Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies.
Longitudinal and transverse rotating frame relaxation time constants, T1ρ and T2ρ, have previously been successfully applied to detect gene therapy responses and acute stroke in animal models. Those experiments were performed with continuous wave irradiation or with frequency-modulated pulses operating in an adiabatic regime. The technique called Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF) is a recent extension of frequency-modulated rotating frame relaxation methods. In RAFF, spin-locking takes place along a fictitious magnetic field and the decay rate is a function of both T1ρ and T2ρ processes. In the present work, the time constant characterizing water relaxation with RAFF (TRAFF) was evaluated for its utility as a marker of response to gene therapy in a rat glioma model. To investigate the sensitivity to early treatment response, we measured several rotating frame and free precession relaxation time constants and the water apparent diffusion coefficients, and these were compared with histological cell counts in 8 days of treated and control groups of animals. TRAFF was the only parameter exhibiting significant association with cell density in three different tumor regions (border, intermediate, and core tissues). These results indicate that TRAFF may provide a marker to identify tumors responding to treatment.
Integrating viral vectors are efficient gene transfer tools, but their integration patterns have been associated with genotoxicity and oncogenicity. The recent development of highly specific designer nucleases has enabled target DNA modification and site-specific gene insertion at desired genomic loci. However, a lack of consensus exists regarding a perfect genomic safe harbour (GSH) that would allow transgenes to be stably and reliably expressed without adversely affecting endogenous gene structure and function. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has many advantages as a GSH, but efficient means to target integration to this locus are currently lacking. We tested whether lentivirus vector integration can be directed to rDNA by using fusion proteins consisting of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) and the homing endonuclease I-PpoI, which has natural cleavage sites in the rDNA. A point mutation (N119A) was introduced into I-PpoI to abolish unwanted DNA cleavage by the endonuclease. The vector-incorporated IN-I-PpoIN119A fusion protein targeted integration into rDNA significantly more than unmodified lentivirus vectors, with an efficiency of 2.7%. Our findings show that IN-fusion proteins can be used to modify the integration pattern of lentivirus vectors, and to package site-specific DNA-recognizing proteins into vectors to obtain safer transgene integration.
Clinical gene therapy trials for cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated the crucial role of efficient gene delivery and transfection technologies in achieving clinically relevant results. We hypothesized that the use of tropism-modified adenoviruses would improve transduction efficacy and to this end we analyzed the transduction efficiency and toxicity of standard Ad5 and tropism-modified Ad5/35 in combination with ultrasound-guided intramyocardial gene delivery.
Ultrasound-guided intracardiac injections were used to deliver 1 × 1010 pfu/ml Ad5-lacZ and Ad5/35-lacZ vectors into mouse left ventricle wall. Since Ad5/35 uses human CD46 as its primary receptor, we used transgenic hCD46Ge mice expressing human CD46 at levels comparable to man. Mice were sacrificed 6 or 14 days post-injection and immunohistochemistry and X-gal staining were used to detect transgene and viral receptor expression. Virus-induced cardiac toxicity was evaluated by a pathologist.
The intramyocardial injection was well tolerated and both Ad5-lacZ and Ad5/35-lacZ were able to give robust transgene expression after a single injection. Interestingly, while Ad5-lacZ was able to generate greater transgene expression than Ad5/35-lacZ, it also evoked more severe tissue damage with large areas of interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and myocyte necrosis.
Ultrasound-guided intramyocardial injection is an effective and safe way to deliver vectors to the heart. The observed severe tissue damage of Ad5-lacZ greatly undermines the efficient transgene expression and suggests that Ad5/35 capsid modification can result in safer adenoviral vectors for cardiovascular gene therapy, although at the cost of some vector transduction efficacy.
Adenovirus; Intracardiac injection; CAR; CD46; Targeting
Neointimal formation in atherosclerosis has been subject for intense research. However, good animal models mimicking asymmetrical lesion formation in human subjects have been difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to develop a model which would lead to the formation of eccentric lesions under macroscopically intact non-denuded endothelium.
We have developed a new collar model where we placed two cushions or dots inside the collar. Arterial lesions were characterized using histology and ultrasound methods.
When this dotted collar was placed around carotid and femoral arteries it produced asymmetrical pressure on adventitia and a mild flow disturbance, and hence a change in shear stress. Our hypothesis was that this simple procedure would reproducibly produce asymmetrical lesions without any intraluminal manipulations. Intima/media ratio increased towards the distal end of the collar with the direction of blood flow under macroscopically intact endothelium. Macrophages preferentially accumulated in areas of the thickest neointima thus resembling early steps in human atherosclerotic plaque formation. Proliferating cells in these lesions and underlying media were scarce at eight weeks time point.
The improved dotted collar model produces asymmetrical human-like atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. This model should be useful in studies regarding the pathogenesis and formation of eccentric atherosclerotic lesions.
Atherosclerotic lesion; Carotid collar; Rabbit; Shear stress
Malignant glioma is a severe cancer with a poor prognosis. Local occurrence and rare metastases of malignant glioma make it a suitable target for gene therapy. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of Src kinase in different cancers. However, these studies have focused mainly on Src-deficient mice or pharmacological inhibitors of Src. In this study we have used Src small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in a lentiviral backbone to mimic a long-term stable treatment and determined the role of Src in tumor tissues. Efficacy of Src shRNAs was confirmed in vitro demonstrating up to 90% target gene inhibition. In a mouse malignant glioma model, Src shRNA tumors were almost 50-fold smaller in comparison to control tumors and had significantly reduced vascularity. In a syngenic rat intracranial glioma model, Src shRNA-transduced tumors were smaller and these rats had a survival benefit over the control rats. In vivo treatment was enhanced by chemotherapy and histone deacetylase inhibition. Our results emphasise the importance of Src in tumorigenesis and demonstrate that it can be efficiently inhibited in vitro and in vivo in two independent malignant glioma models. In conclusion, Src is a potential target for RNA interference-mediated treatment of malignant glioma.
glioma; lentivirus; MRI; RNA interference; Src
To investigate the role of inflammation in the phenotypic expression of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Twenty-four patients with a single HCM-causing mutation D175N in the α-tropomyosin gene and 17 control subjects.
Main outcome measures
Endomyocardial biopsy samples taken from the patients with HCM were compared with matched myocardial autopsy specimens. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in patients and controls. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac MRI (CMRI) was detected.
Endomyocardial samples in patients with HCM showed variable myocyte hypertrophy and size heterogeneity, myofibre disarray, fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Levels of hsCRP and interleukins (IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10) were significantly higher in patients with HCM than in control subjects. In patients with HCM, there was a significant association between the degree of myocardial inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis in histopathological samples and myocardial LGE in CMRI. Levels of hsCRP were significantly associated with histopathological myocardial fibrosis. hsCRP, tumour necrosis factor α and IL-1RA levels had significant correlations with LGE in CMRI.
A variable myocardial and systemic inflammatory response was demonstrated in patients with HCM attributable to an identified sarcometric mutation. Inflammatory response was associated with myocardial fibrosis, suggesting that myocardial fibrosis in HCM is an active process modified by an inflammatory response.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; inflammation; fibrosis; genetics; late gadolinium enhancement; coronary angioplasty; aortic stenosis; invasive cardiology; coronary artery disease; cardiomyopathy hypertrophic; tissue characters; HCM; MRI; myocardial function; myocardial perfusion; myocardial ischaemia; myocardial infarction; arrhythmias; endocrinology
Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a ligand for endothelial TEK (Tie2) tyrosine kinase receptor, is induced in hypoxic endothelial cells of tumors, where it promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth. However, the effects of Ang2 on tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis are poorly characterized.
We addressed the effect of Ang2 on tumor progression and metastasis using systemic Ang2 overexpression in mice carrying tumor xenografts, endothelium-specific overexpression of Ang2 in VEC-tTA/Tet-OS-Ang2 transgenic mice implanted with isogenic tumors, and administration of Ang2-blocking antibodies to tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis of metastasis occurrence, and repeated measures one-way analysis of variance was used for the analysis of primary tumor growth curves. Unpaired t test was used for all other analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Adenoviral expression of Ang2 increased lymph node and lung metastasis in tumor xenografts. The metastatic burden in the lungs was increased in transgenic mice in which Ang2 expression was induced specifically in the vascular endothelium (tumor burden per grid, VEC-tTA/Tet-OS-Ang2 mice [n = 5] vs control mice [n = 4]: 45.23 vs 12.26 mm2, difference = 32.67 mm2, 95% confidence interval = 31.87 to 34.07, P < .001). Ang2-blocking antibodies reduced lymph node and lung metastasis, as well as tumor lymphangiogenesis, and decreased tumor cell homing to the lungs after intravenous injection. In the lung metastases, Ang2 overexpression decreased endothelial integrity, whereas the Ang2-blocking antibodies improved endothelial cell–cell junctions and basement membrane contacts of metastasis-associated lung capillaries. At the cellular level, the Ang2-blocking antibodies induced the internalization of Ang2-Tie2 receptor complexes from endothelial cell–cell junctions in endothelial–tumor cell cocultures.
Our results indicate that blocking Ang2 inhibits metastatic dissemination in part by enhancing the integrity of endothelial cell–cell junctions.
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, involves specification of endothelial cells to tip cells and stalk cells, which is controlled by Notch signalling, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 and VEGFR-3 have been implicated in angiogenic sprouting. Surprisingly, we found that endothelial deletion of Vegfr3, but not VEGFR-3-blocking antibodies, postnatally led to excessive angiogenic sprouting and branching, and decreased the level of Notch signalling, indicating that VEGFR-3 possesses passive and active signalling modalities. Furthermore, macrophages expressing the VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2 ligand VEGF-C localized to vessel branch points, and Vegfc heterozygous mice exhibited inefficient angiogenesis characterized by decreased vascular branching. FoxC2 is a known regulator of Notch ligand and target gene expression, and Foxc2+/−; Vegfr3+/− compound heterozygosity recapitulated homozygous loss of Vegfr3. These results indicate that macrophage-derived VEGF-C activates VEGFR-3 in tip cells to reinforce Notch signalling, which contributes to the phenotypic conversion of endothelial cells at fusion points of vessel sprouts.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of artery wall characterized by infiltration of monocytes into subendothelial space and their differentiation into macrophages. Since rupture-prone plaques commonly contain high amounts of activated macrophages, imaging of the macrophage content may provide a useful tool for the evaluation of plaque vulnerability. The purpose of this study was to explore the uptake of 68gallium (68Ga) in atherosclerotic plaques in mice.
Uptake of ionic 68Ga was investigated in atherosclerotic LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 and C57BL/6N control mice at 3 h after injection. The ex vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga was assessed and autoradiography of aortic cryosections was defined. In vivo imaging of 68Ga was performed using a small animal positron emission tomography PET/CT scanner.
Our results revealed that the uptake of 68Ga-radioactivity was higher in atherosclerotic plaques than in healthy vessel wall (ratio 1.8 ± 0.2, p = 0.0002) and adventitia (ratio 1.3 ± 0.2, p = 0.0011). The autoradiography signal co-localized with macrophages prominently as demonstrated by Mac-3 staining. In both mice strains, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the blood.
We observed a moderate but significantly elevated 68Ga-radioactivity uptake in the aortic plaques of atherosclerotic mice, especially at the sites rich in macrophages. While the uptake of 68Ga was promising in this animal model, the slow blood clearance may limit the usability of 68Ga as a PET tracer for clinical imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.
atherosclerosis; plaque; autoradiography; gallium-68; PET
Lack of suitable mouse models has hindered the studying of diabetic macrovascular complications. We examined the effects of type 2 diabetes on coronary artery disease and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100).
Methods and results
18-month-old LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 (n = 12), diabetic LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in pancreatic beta cells (IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100, n = 14) and age-matched C57Bl/6 mice (n = 15) were studied after three months of high-fat Western diet. Compared to LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice, diabetic IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice demonstrated more calcified atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. However, compensatory vascular enlargement was similar in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice with equal atherosclerosis (cross-sectional lesion area ~60%) and consequently the lumen area was preserved. In coronary arteries, both hypercholesterolemic models showed significant stenosis (~80%) despite positive remodeling. Echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and anteroapical akinesia in both LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 and IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice. Myocardial scarring was not detected, cardiac reserve after dobutamine challenge was preserved and ultrasructural changes revealed ischemic yet viable myocardium, which together with coronary artery stenosis and slightly impaired myocardial perfusion suggest myocardial hibernation resulting from chronic hypoperfusion.
LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice develop significant coronary atherosclerosis, severe left ventricular dysfunction with preserved but diminished cardiac reserve and signs of chronic myocardial hibernation. However, the cardiac outcome is not worsened by type 2 diabetes, despite more advanced aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic animals.
A major challenge in genomic research is identifying significant biological processes and generating new hypotheses from large gene sets. Gene sets often consist of multiple separate biological pathways, controlled by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Many of these pathways and the associated regulatory mechanisms might be obscured by a large number of other significant processes and thus not identified as significant by standard gene set enrichment analysis tools.
We present a novel method called Independent Enrichment Analysis (IEA) and software TAFFEL that eases the task by clustering genes to subgroups using Gene Ontology categories and transcription regulators. IEA indicates transcriptional regulators putatively controlling biological functions in studied condition.
We demonstrate that the developed method and TAFFEL tool give new insight to the analysis of differentially expressed genes and can generate novel hypotheses. Our comparison to other popular methods showed that the IEA method implemented in TAFFEL can find important biological phenomena, which are not reported by other methods.
The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)—originally developed for Alzheimer's disease—are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)—a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents.
The therapeutic potential of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D in skeletal muscle has been of considerable interest as these factors have both angiogenic and lymphangiogenic activities. Previous studies have mainly employed adenoviral gene delivery for short-term expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in pig, rabbit and mouse skeletal muscles. Here we have used the activated mature forms of VEGF-C and VEGF-D expressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), which provides stable, long-lasting transgene expression in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Mouse tibialis anterior muscle was transduced with rAAV encoding human or mouse VEGF-C or VEGF-D. Two weeks later, immunohistochemical analysis showed increased numbers of both blood and lymph vessels, and doppler ultrasound analysis indicated increased blood vessel perfusion. The lymphatic vessels further increased at the four-week time point were functional, as shown by FITC-lectin uptake and transport. Furthermore, receptor activation and arteriogenic activity were increased by an alanine substitution mutant of human VEGF-C (C137A) having an increased dimer stability and by a chimeric CAC growth factor that contained the VEGF receptor-binding domain flanked by VEGF-C propeptides, but only the latter promoted significantly more blood vessel perfusion when compared to the other growth factors studied. We conclude that long-term expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in skeletal muscle results in the generation of new functional blood and lymphatic vessels. The therapeutic value of intramuscular lymph vessels in draining tissue edema and lymphedema can now be evaluated using this model system.
VEGF-C; VEGF-D; adeno-associated virus; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; skeletal muscle
The vascular endothelial growth factors VEGFA and VEGFC are crucial regulators of vascular development. They exert their effects by dimerization and activation of the cognate receptors VEGFR2 and VEGFR3. Here, we have used in situ proximity ligation to detect receptor complexes in intact endothelial cells. We show that both VEGFA and VEGFC potently induce formation of VEGFR2/-3 heterodimers. Receptor heterodimers were found in both developing blood vessels and immature lymphatic structures in embryoid bodies. We present evidence that heterodimers frequently localize to tip cell filopodia. Interestingly, in the presence of VEGFC, heterodimers were enriched in the leading tip cells as compared with trailing stalk cells of growing sprouts. Neutralization of VEGFR3 to prevent heterodimer formation in response to VEGFA decreased the extent of angiogenic sprouting. We conclude that VEGFR2/-3 heterodimers on angiogenic sprouts induced by VEGFA or VEGFC may serve to positively regulate angiogenic sprouting.
angiogenic sprouting; embryoid body; heterodimer; proximity ligation; VEGF receptor
The mechanisms of blood vessel maturation into distinct parts of the blood vasculature such as arteries, veins, and capillaries have been the subject of intense investigation over recent years. In contrast, our knowledge of lymphatic vessel maturation is still fragmentary. In this study, we provide a molecular and morphological characterization of the major steps in the maturation of the primary lymphatic capillary plexus into collecting lymphatic vessels during development and show that forkhead transcription factor Foxc2 controls this process. We further identify transcription factor NFATc1 as a novel regulator of lymphatic development and describe a previously unsuspected link between NFATc1 and Foxc2 in the regulation of lymphatic maturation. We also provide a genome-wide map of FOXC2-binding sites in lymphatic endothelial cells, identify a novel consensus FOXC2 sequence, and show that NFATc1 physically interacts with FOXC2-binding enhancers. As damage to collecting vessels is a major cause of lymphatic dysfunction in humans, our results suggest that FOXC2 and NFATc1 are potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-B (VEGF-B) is poorly angiogenic but prominently expressed in metabolically highly active tissues, including the heart. We produced mice expressing a cardiac-specific VEGF-B transgene via the alpha myosin heavy chain promoter. Surprisingly, the hearts of the VEGF-B transgenic mice showed concentric cardiac hypertrophy without significant changes in heart function. The cardiac hypertrophy was due to an increased size of the cardiomyocytes. Blood capillary size was increased, while the number of blood vessels per cell nucleus remained unchanged. Despite the cardiac hypertrophy, the transgenic mice had lower heart rate and blood pressure than their littermates, and they responded similarly to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, confirming that the hypertrophy does not compromise heart function. Interestingly, the isolated transgenic hearts had less cardiomyocyte damage after ischemia. Significantly increased ceramide and decreased triglyceride levels were found in the transgenic hearts. This was associated with structural changes and eventual lysis of mitochondria, resulting in accumulation of intracellular vacuoles in cardiomyocytes and increased death of the transgenic mice, apparently due to mitochondrial lipotoxicity in the heart. These results suggest that VEGF-B regulates lipid metabolism, an unexpected function for an angiogenic growth factor.
VEGF-B; cardiac hypertrophy; cardiac metabolism; fatty acids; mitochondria
Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has become a standard in recombinant protein production and virus-like particle preparation for numerous applications.
We describe here protocols which adapt baculovirus generation into 96-well format.
The established methodology allows simple baculovirus generation, fast virus titering within 18 h and efficient recombinant protein production in a high-throughput format. Furthermore, the produced baculovirus vectors are compatible with gene expression in vertebrate cells in vitro and in vivo.
The prototype baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, an insect pathogen, holds great potential as a gene therapy vector. To develop transductional targeting and gene delivery by baculovirus, we focused on characterizing the nature and regulation of its uptake in human cancer cells. Baculovirus entered the cells along fluid-phase markers from the raft areas into smooth-surfaced vesicles devoid of clathrin. Notably, regulators associated with macropinocytosis, namely EIPA, Pak1, Rab34, and Rac1, had no significant effect on viral transduction, and the virus did not induce fluid-phase uptake. The internalization and nuclear uptake was, however, affected by mutants of RhoA, and of Arf6, a regulator of clathrin-independent entry. Furthermore, the entry of baculovirus induced ruffle formation and triggered the uptake of fluorescent E. coli bioparticles. To conclude, baculovirus enters human cells via a clathrin-independent pathway, which is able to trigger bacterial uptake. This study increases our understanding of virus entry strategies and gives new insight into baculovirus-mediated gene delivery in human cells.
Lymphatic vessel growth, or lymphangiogenesis, is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and -D via VEGF receptor 3 (VEGFR-3). Recent studies suggest that VEGF, which does not bind to VEGFR-3, can also induce lymphangiogenesis through unknown mechanisms. To dissect the receptor pathway that triggers VEGFR-3–independent lymphangiogenesis, we used both transgenic and adenoviral overexpression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGF-E, which are specific activators of VEGFR-1 and -2, respectively. Unlike PlGF, VEGF-E induced circumferential lymphatic vessel hyperplasia, but essentially no new vessel sprouting, when transduced into mouse skin via adenoviral vectors. This effect was not inhibited by blocking VEGF-C and -D. Postnatal lymphatic hyperplasia, without increased density of lymphatic vessels, was also detected in transgenic mice expressing VEGF-E in the skin, but not in mice expressing PlGF. Surprisingly, VEGF-E induced lymphatic hyperplasia postnatally, and it did not rescue the loss of lymphatic vessels in transgenic embryos where VEGF-C and VEGF-D were blocked. Our data suggests that VEGFR-2 signals promote lymphatic vessel enlargement, but unlike in the blood vessels, are not involved in vessel sprouting to generate new lymphatic vessels in vivo.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is an attractive candidate gene for type 2 diabetes, as genes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway are coordinatively downregulated by reduced expression of PGC-1α in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate that transgenic mice with activated polyamine catabolism due to overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) had reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, high basal metabolic rate, improved glucose tolerance, high insulin sensitivity, and enhanced expression of the OXPHOS genes, coordinated by increased levels of PGC-1α and 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in WAT. As accelerated polyamine flux caused by SSAT overexpression depleted the ATP pool in adipocytes of SSAT mice and N1,N11-diethylnorspermine-treated wild-type fetal fibroblasts, we propose that low ATP levels lead to the induction of AMPK, which in turn activates PGC-1α in WAT of SSAT mice. Our hypothesis is supported by the finding that the phenotype of SSAT mice was reversed when the accelerated polyamine flux was reduced by the inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in WAT. The involvement of polyamine catabolism in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism may offer a novel target for drug development for obesity and type 2 diabetes.
We have generated a transgenic mouse where hVEGF-A165 expression has been silenced with loxP-STOP fragment, and we used this model to study the effects of hVEGF-A165 over-expression in mice after systemic adenovirus mediated Cre-gene transfer. Unlike previous conventional transgenic models, this model leads to the expression of hVEGF-A165 in only a low number of cells in the target tissues in adult mice. Levels of hVEGF-A165 expression were moderate and morphological changes were found mainly in the liver, showing typical signs of active angiogenesis. Most mice were healthy without any major consequences up to 18 months after the activation of hVEGF-A165 expression. However, one mouse with a high plasma hVEGF-A165 level died spontaneously because of bleeding into abdominal cavity and having liver hemangioma, haemorrhagic paratubarian cystic lesions and spleen peliosis. Also, two mice developed malignant tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma), which were not seen in control mice. We conclude that long-term uncontrolled hVEGF-A165 expression in only a limited number of target cells in adult mice can be associated with pathological changes, including possible formation of malignant tumors and uncontrolled bleeding in target tissues. These findings have implications for the design of long-term clinical trials using hVEGF-A165 gene and protein.
Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), a potent virus for mammalian cell gene delivery, possesses an ability to transduce mammalian cells without viral replication. We examined the role of the cellular cytoskeleton in the cytoplasmic trafficking of viral particles toward the nucleus in human hepatic cells. Microscopic studies showed that capsids were found in the nucleus after either viral inoculation or cytoplasmic microinjection of nucleocapsids. The presence of microtubule (MT) depolymerizing agents caused the amount of nuclear capsids to increase. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, an inhibitor of dynein-dependent endocytic trafficking from peripheral endosomes along MTs toward late endosomes, did not significantly affect the amount of nuclear accumulation of nucleocapsids in the inoculated cells, suggesting that viral nucleocapsids are released into the cytosol during the early stages of the endocytic pathway. Moreover, studies with recombinant viruses containing the nuclear-targeted expression β-galactosidase gene (β-gal) showed a markedly increased level in the cellular expression of β-galactosidase in the presence of MT-disintegrating drugs. The maximal increase in expression at 10 h postinoculation was observed in the presence of 80 μM nocodazole or 10 μM vinblastine. Together, these data suggest that the intact MTs constitute a barrier to baculovirus transport toward the nucleus.
We have constructed a novel tetra-promoter vector (pBVboostFG) system that enables screening of gene/cDNA libraries for functional genomic studies. The vector enables an all-in-one strategy for gene expression in mammalian, bacterial and insect cells and is also suitable for direct use in vivo. Virus preparation is based on an improved mini Tn7 transpositional system allowing easy and fast production of recombinant baculoviruses with high diversity and negligible background. Cloning of the desired DNA fragments or libraries is based on the recombination system of bacteriophage lambda. As an example of the utility of the vector, genes or cDNAs of 18 different proteins were cloned into pBVboostFG and expressed in different hosts. As a proof-of-principle of using the vector for library screening, a chromophoric Thr65-Tyr-Gly67-stretch of enhanced green fluorescent protein was destroyed and subsequently restored by novel PCR strategy and library screening. The pBVboostFG enables screening of genome-wide libraries, thus making it an efficient new platform technology for functional genomics.