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1.  Association of the variants and haplotypes in the DOCK7, PCSK9 and GALNT2 genes and the risk of hyperlipidaemia 
Abstract
Little is known about the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the dedicator of cytokinesis 7 (DOCK7), pro‐protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and polypeptide N‐acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2) and serum lipid traits in the Chinese populations. This study was to determine the association between nine SNPs in the three genes and their haplotypes and hypercholesterolaemia (HCH)/hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG), and to identify the possible gene–gene interactions among these SNPs. Genotyping was performed in 733 HCH and 540 HTG participants. The haplotype of C‐C‐G‐C‐T‐G‐C‐C‐G [in the order of DOCK7 rs1168013 (G>C), rs10889332 (C>T); PCSK9 rs615563 (G>A), rs7552841 (C>T), rs11206517 (T>G); and GALNT2 rs1997947 (G>A), rs2760537 (C>T), rs4846913 (C>A) and rs11122316 (G>A) SNPs] was associated with increased risk of HCH and HTG. The haplotypes of C‐C‐G‐C‐T‐G‐C‐C‐A and G‐C‐G‐T‐T‐G‐T‐C‐G were associated with a reduced risk of HCH and HTG. The haplotypes of G‐C‐G‐C‐T‐G‐C‐C‐A and G‐C‐G‐C‐T‐G‐T‐C‐G were associated with increased risk of HCH. The haplotypes of C‐T‐G‐C‐T‐G‐C‐C‐G, G‐C‐A‐C‐T‐G‐C‐C‐G and G‐C‐G‐C‐T‐G‐C‐C‐A were associated with an increased risk of HTG. The haplotypes of G‐C‐G‐C‐T‐G‐T‐C‐A and G‐C‐G‐T‐T‐G‐T‐C‐G were associated with a reduced risk of HTG. In addition, possible inter‐locus interactions among the DOCK7,PCSK9 and GALNT2 SNPs were also noted. However, further functional studies of these genes are still required to clarify which SNPs are functional and how these genes actually affect the serum lipid levels.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12713
PMCID: PMC4727555  PMID: 26493351
hyperlipidaemia; dedicator of cytokinesis 7; pro‐protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9; polypeptide N‐acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2; single nucleotide polymorphisms
2.  Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the risk factors in two isolated Chinese minorities 
Both Jing and Mulao nationalities are the isolated minorities in China. Little is known about the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the two ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the differences in serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors between the Jing and Mulao populations. A cross-sectional study of dyslipidemia was conducted in Dongxing city, Guangxi, China, during Dec 2011 and Jan 2012. A total of 1254 subjects of Jing and 1251 participants of Mulao were surveyed by a stratified randomized sampling. Information on demography, diet and lifestyle was collected with standardized questionnaire. Serum lipid levels were detected using the commercially available kits. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower but the levels of ApoB were higher in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (32.38% vs. 24.38%), high ApoB (35.25% vs. 15.35%) and low ApoA1/ApoB ratio (22.65% vs. 16.87%) was higher and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.48% vs. 2.16%), high LDL-C (17.54% vs. 40.53%) and low ApoA1 (5.98% vs. 11.43%) was lower in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The risk factors for serum lipid parameters and hyperlipidemia were different between the two ethnic groups. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors are different between the Jing and Mulao populations. These differences may result from the combined effects of different diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors.
PMCID: PMC4694456  PMID: 26770556
Lipids; apolipoproteins; dyslipidemia; prevalence; risk factors
3.  Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations 
The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels.
PMCID: PMC4680439  PMID: 26722494
ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; rs6450176; serum lipid level
4.  Association of the SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene rs17579600 polymorphism and serum lipid traits 
SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene (SPTY2D1) is a candidate gene for dyslipidemia. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs7934205 near SPTY2D1 locus was ethnic- and sex-specific associated with serum lipid levels in our previous study. Whether SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP and several environmental factors are associated with serum lipid profiles is unknown. A total of 712 participants of Han and 689 unrelated individuals of Mulao were included. The genotype and allele frequencies of SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP were different between the Han and Mulao populations (TT, 74.3% vs. 55.7%; TC, 17.6% vs. 31.2%, CC, 8.1% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.028; T, 83.1% vs. 71.3%; C, 16.9% vs. 28.7%, P = 0.044), and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The levels of serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in Han, triglyceride (TG) in Mulao, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1 and ApoB in Mulao males were difference among the genotypes. The C allele carriers had higher ApoA1 in Han, lower TG in Mulao, and lower TC, LDL-C and ApoB and higher ApoA1 in Mulao males than the C allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences suggesting there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the SPTY2D1 rs17579600 SNP and serum lipid parameters in some ethnic groups.
PMCID: PMC4680440  PMID: 26722495
Lipids; SPT2 chromatin protein domain containing 1 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors
5.  Association of variants in CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 with risk of serum lipid traits, coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke 
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke (IS) and serum lipid traits in different ethnic groups. Some loci were found to affect the risk of CAD and IS. However, there were no data in the southern Chinese populations. Our study was to assess the association of CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 rs599839, rs464218 and rs6698443 SNPs and serum lipid levels and the risk of CAD and IS. The genotypes of 3 SNPs were detected in 561 CAD and 527 IS patients, and in 590 healthy controls. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs599839 SNP were different between the controls and IS patients (P < 0.05). The minor G alleles of rs599839 and rs464218 SNPs were associated with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in CAD and IS patients (P < 0.05); respectively. No association was found between the SNPs of rs599839, rs464218 and rs6698843 at the CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 and the risk of CAD or IS. These results will be replicated in the other Chinese populations.
PMCID: PMC4583949  PMID: 26464717
CELSR2: cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2; PSRC1: proline/serine-rich coiled-coil 1; SORT1: sortilin; coronary artery disease; ischemic stroke; serum lipid traits
6.  Polymorphisms in the GCKR are associated with serum lipid traits, the risk of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke 
The present study was to determine the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucokinase regulator gene (GCKR) and serum lipid levels, and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). Genotypes of the GCKR rs1260326 and rs8179206 in 1736 unrelated subjects (CAD, 584; IS, 555; and healthy controls; 597) were determined by the Snapshot technology platform. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs1260326 and rs8179206 were not different among the three groups (P > 0.05). The subjects with rs1260326TT genotype had higher serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in controls, and higher triglyceride (TG) levels in CAD patients than the subjects with CC and CT genotypes after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking (P < 0.05). The rs1260326TT genotype was also associated with decreased risk of IS in females (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76, P = 0.007). The present study shows that the GCKR rs1260326TT genotype is associated with high LDL-C in controls, high TG levels in CAD patients, and a decreased risk of IS in females.
PMCID: PMC4565242  PMID: 26379859
Glucokinase regulator; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; coronary artery disease; ischemic stroke
7.  Association of the Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene and serum lipid levels 
The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 subjects of Mulao and 844 subjects of Han Chinese were included. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoA1 in Mulao, and triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 and the ratio of ApoA1/ApoB in Han were different among the three genotypes of the rs1801690 SNP (P < 0.05-0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and ApoA1 in Mulao males; ApoA1 in Mulao females; TC, TG, HDL-C and ApoB and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han males; and HDL-C, ApoA1 and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han females were associated with the genotypes of rs1801690 (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.001). The Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene was associated with some serum lipid parameters in the two ethnic groups, but the trends of association suggest that the Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene might have racial/ethnic-and/or gender-specificity.
PMCID: PMC4525964  PMID: 26261630
Lipids; apolipoprotein H; β2-glycoprotein-I; the Trp316Ser variant; environmental factor
8.  Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 A+930-->G (rs4969168) polymorphism is associated with apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 
This study aimed to detect the association of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 gene (SOCS3) A+930-->G (rs4969168) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Han and Mulao populations. Genotyping of the SOCS3 A+930-->G (rs4969168) SNP was performed in 752 of Han and 690 of Mulao participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different between the Han and Mulao populations (GG, 57.71% vs. 51.16%, GA, 36.97% vs. 41.16%, AA, 5.32% vs. 7.68%, P = 0.023; G, 76.20% vs. 71.74%, A, 23.80% vs. 28.26%; P = 0.006; respectively). Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed that the levels of ApoA1 in Han females, and ApoA1 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Mulao males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the SOCS3 A+930-->G (rs4969168) SNP and serum lipid parameters in some populations.
PMCID: PMC4525965  PMID: 26261631
Lipids; suppressors of cytokine signaling 3; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors
9.  Association of two polymorphisms in the FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster and the risk of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke 
Little is known about the association of the FADS1/FADS2 SNPs and serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in the Chinese southern population. The present study aimed to determine such association in the Chinese southern population. A total of 1,669 unrelated subjects (CAD, 534; IS, 553; and healthy controls, 582) were recruited in the study. Genotypes of the FADS1 rs174546 SNP and the FADS2 rs174601 SNP were determined by the SNaPshot Multiplex Kit. The T allele and TT genotype frequencies of the two SNPs were predominant in our study population. The T alleles were associated with increased risk of CAD and IS. Correspondingly, the C alleles were associated with reduced risk of CAD and IS. Haplotype analyses showed that the haplotype of T-T (rs174546-rs174601) was associated with an increased risk for IS, and the haplotype of C-C (rs174546-rs174601) was associated with a reduced risk for CAD and IS. The two SNPs were likely to influence serum lipid levels. The T allele carriers of the two SNPs and rs174601 TT genotype were associated with decreased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the patient groups and with an increased risk of CAD and IS. The present study suggests that the FADS1 rs174546 SNP and the FADS2 rs174601 SNP are associated with the risk of CAD and IS, and are likely to influence serum lipid levels. However, further functional studies are needed to clarify how the two SNPs actually affect serum lipid levels and the risk of CAD and IS.
PMCID: PMC4525966  PMID: 26261632
The FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster; single nucleotide polymorphism; ischemic stroke; coronary artery disease; lipids
10.  Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2015;12(3):3285-3296.
The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2015.3825
PMCID: PMC4526046  PMID: 26004022
lipids; apolipoproteins; angiopoietin-like protein 8; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors
11.  Gender-specific association between the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2015;12(3):3476-3486.
Cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 (PABPC4) is an RNA-processing protein which has an important role in regulating gene expression. The association of the PABPC4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been studied in the Chinese population. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 individuals of Mulao nationality and 729 individuals of Han nationality were randomly selected from stratified randomized samples from a previous study by our group. Genotypes of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and subsequently confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in the Mulao group than those in the Han group (P<0.01 for each). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were significantly different between males and females in the Mulao population (P<0.05 for each), while no significant difference was detected between those of males and females amongst the Han population. The frequency of the G allele was higher in Mulao males than in Mulao females (22.12 vs. 13.44%). The G allele carriers were found to have higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han females but not in Han males, and lower TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao females but not in Mulao males than those of the G allele non-carriers (P<0.05 for all). These associations were confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis (P<0.05–0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with multiple environmental factors (P<0.05–0.001). The PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP was associated with serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in these study populations; however, the association varied between the Mulao and Han populations. A gender-specific association was identified in the populations of the two ethnic groups.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2015.3823
PMCID: PMC4526048  PMID: 26005159
lipids; apolipoproteins; cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors; coronary heart disease
12.  Association between the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels 
Little is known about the association between the muscle Ras (MRAS) gene rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the MRAS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 632 subjects of Han and 629 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationalities were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotypes of the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The subjects with GG genotype had higher serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels in Han, and higher serum TC and LDL-C levels in Mulao than the subjects with AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that the subjects with GG genotype had higher TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, ApoAI and ApoB in Han males, lower ApoAI and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han females; and higher LDL-C levels in Mulao males but not in Mulao females than the subjects with AG/AA genotypes. The association of the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the MRAS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in our study populations.
PMCID: PMC4396269  PMID: 25973078
Muscle Ras; MRAS; 3q22.3; single nucleotide polymorphism; serum lipid level; rs6782181
13.  Sex-specific association of the SPTY2D1 rs7934205 polymorphism and serum lipid levels 
The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs7934205 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the Suppressor of Ty, domain containing 1 gene (SPTY2D1) and serum lipid levels between males and females in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of SPTY2D1 rs7934205 SNP was performed in 933 of Mulao and 865 of Han participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The T allele frequency was different between Mulao males and females (23.2% vs. 27.9%, P = 0.018). The genotype and allele frequencies were also different between Han males and females (P = 0.020 and P = 0.004; respectively). Serum levels of apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in Mulao males; and total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1 and ApoB in Mulao females were different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05). Serum TC, ApoB levels in Han males, and ApoB levels in Han females were different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05). The subjects with CT/TT genotype in both Mulao and Han males and females have more favorable lipid profiles than those with CC genotype. These findings suggest that the association between the SPTY2D1 rs7934205 SNP and serum lipid levels might have ethnic- and/or sex-specificity.
PMCID: PMC4348833  PMID: 25755761
Lipids; sex-specific association; SPTY2D1; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors
14.  Two Polymorphisms in the Fractalkine Receptor CX3CR1 Gene Influence the Development of Atherosclerosis: A Meta-Analysis 
Disease Markers  2014;2014:913678.
Background. The associations between the Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) gene T280M (rs3732378) and V249I (rs3732379) polymorphisms and atherosclerosis (AS) risk are conflicting. The aim of this meta-analysis was undertaken to assess their associations. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane database, and CNKI were searched to get the genetic association studies. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 11.0. Results. Twenty-five articles involving 49 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The analysis showed that the 280M allele carriers of the CX3CR1 T280M polymorphism decreased the risk of AS and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the heterozygous state but increased the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the homozygote state. The 249I allele carriers of the CX3CR1 V249I polymorphism decreased the risk of AS and CAD in the heterozygous state. The V249I-T280M combined genotype VITM and IITM also decreased the risk of AS. Conclusions. The present meta-analysis suggests that the CX3CR1 T280M and V249I polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to AS. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the high heterogeneity in the meta-analysis.
doi:10.1155/2014/913678
PMCID: PMC4158466  PMID: 25221380
15.  Association of the variants in the BUD13-ZNF259 genes and the risk of hyperlipidaemia 
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BUD13 homolog (BUD13) and zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259) genes have been associated with one or more serum lipid traits in the European populations. However, little is known about such association in the Chinese populations. Our objectives were to determine the association of the BUD13/ZNF259 SNPs and their haplotypes with hypercholesterolaemia (HCH)/hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and to identify the possible gene–gene interactions among these SNPs. Genotyping of 6 SNPs was performed in 634 hyperlipidaemic and 547 normolipidaemic participants. The ZNF259 rs2075290, ZNF259 rs964184 and BUD13 rs10790162 SNPs were significantly associated with serum lipid levels in both HCH and non-HCH populations (P < 0.008–0.001). On single locus analysis, only BUD13 rs10790162 was associated with HCH (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.75, P = 0.015). The G-G-A-A-C-C haplotype, carrying rs964184-G-allele, was associated with increased risk of HCH (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.66, P = 0.005) and HTG (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.21, P = 0.000). The A-C-G-G-C-C and A-C-A-G-T-C haplotypes, carrying rs964184-C-allele, were associated with reduced risk of HCH (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99, P = 0.039 and OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94, P = 0.021 respectively). On multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses, the two- to three-locus models showed a significant association with HCH and HTG (P < 0.01–0.001). The BUD13/ZNF259 SNPs, which were significant in the European populations, are also replicable in the Southern Chinese population. Moreover, inter-locus interactions may exist among these SNPs. However, further functional studies are required to clarify how these SNPs and genes actually affect the serum lipid levels.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12291
PMCID: PMC4124025  PMID: 24780069
hyperlipidaemia; BUD13 homolog (BUD13); ZNF259 zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259); genetic polymorphisms
16.  Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations 
Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations.
PMCID: PMC4129031  PMID: 25120796
Lipids; sex-specific association; peptidase D (PEPD) gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors
17.  Phosphodiesterase 3A rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2014;9(5):1618-1628.
The association between the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are not well understood in the general population. The present study was performed in order to detect the association between the rs7134375 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. The genotypes of the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP in 761 subjects of the Mulao population and 774 subjects of the Han Chinese population were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. It was observed that serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in the Mulao population than in the Han population (P<0.05 for each). The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 72.14 and 27.86% in the Mulao population, and 78.55 and 21.45% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the CC, CA and AA genotypes were 52.04, 40.21 and 7.75% in the Mulao population, and 61.50, 34.11 and 4.39% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 74.89 and 25.11% in Mulao females, and 68.08 and 31.92% in Mulao males (P<0.01), respectively. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels were different among the genotypes in the Mulao population; however, not in the Han population (P<0.01), and the A allele carriers exhibited lower TG levels than the A allele noncarriers. The serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). It was concluded that the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs7134375 SNP are different between the Mulao and Han populations. In addition, the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP is associated with serum TG levels in the Mulao population, however, not in the Han population.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2014.2007
PMCID: PMC4020489  PMID: 24604378
phosphodiesterase 3A gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; apolipoproteins
18.  Nanoparticle Drug- and Gene-eluting Stents for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Restenosis 
Theranostics  2014;4(2):175-200.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis.
doi:10.7150/thno.7210
PMCID: PMC3900802  PMID: 24465275
Coronary artery disease; Stenosis; Restenosis; Stents; Nanoparticle.
19.  Sex-specific Association of the Zinc Finger Protein 259 rs2075290 Polymorphism and Serum Lipid Levels 
Background: Little is known about the association of ZNF259 rs2075290 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Chinese population. This study aimed to detect the association of ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP and environmental factors with serum lipid levels between males and females in the Mulao and Han populations.
Methods and Results: Genotyping of ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP was performed in 788 of Mulao and 778 of Han participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were significantly different between Mulao and Han populations (AA, 50.1% Vs 58.9%; AG, 42.3% Vs 35.7%; GG, 7.6% Vs 5.4%, P = 0.002) and between Han males and females (AA, 64.5% Vs 55.2%; AG, 28.3% Vs 40.6%; GG, 7.2% Vs 4.2%, P = 0.001). Serum levels of triglyceride (TG) in Mulao males, and total cholesterol (TC), TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Mulao females were different between the AA and AG/GG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum TC, LDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels in Han males, and TG and ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han females were different between the AA and AG/GG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). An interaction between ZNF259 rs2075290 polymorphism and male gender on serum TC, LDL-C, and ApoA1 levels was noted in Han population (P < 0.05-0.01) but not in Mulao's.
Conclusions: The subjects with AG/GG genotype in Mulao males and females and Han females have less favorable lipid profiles than those with AA genotype. In contrast, the subjects with AG/GG genotype in Han males have more favorable lipid profiles than those with AA genotype. These findings suggest that the association between ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP and serum lipid levels might have ethnic- and/or sex-specificity.
doi:10.7150/ijms.8489
PMCID: PMC3970100  PMID: 24688311
lipids; sex-specific association; zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259); single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors.
20.  Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:231515.
The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions.
doi:10.1155/2013/231515
PMCID: PMC3806325  PMID: 24195066
21.  Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Gene E670G Polymorphism Interacts with Alcohol Consumption to Modulate Serum Lipid Levels 
Backgroud: Both alcohol consumption and the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene polymorphism modulate serum lipid levels, but their interactions on serum lipid profiles are still unknown. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels.
Methods: Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G in 1352 unrelated subjects (785 non-drinkers and 567 drinkers) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions between PCSK9 E670G genotypes and alcohol consumption on serum lipid parameters were detected by using a factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders.
Results: The levels of serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.01 for all), whereas the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB were lower in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.001 for all). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of PCSK9 E670G were not different between non-drinkers and drinkers (P > 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype in non-drinkers had higher serum LDL-C levels than the subjects with AG genotype, whereas the subjects with AG genotype in drinkers had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with AA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The effects of alcohol consumption on TC and LDL-C levels depended upon genotypes, the subjects with AA genotype had lower serum TC and LDL-C levels in drinkers than in non-drinkers.
Conclusions: Alcohol consumption can modify the effects of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism on serum TC and LDL-C levels. The subjects with AA genotype of the PCSK9 E670G benefit more from alcohol consumption than the subjects with AG genotype in decreasing serum TC and LDL-C levels.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5296
PMCID: PMC3547209  PMID: 23329883
proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene; polymorphism; alcohol consumption; lipids; interaction.
22.  Association of the rs7395662 SNP in the MADD-FOLH1 and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels in the Mulao and Han Populations 
Background: The rs7395662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MADD-FOLH1 has been associated with serum lipid traits, but the results are inconsistent in different populations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs7395662 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Method: A total of 721 subjects of Mulao and 727 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping of the SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.01). The allelic and genotypic frequencies in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.05 for each), but there was no difference between Mulao and Han or between Mulao males and females. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB in Mulao females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-C and ApoB in Han males and TC, TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Han females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01), the subjects with GG genotype in Han males had higher TC, TG, and ApoB and lower LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA or AG genotype, and the G allele carriers in Han females had lower TC and HDL-C levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in Han males and HDL-C in Han females were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusion: The association of rs7395662 SNP and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in both ethnic groups.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6421
PMCID: PMC3775112  PMID: 24046529
environmental factors; MADD-FOLH1; lipid profiles; single nucleotide polymorphism.
23.  Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Gene rs5888 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study 
Background: Our previous studies have showed that the rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene is associated with serum lipid levels in the general Chinese populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the associations between rs5888 SNP and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS).
Methods: A total of 1,716 unrelated subjects (CAD, 601; IS, 533; and healthy controls, 582) were included in this study. Genotyping of the rs5888 SNP were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results: The genotypic frequencies of SCARB1 rs5888 SNP were different between CAD patients and controls, the subjects with TT genotype had high risk of CAD (OR = 1.76, P = 0.038 for TT vs. CC; and OR = 1.75, P = 0.036 for TT vs. CC/CT). There was no significant association between genotypes and the risk of IS. Further analysis showed that the subjects with TT genotype in the total population had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the subjects with CC/CT genotypes (P < 0.05), the subjects with TT genotype in controls but not in CAD or IS patients had higher levels of serum LDL-C and ApoB than those with CC genotype (P < 0.05 for each).
Conclusions: The present study suggests that the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP influences serum lipid levels, and is associated with the risk of CAD.
doi:10.7150/ijms.7044
PMCID: PMC3804801  PMID: 24151447
Scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Coronary artery disease; Ischemic stroke; Lipid
24.  Interactions of Several Lipid-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Cigarette Smoking on Blood Pressure Levels 
The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG), alleles (ABCA-1), and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1) were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1), and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and PP (LIPC) in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9), DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD), and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9) in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.4401
PMCID: PMC3354626  PMID: 22606049
blood pressure; hypertension; genetic polymorphism; cigarette smoking; interaction.
25.  The SCARB1 rs5888 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations 
Backgroud: The associations of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are inconsistant among diverse ethnic populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Methods: Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP in 801 subjects of Mulao and 807 subjects of Han Chinese were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels and the T allelic frequency were higher in Mulao than in Han. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mulao were different among the genotypes, the subjects with TT genotype had lower HDL-C levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype in female (P < 0.05). For the Han population, serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in males were different among the genotypes, the T allele carriers had lower serum HDL-C, ApoAI levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio and higher serum ApoB levels than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with TT genotype had higher serum TG levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype. Serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females and serum HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males were correlated with genotypes by the multiple linear regression analysis. Serum lipid parameters were also influenced by genotype-environmental interactions in Han but not in Mulao populations.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the rs5888 SNP is associated with serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females, and TG, HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males. The differences in serum ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partially attribute to different SCARB1 genotype-environmental interactions.
doi:10.7150/ijms.4815
PMCID: PMC3477681  PMID: 23091409
scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; apolipoproteins

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