strains carrying class 1 integrons are becoming more common worldwide, and their role in the dissemination of drug resistance is significant. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural diversity of class 1 integrons and their associated gene cassettes in K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital settings.
We analyzed a total of 176 K. pneumoniae isolates in a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China for the period of November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011. The presence of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 51.1% (90/176). Fourteen different gene cassettes and 10 different gene cassette arrays were detected. dfrA and aadA cassettes were predominant and cassette combination dfrA1-orfC was most frequently found (13.6%, 24/176). Strong association between resistance to a variety of drugs (both phenotypes and the associated genes) and the presence of class 1 integrons was observed. In addition, we also identified an association between some previously identified prevalent sequence types (such as ST11, ST15, ST147, ST562, and ST716) and the presence of class 1 integrons.
Data from this study demonstrated that class 1 integrons are highly diverse and are associated with a variety of drug resistance phenotypes, drug resistance genes, as well as genotypes among K. pneumoniae isolates. Continuous monitoring of gene cassettes in class 1 integrons is warranted to improve the understanding and control of drug resistance among hospital settings.
Influence of fish oil supplementation on postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) was inconsistent according to published clinical trials. The aim of the meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of perioperative fish oil supplementation on the incidence of POAF after cardiac surgery.
Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing perioperative fish oil supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery were identified. Data concerning study design, patient characteristics, and outcomes were extracted. Risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using fixed or random effects models.
Eight RCTs involving 2687 patients were included. Perioperative supplementation of fish oil did not significantly reduce the incidence of POAF (RR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.71 to 1.03, p = 0.11) or length of hospitalization after surgery (WMD = 0.10 days, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.67 days, p = 0.75). Fish oil supplementation also did not affect the perioperative mortality, incidence of major bleeding or the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated mean DHA dose in the supplements may be a potential modifier for the effects of fish oil for POAF. For supplements with DHA >1 g/d, fish oil significantly reduced the incidence of POAF; while it did not for the supplements with a lower dose of DHA.
Current evidence did not support a preventative role of fish oil for POAF. However, relative amounts of DHA and EPA in fish oil may be important for the prevention of POAF.
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of SU(3n). As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail.
Background: The polymorphism in the signal transducer and activators of transduction 6 (STAT6) gene has been implicated in susceptibility to asthma and aetiology of asthma, but a number of studies have reported inconclusive and ambiguous results of the association between polymorphism in STAT6 gene and asthma risk in different populations. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association between the STAT6 gene polymorphism and asthma susceptibility. Methods: Pubmed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Weipu Database and Wanfang Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Results: Included in this meta analysis were 14 studies involving 2875 cases and 3227 controls for STAT6 2964G/A polymorphism and six studies involving 1431 cases and 2027 controls for 2892C/T polymorphism. Overall, there was no significant association between 2964G/A polymorphism of STAT6 and asthma susceptibility for GA+AA vs. GG (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.07, P = 0.39). Except TT vs. CT+CC and TT vs. CC, no significant association was observed between 2892C/T polymorphism and asthma risk under other different contrast models. However, the result was instable. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the 2964G/A polymorphism of STAT6 gene is not a risk factor of asthma. For 2892C/T, it contributes to the aetiology of or susceptibility to asthma. More studies are needed to validate this result.
Asthma; signal transducer and activator of transcription 6; meta-analysis; polymorphism
In order to investigate the cause of poor fruit set in ‘Zuili’ plums, anatomical examinations of post-bloom pistils were conducted and the dates of young fruit drop were recorded during the growing seasons of 2008 and 2009. Pistils of cv. ‘Black Amber’ were also examined as an abundant setting control. Two major dropping periods were detected in ‘Zuili’: one during the first 5 d after full bloom (DAF) and another between 10 and 17 DAF. Anatomical analyses of the pistils at the full bloom stage revealed that half of the ovules had not developed embryos, which may have caused their early drop. In most dropped pistils collected at 17 DAF, the micropyle had not been penetrated by a pollen tube, indicating that they were not fertilized. ‘Zuili’ ovules initiated embryo division at 10–12 DAF, although thereafter embryo development was retarded when compared to the rates observed in ‘Black Amber’. Ovule fertilization failure and inactive embryo development after ovule fertilization may be the major causes of the later fruit drop observed in ‘Zuili’ plum trees.
Ovule; Development; Pistils; ‘Zuili’ plum
To investigate whether intrinsic ureteral endometriosis could be managed by laser endoureterotomy.
Material and methods
We studied retrospectively 6 patients with intrinsic ureteral endometriosis who underwent laser endoureterotomy and reviewed their clinical data. Pathological sections of them have also been studied by immunohistochemistry for expressional levels of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. Ten sections of normal endometrium were included as a control.
Five patients had recurrence of ureteral stricture within 6 months postoperatively despite hormonal therapy for 3 to 6 months. One patient had recurrence 8 months after endoureterotomy. Two patients had secondary surgery for ureteroureterostomy and pathology confirmed recurrence of endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased ER and PR expression compared to the control.
Endoureterotomy with hormonal therapy may not be suitable for ureteral endometriosis due to inadequate cutting and expressional change of ER and PR.
ureteral endometriosis; endoureterotomy; oestrogen receptor; progesterone receptor
The purpose of the study was to explore the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in perimenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. Perimenopausal women (n = 685) were included in the study. All participants were divided into three subgroups: Group 1, 40 years old ≤ Age < 50 years old; Group 2, 50 years old ≤ Age < 60 years old; Group 3, 60 years old ≤ Age ≤ 65 years old. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.01) in the unadjusted analyses in total subjects. After adjusting the potential confounders, the odd ratios of CKD for MetS was 2.66 (95% CI 1.56 to 4.49, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between MetS and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.001) in the unadjusted analyses in Group 2. After adjusting for potential confounders, MetS was significantly associated with CKD. The odd ratios for MetS was 6.79 (95% CI 2.30 to 20.09, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. Elevated blood pressure was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 4.52 (1.28–16.02), p = 0.02). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated blood pressure and CKD (p = 0.78). Elevated fasting glucose was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 3.69 (1.10–12.38), p = 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated fasting glucose and CKD (p = 0.15). There was no relationship between abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in Group 2. These findings suggest that in perimenopausal women aged from 50 or older to 60 MetS was associated with CKD. There is no relationship between MetS and CKD in perimenopausal women aged from 40 or older to 50 and aged from 60 or older to 65.
metabolic syndrome; chronic kidney disease; perimenopausal women
The dystroglycan complex contains the transmembrane protein β-dystroglycan and its interacting extracellular mucin-like protein α-dystroglycan. In skeletal muscle fibers, the dystroglycan complex plays an important structural role by linking the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin to laminin in the extracellular matrix. Mutations that affect any of the proteins involved in this structural axis lead to myofiber degeneration and are associated with muscular dystrophies and congenital myopathies. Because loss of dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to an almost complete loss of dystroglycan complexes at the myofiber membrane, it is generally assumed that the vast majority of dystroglycan complexes within skeletal muscle fibers interact with dystrophin. The residual dystroglycan present in dystrophin-deficient muscle is thought to be preserved by utrophin, a structural homolog of dystrophin that is up-regulated in dystrophic muscles. However, we found that dystroglycan complexes are still present at the myofiber membrane in the absence of both dystrophin and utrophin. Our data show that only a minority of dystroglycan complexes associate with dystrophin in wild type muscle. Furthermore, we provide evidence for at least three separate pools of dystroglycan complexes within myofibers that differ in composition and are differentially affected by loss of dystrophin. Our findings indicate a more complex role of dystroglycan in muscle than currently recognized and may help explain differences in disease pathology and severity among myopathies linked to mutations in DAPC members.
Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression.
The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins.
Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma.
Boron neutron capture therapy; Glioma stem/progenitor cells; Radiosensitivity
AIM: To further analyse cancer involvement of basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3) after detection of its upregulation in gastric tumor samples.
METHODS: BTF3 transcription rates in human gastric tumor tissue samples (n = 20) and adjacent normal tissue (n = 18) specimens as well as in the gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC-7901, MKN-28, MKN-45 and MGC803 were analyzed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of stable BTF3 silencing via infection with a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-BTF3 expressing lentivirus on SGC-7901 cells was measured via Western blotting analysis, proliferation assays, cell cycle and apoptosis profiling by flow cytometry as well as colony forming assays with a Cellomic Assay System.
RESULTS: A significant higher expression of BTF3 mRNA was detected in tumors compared to normal gastric tissues (P < 0.01), especially in section tissues from female patients compared to male patients, and all tested gastric cancer cell lines expressed high levels of BTF3. From days 1 to 5, the relative proliferation rates of stable BTF3-siRNA transfected SGC7901 cells were 82%, 70%, 57%, 49% and 44% compared to the control, while the percentage of cells arrested in the G1 phase was significantly decreased (P = 0.000) and the percentages of cells in the S (P = 0.031) and G2/M (P = 0.027) phases were significantly increased. In addition, the colony forming tendency was significantly decreased (P = 0.014) and the apoptosis rate increased from 5.73% to 8.59% (P = 0.014) after BTF3 was silenced in SGC7901 cells.
CONCLUSION: BTF3 expression is associated with enhanced cell proliferation, reduced cell cycle regulation and apoptosis and its silencing decreased colony forming and proliferation of gastric cancer cells.
Basic transcription factor 3; Gastric cancer; Small interfering RNA; Proliferation; Apoptosis; Cell cycle
MicroRNA (miRNA)-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA processing machinery genes can affect cancer risk, treatment efficacy, and patient prognosis. A miR-SNP of rs11077 located in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of the miRNA processing machinery gene XPO5 was examined in 112 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to evaluate its association with cancer outcome.
Materials and methods
The miR-SNP was genotyped with ligase detection reaction method. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate survival analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model.
The AC genotype of rs11077, which carries C or A allele, was significantly associated with a better chemotherapy response (P = 0.001). In addition, rs11077 was independently associated with overall survival in advanced NSCLC patients through multivariate analysis (relative risk 0.457; 95% confidence interval: 0.251–0.831; P = 0.010).
rs11077 was associated with chemotherapy response and survival of advanced NSCLC patients. The analysis of miR-SNPs in miRNA processing machinery genes can help identify patient subgroups that are at high risk for poor disease outcomes.
NSCLC; miR-SNP; survival; XPO5; rs11077; chemotherapy response
The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars.
The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars.
With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process optimization and cost reduction.
Twin-screw extrusion; Pretreatment; Corn stover; Sugar recovery; Enzymatic hydrolysis
To investigate the effects of treatment with Multi component Chinese Medicine Jinzhida (JZD) on behavioral deficits in diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) rats and verify our hypothesis that JZD treatment improves cognitive function by suppressing the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and improving insulin signaling transduction in the rats’ hippocampus.
A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was established using high fat diet and streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, ip). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the oral glucose tolerance test and the insulin tolerance test. After 7 weeks, the T2DM rats were treated with JZD. The step-down test and Morris water maze were used to evaluate behavior in T2DM rats after 5 weeks of treatment with JZD. Levels of phosphorylated proteins involved in the ERS and in insulin signaling transduction pathways were assessed by Western blot for T2DM rats’ hippocampus.
Compared to healthy control rats, T2DM rats initially showed insulin resistance and had declines in acquisition and retrieval processes in the step-down test and in spatial memory in the Morris water maze after 12 weeks. Performance on both the step-down test and Morris water maze tasks improved after JZD treatment. In T2DM rats, the ERS was activated, and then inhibited the insulin signal transduction pathways through the Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) mediated. JZD treatment suppressed the ERS, increased insulin signal transduction, and improved insulin resistance in the rats’ hippocampus.
Treatment with JZD improved cognitive function in the T2DM rat model. The possible mechanism for DACD was related with ERS inducing the insulin signal transduction dysfunction in T2DM rats’ hippocampus. The JZD could reduce ERS and improve insulin signal transduction and insulin resistance in T2DM rats’ hippocampus and as a result improved the cognitive function.
Diabetes; Cognitive decline; Step down test; Morris water; Immunobloting analysis; Hippocampus
We have used time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) of actin to evaluate domains of dystrophin and utrophin, with implications for gene therapy in muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin and its homolog utrophin bind to cytoskeletal actin to form mechanical linkages that prevent muscular damage. Because these proteins are too large for most gene therapy vectors, much effort is currently devoted to smaller constructs. We previously used TPA to show that dystrophin and utrophin both have a paradoxical effect on actin rotational dynamics -- restricting amplitude while increasing rate, thus increasing resilience, with utrophin more effective than dystrophin. Here we have evaluated individual domains of these proteins. We found that a “mini-dystrophin,” lacking one of the two actin-binding domains, is less effective than dystrophin in regulating actin dynamics, correlating with its moderate effectiveness in rescuing the dystrophic phenotype in mice. In contrast, we found that a “micro-utrophin,” with more extensive internal deletions, is as effective as full-length dystrophin in the regulation of actin dynamics. Each of utrophin’s actin-binding domains promotes resilience in actin, while dystrophin constructs require the presence of both actin-binding domains and the CT domain for full function. This work supports the use of a utrophin template for gene or protein therapy designs. Resilience of the actin-protein complex, measured by TPA, correlates remarkably well with previous reports of functional rescue by dystrophin and utrophin constructs in mdx mice. We propose the use of TPA as an in vitro method to aid in the design and testing of emerging gene therapy constructs.
time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy; TPA; muscular dystrophy; gene therapy
Background: The polymorphism of XRCC3 Thr241Met has been indicated to be correlated with glioma susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and glioma. Methods: A total of 3754 glioma patients and 4849 controls from nine separate studies were involved. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed by the random-effects model. Results: The association between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and glioma was significant in the recessive model (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02 – 1.82; P = 0.03). In a stratified analysis by the ethnicity, significantly increased risk was detected in Asians (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18 – 3.17; P = 0.009). Conclusions: In conclusion, XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism was implied to be associated with increased glioma risk. More studies are needed to validate this result.
Glioma; XRCC3; meta-analysis; polymorphism
The aim of this study was to ensure a high dose of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was delivered to tumor tissue with a low dose to normal organs. Seldinger interventional techniques were used to inject chemotherapy drugs for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). IMRT was conducted 3 weeks after intervention. Primary tumor volume was reduced by 42.76% after 2 doses of interventional chemotherapy and intracranial tumor volume was reduced by 55.63%. All patients presented grade II and above nasopharyngeal mucositis. In the 2 years following radiotherapy, overall survival (OS) was 83.3% and progression-free survival (PFS) was 75%. In conclusion, T4 NPC patients with intracranial extension received induction chemotherapy followed by IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, which proved to be efficacious and well tolerated.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; comprehensive treatment; interventional chemotherapy; intensity modulated radiation therapy
Here, we present the first report of a novel rearranged porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strain named BIV, isolated from both in vitro and in vivo sources. The complete circular genome of BIV is 896 nucleotides in length. The data will help us to update current knowledge of the replication of PCV2 viruses in cell culture and of their molecular evolution, as well as their diagnosis.
Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH) followed by acute pancreatitis is a rare condition with most patients being asymptomatic. In cases where gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is present, however, the condition is more complicated and the mortality is very high because of the difficulty in diagnosing and selecting optimal treatment. A successfully treated case with severe GI bleeding by transcatheter splenic artery embolization is reported in this article. The patient exhibited severe uncontrollable GI bleeding and was confirmed as gastric varices secondary to LSPH by enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography. After embolization, the bleeding stopped and stabilized for the entire follow-up period without any severe complications. In conclusion, embolization of the splenic artery is a simple, safe, and effective method of controlling gastric variceal bleeding caused by LSPH in acute pancreatitis.
Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH); Gastric varices; Acute pancreatitis; Gastrointestinal bleeding; Splenic artery embolization (SAE)
Four versions of tricistronic vectors expressing IgG1 light chain (LC), IgG1 heavy chain (HC), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in one transcript were designed to compare internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and furin-2A (F2A) for their influence on monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression level and quality in CHO DG44 cells. LC and HC genes are arranged as either the first or the second cistron. When using mAb quantification methods based on the detection antibodies against HC Fc region, F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors appeared to express mAb at higher levels than the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors in both transient and stable transfections. Further analysis revealed that more than 40% of products detected in stably transfected pools generated using the two F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors were aggregates. LC and HC from the F2A stably transfected pools were not properly processed, giving rise to LC+F2A+HC or HC+F2A+LC fusion proteins, LC and HC polypeptides with F2A remnants, and incorrectly cleaved signal peptides. Both IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors express mAb with correct sizes and signal peptide cleavage. Arrangement of LC as the first cistron in the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors exhibits increased mAb expression level, better growth, and minimized product aggregation, while arrangement of HC as first cistron results in low expression, slower growth, and high aggregation. The results obtained will be beneficial for designing vectors that enhance mAb expression level and quality in mammalian cells.
Heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased quality of life, high re-admission rate and poor prognosis. In particular, ischemic heart failure (IHF) has a worse prognosis than nonischemic HF. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) alongside Western medicine to treat HF has developed into an integrative treatment model in China. There have been small clinical trials and experimental studies to demonstrate the efficacy of TCM for treating HF; however, there is still a lack of high-quality trials. Qishen Yiqi dripping pills (QSYQ), a TCM drug, have been commonly used alongside standardized Western medicine to treat IHF. This paper describes the protocol for the clinical assessment of QSYQ in IHF patients.
A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial will assess the efficacy and safety of QSYQ in the treatment of IHF. The trial is to enroll 640 IHF patients from 32 hospitals in China. Besides their standardized Western medicine, patients will be randomized to receive treatment of either QSYQ or placebo for 6 months and follow-up monitoring for at least a further 6 months. The primary outcome is increased exercise capacity of patients, which will be measured using the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). The secondary outcomes include composite endpoints: all-cause mortality, frequency of hospitalization or emergency due to cardiovascular events, brain natriuretic peptide levels, left ventricular ejection fraction, and cardiothoracic ratio will be documented, as well as scores on the New York Heart Association classification and Minnesota quality of life index, and information obtained from the four TCM diagnostic methods. Blood lipid tests will also be administered.
The integrative treatment model of TCM alongside Western medicine has developed into a treatment model in China. The rigorous design of the trial will assure an objective and scientific assessment of the efficacy and safety of QSYQ in the treatment of IHF.
Clinical trials.gov number: NCT01555320
6-minute walking test; Ischemic heart failure; Qishen Yiqi dripping pills; Traditional Chinese medicine
We have recently demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated human erythropoietin (hEPO) gene delivery into the brain protects dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to AAV9-hEPO vectors with an intramuscular or intrastriatal injection would reduce AAV9-mediated hEPO transduction in rat brain. We first characterized transgene expression and immune responses against AAV9-hEPO vectors in rat striatum at 4 days, 3 weeks and 6 months, and with doses ranging from 1011 to 1013 viral genomes. To sensitize immune system, rats received an injection of AAV9-hEPO into either the muscle or the left striatum, and then sequentially an injection of AAV9-hEPO into the right striatum 3 weeks later. We observed that transgene expression exhibited in a time course and dose dependent manner, and inflammatory and immune responses displayed in a time course manner. Intramuscular, but not intrastriatal injections of AAV9-hEPO resulted in reduced levels of hEPO transduction and increased levels of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigen expression in the striatum following AAV9-hEPO re-administration. There were infiltration of the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)-and CD8-lymphacytes, and accumulation of activated microglial cells and astrocytes in the virally injected striatum. In addition, the sera from the rats with intramuscular injections of AAV9-hEPO contained greater levels of antibodies against both AAV9 capsid protein and hEPO protein than the other treatment groups. hEPO gene expression was negatively correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies against AAV9 capsid protein. Intramuscular and intrastriatal re-administration of AAV9-hEPO led to increased numbers of red blood cells in peripheral blood. Our results suggest that pre-immunization with an intramuscular injection can lead to the reduction of transgene expression in the striatal re-administration.
Motivation: The reverse-phase protein lysate arrays have been used to quantify the relative expression levels of a protein in a number of cellular samples simultaneously. To avoid quantification bias due to mis-specification of commonly used parametric models, a nonparametric approach based on monotone response curves may be used. The existing methods, however, aggregate the protein concentration levels of replicates of each sample, and therefore fail to account for within-sample variability.
Results: We propose a method of regularization on protein concentration estimation at the level of individual dilution series to account for within-sample or within-group variability. We use an efficient algorithm to optimize an approximate objective function, with a data-adaptive approach to choose the level of shrinkage. Simulation results show that the proposed method quantifies protein concentration levels well. We show through the analysis of protein lysate array data from cell lines of different cancer groups that accounting for within-sample variability leads to better statistical analysis.
Availability: Code written in statistical programming language R is available at: http://odin.mdacc.tmc.edu/~jhhu/Reno
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
This present study deals with synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde. Results from this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde markedly inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia cepacia complex regardless of bacterial species and incubation time while bacterial growth was unaffected by solid chitosan. Furthermore, high temperature treated cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected strain 0901 although the inhibitory effects varied with different temperatures. In addition, physical-chemical and structural characterization revealed that the cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde resulted in a rougher surface morphology, a characteristic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) band at 1559 cm−1, a specific X-ray diffraction peak centered at 2θ = 15°, a lower contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, and a higher stability of glucose units compared to chitosan based on scanning electron microscopic observation, FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, as well as elemental and thermo gravimetric analysis. Overall, this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde is promising to be developed as a new antibacterial drug.
antibacterial activity; characterization; chitosan; cross-link; glutaraldehyde