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1.  De novo mutation in a male patient with Fabry disease: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:11.
Background
Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited metabolic condition where the deficit of the α-galactosidase A enzyme, encoded by the GLA gene, leads to glycosphingolipid storage, mainly globotriaosylceramide. To date, more than 600 mutations have been identified in human GLA gene that are responsible for FD, including missense and nonsense mutations, small and large deletions. Such mutations are usually inherited, and cases of de novo onset occur rarely.
Case presentation
In this article we report an interesting case of a 44-year-old male patient suffering from a severe form of Fabry disease, with negative family history. The patient showed signs such as cornea verticillata, angiokeratomas, cardiac and neurological manifestations, an end-stage renal disease and he had low α-galactosidase A activity. We detected, in this subject, the mutation c.493 G > C in the third exon of the GLA gene which causes the amino acid substitution D165H in the protein. This mutation affects the amino acid - belonging to the group of buried residues - involved, probably, in the preservation of the protein folding. Moreover, studies of multiple sequence alignment indicate that this amino acid is highly conserved, thus strengthening the hypothesis that it is a key amino acid to the enzyme functionality.
The study of the relatives of the patient showed that, surprisingly, none of the members of his family of origin had this genetic alteration, suggesting a de novo mutation. Only his 11-year-old daughter - showing acroparaesthesias and heat intolerance with reduced enzymatic activity - had the same mutation.
Conclusions
We suggest that a non-inherited mutation of the α-galactosidase A gene is responsible for Fabry disease in the patient who had reduced enzyme activity and classical clinical manifestations of the disease. In a family, it is rare to find only one Fabry disease affected subject with a de novo mutation. These findings emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, genetic counselling, studying the genealogical tree of the patients and starting enzyme replacement therapy to prevent irreversible vital organ damage that occurs during the course of the disease.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-11
PMCID: PMC3892097  PMID: 24398019
Fabry disease; α-galactosidase A; GLA gene; D165H mutation; De novo mutation
2.  A classical phenotype of Anderson-Fabry disease in a female patient with intronic mutations of the GLA gene: a case report 
Background
Fabry disease (FD) is a hereditary metabolic disorder caused by the partial or total inactivation of a lysosomal hydrolase, the enzyme α-galactosidase A (GLA). This inactivation is responsible for the storage of undegraded glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes with subsequent cellular and microvascular dysfunction. The incidence of disease is estimated at 1:40,000 in the general population, although neonatal screening initiatives have found an unexpectedly high prevalence of genetic alterations, up to 1:3,100, in newborns in Italy, and have identified a surprisingly high frequency of newborn males with genetic alterations (about 1:1,500) in Taiwan.
Case presentation
We describe the case of a 40-year-old female patient who presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA), discomfort in her hands, intolerance to cold and heat, severe angina and palpitations, chronic kidney disease. Clinical, biochemical and molecular studies were performed.
Conclusions
Reported symptoms, peculiar findings in a renal biopsy – the evidence of occasional lamellar inclusions in podocytes and mesangial cells – and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, which are considered to be specific features of FD, as well as molecular evaluations, suggested the diagnosis of a classical form of FD.
We detected four mutations in the GLA gene of the patient: -10C>T (g.1170C>T), c.370-77_-81del (g.7188-7192del5), c.640-16A>G (g.10115A>G), c.1000-22C>T (g.10956C>T). These mutations, located in promoter and intronic regulatory regions, have been observed in several patients with manifestations of FD. In our patient clinical picture showed a multisystemic involvement with early onset of symptoms, thus suggesting that these intronic mutations can be found even in patients with classical form of FD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-39
PMCID: PMC3425126  PMID: 22682330
Fabry disease; α-galactosidase A; GLA; Globotriaosylceramide; High resolution melting
3.  Genetic screening of Fabry patients with EcoTILLING and HRM technology 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:323.
Background
Anderson-Fabry disease (FD) is caused by a deficit of the α-galactosidase A enzyme which leads to the accumulation of complex sphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in all the cells of the body, causing the onset of a multi-systemic disease with poor prognosis in adulthood. In this article, we describe two alternative methods for screening the GLA gene which codes for the α-galactosidase A enzyme in subjects with probable FD in order to test analysis strategies which include or rely on initial pre-screening.
Findings
We analyzed 740 samples using EcoTILLING, comparing two mismatch-specificendonucleases, CEL I and ENDO-1, while conducting a parallel screening of the same samples using HRM (High Resolution Melting). Afterwards, all samples were subjected to direct sequencing. Overall, we identified 12 different genetic variations: -10C>T, -12G>A, -30G>A, IVS2-76_80del5, D165H, C172Y, IVS4+16A>G, IVS4 +68 A>G, c.718_719delAA, D313Y, IVS6-22C>T, G395A. This was consistent with the high genetic heterogeneity found in FD patients and carriers. All of the mutations were detected by HRM, whereas 17% of the mutations were not found by EcoTILLING. The results obtained by EcoTILLING comparing the CEL I and ENDO-1 endonucleases were perfectly overlapping.
Conclusion
On the basis of its simplicity, flexibility, repeatability, and sensitivity, we believe thatHRM analysis of the GLA gene is a reliable presequencing screening tool. This method can be applied to any genomic feature to identify known and unknown genetic alterations, and it is ideal for conducting screening and population studies.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-323
PMCID: PMC3180462  PMID: 21896204
Anderson-Fabry; haplotype; screening; HRM; EcoTILLING

Results 1-3 (3)