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1.  Two Polymorphisms in the Fractalkine Receptor CX3CR1 Gene Influence the Development of Atherosclerosis: A Meta-Analysis 
Disease Markers  2014;2014:913678.
Background. The associations between the Fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) gene T280M (rs3732378) and V249I (rs3732379) polymorphisms and atherosclerosis (AS) risk are conflicting. The aim of this meta-analysis was undertaken to assess their associations. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane database, and CNKI were searched to get the genetic association studies. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 11.0. Results. Twenty-five articles involving 49 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The analysis showed that the 280M allele carriers of the CX3CR1 T280M polymorphism decreased the risk of AS and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the heterozygous state but increased the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the homozygote state. The 249I allele carriers of the CX3CR1 V249I polymorphism decreased the risk of AS and CAD in the heterozygous state. The V249I-T280M combined genotype VITM and IITM also decreased the risk of AS. Conclusions. The present meta-analysis suggests that the CX3CR1 T280M and V249I polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to AS. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the high heterogeneity in the meta-analysis.
doi:10.1155/2014/913678
PMCID: PMC4158466  PMID: 25221380
2.  Association of the variants in the BUD13-ZNF259 genes and the risk of hyperlipidaemia 
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BUD13 homolog (BUD13) and zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259) genes have been associated with one or more serum lipid traits in the European populations. However, little is known about such association in the Chinese populations. Our objectives were to determine the association of the BUD13/ZNF259 SNPs and their haplotypes with hypercholesterolaemia (HCH)/hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and to identify the possible gene–gene interactions among these SNPs. Genotyping of 6 SNPs was performed in 634 hyperlipidaemic and 547 normolipidaemic participants. The ZNF259 rs2075290, ZNF259 rs964184 and BUD13 rs10790162 SNPs were significantly associated with serum lipid levels in both HCH and non-HCH populations (P < 0.008–0.001). On single locus analysis, only BUD13 rs10790162 was associated with HCH (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.75, P = 0.015). The G-G-A-A-C-C haplotype, carrying rs964184-G-allele, was associated with increased risk of HCH (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.66, P = 0.005) and HTG (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.21, P = 0.000). The A-C-G-G-C-C and A-C-A-G-T-C haplotypes, carrying rs964184-C-allele, were associated with reduced risk of HCH (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99, P = 0.039 and OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94, P = 0.021 respectively). On multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses, the two- to three-locus models showed a significant association with HCH and HTG (P < 0.01–0.001). The BUD13/ZNF259 SNPs, which were significant in the European populations, are also replicable in the Southern Chinese population. Moreover, inter-locus interactions may exist among these SNPs. However, further functional studies are required to clarify how these SNPs and genes actually affect the serum lipid levels.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12291
PMCID: PMC4124025  PMID: 24780069
hyperlipidaemia; BUD13 homolog (BUD13); ZNF259 zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259); genetic polymorphisms
3.  Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations 
Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations.
PMCID: PMC4129031  PMID: 25120796
Lipids; sex-specific association; peptidase D (PEPD) gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors
4.  Phosphodiesterase 3A rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2014;9(5):1618-1628.
The association between the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are not well understood in the general population. The present study was performed in order to detect the association between the rs7134375 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. The genotypes of the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP in 761 subjects of the Mulao population and 774 subjects of the Han Chinese population were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. It was observed that serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in the Mulao population than in the Han population (P<0.05 for each). The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 72.14 and 27.86% in the Mulao population, and 78.55 and 21.45% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the CC, CA and AA genotypes were 52.04, 40.21 and 7.75% in the Mulao population, and 61.50, 34.11 and 4.39% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 74.89 and 25.11% in Mulao females, and 68.08 and 31.92% in Mulao males (P<0.01), respectively. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels were different among the genotypes in the Mulao population; however, not in the Han population (P<0.01), and the A allele carriers exhibited lower TG levels than the A allele noncarriers. The serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). It was concluded that the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs7134375 SNP are different between the Mulao and Han populations. In addition, the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP is associated with serum TG levels in the Mulao population, however, not in the Han population.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2014.2007
PMCID: PMC4020489  PMID: 24604378
phosphodiesterase 3A gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; apolipoproteins
5.  Nanoparticle Drug- and Gene-eluting Stents for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Restenosis 
Theranostics  2014;4(2):175-200.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis.
doi:10.7150/thno.7210
PMCID: PMC3900802  PMID: 24465275
Coronary artery disease; Stenosis; Restenosis; Stents; Nanoparticle.
6.  Sex-specific Association of the Zinc Finger Protein 259 rs2075290 Polymorphism and Serum Lipid Levels 
Background: Little is known about the association of ZNF259 rs2075290 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Chinese population. This study aimed to detect the association of ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP and environmental factors with serum lipid levels between males and females in the Mulao and Han populations.
Methods and Results: Genotyping of ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP was performed in 788 of Mulao and 778 of Han participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were significantly different between Mulao and Han populations (AA, 50.1% Vs 58.9%; AG, 42.3% Vs 35.7%; GG, 7.6% Vs 5.4%, P = 0.002) and between Han males and females (AA, 64.5% Vs 55.2%; AG, 28.3% Vs 40.6%; GG, 7.2% Vs 4.2%, P = 0.001). Serum levels of triglyceride (TG) in Mulao males, and total cholesterol (TC), TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Mulao females were different between the AA and AG/GG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum TC, LDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels in Han males, and TG and ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han females were different between the AA and AG/GG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). An interaction between ZNF259 rs2075290 polymorphism and male gender on serum TC, LDL-C, and ApoA1 levels was noted in Han population (P < 0.05-0.01) but not in Mulao's.
Conclusions: The subjects with AG/GG genotype in Mulao males and females and Han females have less favorable lipid profiles than those with AA genotype. In contrast, the subjects with AG/GG genotype in Han males have more favorable lipid profiles than those with AA genotype. These findings suggest that the association between ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP and serum lipid levels might have ethnic- and/or sex-specificity.
doi:10.7150/ijms.8489
PMCID: PMC3970100  PMID: 24688311
lipids; sex-specific association; zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259); single nucleotide polymorphism; environmental factors.
7.  Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:231515.
The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions.
doi:10.1155/2013/231515
PMCID: PMC3806325  PMID: 24195066
8.  Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Gene E670G Polymorphism Interacts with Alcohol Consumption to Modulate Serum Lipid Levels 
Backgroud: Both alcohol consumption and the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene polymorphism modulate serum lipid levels, but their interactions on serum lipid profiles are still unknown. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels.
Methods: Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G in 1352 unrelated subjects (785 non-drinkers and 567 drinkers) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions between PCSK9 E670G genotypes and alcohol consumption on serum lipid parameters were detected by using a factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders.
Results: The levels of serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.01 for all), whereas the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB were lower in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.001 for all). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of PCSK9 E670G were not different between non-drinkers and drinkers (P > 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype in non-drinkers had higher serum LDL-C levels than the subjects with AG genotype, whereas the subjects with AG genotype in drinkers had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with AA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The effects of alcohol consumption on TC and LDL-C levels depended upon genotypes, the subjects with AA genotype had lower serum TC and LDL-C levels in drinkers than in non-drinkers.
Conclusions: Alcohol consumption can modify the effects of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism on serum TC and LDL-C levels. The subjects with AA genotype of the PCSK9 E670G benefit more from alcohol consumption than the subjects with AG genotype in decreasing serum TC and LDL-C levels.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5296
PMCID: PMC3547209  PMID: 23329883
proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene; polymorphism; alcohol consumption; lipids; interaction.
9.  Association of the rs7395662 SNP in the MADD-FOLH1 and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels in the Mulao and Han Populations 
Background: The rs7395662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MADD-FOLH1 has been associated with serum lipid traits, but the results are inconsistent in different populations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs7395662 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Method: A total of 721 subjects of Mulao and 727 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping of the SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.01). The allelic and genotypic frequencies in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.05 for each), but there was no difference between Mulao and Han or between Mulao males and females. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB in Mulao females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-C and ApoB in Han males and TC, TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Han females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01), the subjects with GG genotype in Han males had higher TC, TG, and ApoB and lower LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA or AG genotype, and the G allele carriers in Han females had lower TC and HDL-C levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in Han males and HDL-C in Han females were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusion: The association of rs7395662 SNP and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in both ethnic groups.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6421
PMCID: PMC3775112  PMID: 24046529
environmental factors; MADD-FOLH1; lipid profiles; single nucleotide polymorphism.
10.  Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Gene rs5888 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study 
Background: Our previous studies have showed that the rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene is associated with serum lipid levels in the general Chinese populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the associations between rs5888 SNP and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS).
Methods: A total of 1,716 unrelated subjects (CAD, 601; IS, 533; and healthy controls, 582) were included in this study. Genotyping of the rs5888 SNP were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results: The genotypic frequencies of SCARB1 rs5888 SNP were different between CAD patients and controls, the subjects with TT genotype had high risk of CAD (OR = 1.76, P = 0.038 for TT vs. CC; and OR = 1.75, P = 0.036 for TT vs. CC/CT). There was no significant association between genotypes and the risk of IS. Further analysis showed that the subjects with TT genotype in the total population had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the subjects with CC/CT genotypes (P < 0.05), the subjects with TT genotype in controls but not in CAD or IS patients had higher levels of serum LDL-C and ApoB than those with CC genotype (P < 0.05 for each).
Conclusions: The present study suggests that the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP influences serum lipid levels, and is associated with the risk of CAD.
doi:10.7150/ijms.7044
PMCID: PMC3804801  PMID: 24151447
Scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Coronary artery disease; Ischemic stroke; Lipid
11.  Interactions of Several Lipid-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Cigarette Smoking on Blood Pressure Levels 
The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG), alleles (ABCA-1), and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1) were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1), and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and PP (LIPC) in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9), DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD), and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9) in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.4401
PMCID: PMC3354626  PMID: 22606049
blood pressure; hypertension; genetic polymorphism; cigarette smoking; interaction.
12.  The SCARB1 rs5888 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations 
Backgroud: The associations of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are inconsistant among diverse ethnic populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Methods: Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP in 801 subjects of Mulao and 807 subjects of Han Chinese were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels and the T allelic frequency were higher in Mulao than in Han. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mulao were different among the genotypes, the subjects with TT genotype had lower HDL-C levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype in female (P < 0.05). For the Han population, serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in males were different among the genotypes, the T allele carriers had lower serum HDL-C, ApoAI levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio and higher serum ApoB levels than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with TT genotype had higher serum TG levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype. Serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females and serum HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males were correlated with genotypes by the multiple linear regression analysis. Serum lipid parameters were also influenced by genotype-environmental interactions in Han but not in Mulao populations.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the rs5888 SNP is associated with serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females, and TG, HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males. The differences in serum ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partially attribute to different SCARB1 genotype-environmental interactions.
doi:10.7150/ijms.4815
PMCID: PMC3477681  PMID: 23091409
scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; apolipoproteins
13.  Association of the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations 
Background
A previous genome-wide association study has displayed the association of the ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialytransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) gene variant and lipid traits in the individuals of European ancestry, but the reproducibility of this association has not been detected in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ST3GAL4 rs11220462 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 700 unrelated individuals of Mulao nationality and 694 subjects of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotypes of the SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in combination with gel electrophoresis, and then verified by direct sequencing.
Results
Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio was lower in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.01). There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP between the two ethnic groups or between males and females. The A allele carriers in both Mulao males and females had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and ApoB levels than the A allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The subjects with AA genotype in Han males but not in females had higher TC and triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with AG or GG genotype (P < 0.01 for each). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females; TC and LDL-C in Mulao males; and TC in Han males were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05 -0.001).
Conclusions
The association of ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic-specific association, and/or sex-specific association between the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP and serum lipid parameters in some ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-123
PMCID: PMC4237880  PMID: 25086711
Lipids; ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialytransferase 4; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Environmental factors
14.  Enrichment of MTHFR 677 T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation 
Background
Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China.
Methods
Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated.
Results
T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P > 0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P < 0.05 for each). These differences did not however remain through further subdivision by hyperlipidemia and normolipidemia.
Conclusion
The higher prevalence of MTHFR 677 T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-104
PMCID: PMC4092207  PMID: 24968810
15.  Polymorphism of rs873308 near the transmembrane protein 57 gene is associated with serum lipid levels 
Bioscience Reports  2014;34(2):e00095.
SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) of rs10903129 near the TMEM (transmembrane protein) 57 locus has been associated with TC (total cholesterol) in a previous GWAS (genome-wide association study), but the association of TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid levels has not been previously reported. The current study was undertaken to detect the association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Han Chinese and Mulao populations. The genotypes of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP in 865 individuals of Han Chinese and 902 participants of Mulao nationality were determined by PCR and RFLP (restriction-fragment-length polymorphism) combined with gel electrophoresis and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The T allele frequency of TMEM57 rs873308 SNP was not different between Han and Mulao (23.18% versus 25.72%, P>0.05), but different between males and females in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05). The T allele carriers had lower serum TC, Apo (apolipoprotein) B, HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels, ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and lower TAG (triacylglycerol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), ApoA1 levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio and higher HDL-C levels in Mulao than the T allele non-carriers. There was also different association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid profiles between males and females in the both ethnic groups. Serum lipid parameters in the two ethnic groups were also associated with several environmental factors. The association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid levels was different in the Han Chinese and Mulao populations and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be a sex-specific association of the TMEM57 rs873308 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations.
doi:10.1042/BSR20130131
PMCID: PMC3953947  PMID: 24517463
environmental factors; lipids; single-nucleotide polymorphism; transmembrane protein 57; Apo, apolipoprotein; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; GWAS, genome-wide association study; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; RFLP, restriction-fragment-length polymorphism; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; TC, total cholesterol; TAG, triacylglycerol; TMEM, transmembrane protein
16.  Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs1044925 and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Ischemic Stroke 
The present study was performed to clarify the association between the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1044925 and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in the Guangxi Han population. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to determine the genotypes of the ACAT-1 SNP rs1044925 in 1730 unrelated subjects (CAD, 587; IS, 555; and healthy controls; 588). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs1044925 were significantly different between the CAD patients and controls (p = 0.015) and borderline different between the IS patients and controls (p = 0.05). The AC/CC genotypes and C allele were associated with a decreased risk of CAD and IS (CAD: p = 0.014 for AC/CC vs. AA, p = 0.022 for C vs. A; IS: p = 0.014 for AC/CC vs. AA; p = 0.017 for C vs. A). The AC/CC genotypes in the healthy controls, but not in CAD or IS patients, were associated with an increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. The present study shows that the C allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 were associated with an increased serum HDL-C level in the healthy controls and decreased risk in CAD and IS patients.
doi:10.3390/ijms15033546
PMCID: PMC3975353  PMID: 24577316
acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; coronary artery disease; ischemic stroke; lipids
17.  Association of the MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations 
Background
The rs17145738 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near MLX interacting protein-like/transducin (beta)-like 2 (MLXIPL/TBL2) loci is associated with serum lipid levels, but the results are inconsistent in diverse ethnic/racial groups. The current study was to investigate the association of MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 649 subjects of Mulao nationality and 712 participants of Han nationality aged 16–84 years were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP between the two ethnic groups or between males and females. The T allele carriers had higher triglyceride (TG) and ApoB levels in Mulao, and higher total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in Han than the T allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher ApoB levels in both Mulao and Han females than the T allele non-carriers, but the T allele carriers had lower ApoB levels in Han males than the T allele non-carriers (P < 0.05, respectively). The T allele carriers in Han had higher TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio and lower TG levels in males, and higher LDL-C levels and lower ApoA1/ApoB ratio in females than the T allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Serum TC levels in the combined population of the two ethnic groups and in Han, and HDL-C levels in Han males were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusions
The association of MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP and serum lipid profiles is different between the Mulao and Han populations. There is a sex-specific association in the both ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-156
PMCID: PMC3818985  PMID: 24160749
18.  Apolipoprotein M T-778C polymorphism is associated with serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis 
Background
The apolipoprotein M (APOM) T-778C gene polymorphism has been associated with serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the results are inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to detect the association between the APOM T-778C polymorphism and serum lipid levels and the risk of CAD in the Chinese population.
Methods
Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and CNKI were systematically searched. Data were extracted using standardized methods. The association was assessed by mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI.
Results
Ten studies with 4,413 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled effects indicated that CT+CC group had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (MD:-0.36, 95% CI: -0.53 – -0.19, P < 0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.16 – -0.01, P = 0.03) than TT group. There was no difference in the levels of triglyceride (MD: 0.06, 95% CI: -0.04 – 0.15, P = 0.22) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: 0.00, 95% CI: -0.03–0.03, P = 0.93) between TT and CT+CC groups. Pooled effects showed that CAD group had higher CT+CC genotype frequency than control group (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.62–2.39, P < 0.00001; heterogeneity test x2 = 2.96, P = 0.71, I2 = 0%).
Conclusions
The results of the current meta-analysis show that the CT+CC group has higher levels of TC and LDL-C than the TT group. Moreover, there is also a prominent association between APOM T-778C polymorphism and the risk of CAD in the Chinese population, the CT+CC genotype is associated with increased risk of CAD.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-135
PMCID: PMC3973817  PMID: 24040766
19.  Drug-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass grafting for unprotected left main coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of four randomized trials and seventeen observational studies 
Trials  2013;14:133.
Background
The clinical application of drug-eluting stents (DES) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) is still controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the safety and efficacy between DES and CABG for ULMCAD.
Methods
Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched.
Results
Twenty-one studies with 8,413 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The risk was lower in DES than in CABG groups at the early outcomes of death (risk ratio (RR): 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30–0.78), cerebrovascular events (RR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08–0.45) and composite endpoint (RR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40–0.70); death after 2 years (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66–0.99), 4 years (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53–0.90), 5 years (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61–0.95) and their total effect (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71–0.87); composite endpoint 1 year (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58–0.83), 4 years (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53–0.88), 5 years (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.59–0.92) and their total effect (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.71–0.85). There were no significant differences in the risk for the early outcomes of myocardial infarction (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.68–1.38), death 1 year (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.57–1.15) and 3 years (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.69–1.04), composite endpoint of 2 years (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.72–1.09) and 3 years (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.73–1.04). Nonetheless, there was a lower risk for revascularization associated with CABG from 1 to 5 years and their total effect (RR: 3.77, 95% CI: 3.35–4.26). There was no difference in death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events or revascularization at 1 year between RCT and observational groups.
Conclusions
Our meta-analysis indicates that DES has higher safety but higher revascularization than CABG in patients with ULMCAD in the 5 years after intervention.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-133
PMCID: PMC3663678  PMID: 23782856
Drug-eluting stents; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Unprotected left main coronary artery disease; Safety and efficacy; Meta-analysis
20.  Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
Nutrition Journal  2013;12:23.
Background
Acute pancreatitis remains the most common major complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The pathogenesis of post-ERCP acute pancreatitis may be mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals, which could be ameliorated by antioxidants. Antioxidant supplementation may potentially prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of prophylactic antioxidant supplementation compared with control on the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis.
Methods
PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify relevant trials. A standardized Excel file was used to extract data by two independent authors. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with accompanying 95% confidence interval (CI). The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity.
Results
Eleven studies involving 3,010 patients met our inclusion criteria. Antioxidant supplementation did not significantly decrease the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65-1.32; P = 0.665). There was also no statistical difference in the severity grades between the antioxidant group and control group.
Conclusions
Based on current evidence, antioxidant supplementation shows no beneficial effect on the incidence and the severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis; thus, there is currently a lack of evidence to support using antioxidants for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis.
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-23
PMCID: PMC3575286  PMID: 23398675
Antioxidant; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pancreatitis
21.  Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene -493G/T polymorphism and its association with serum lipid levels in Bama Zhuang long-living families in China 
Background
The -493G/T polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene is associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels and longevity in several populations, but the results are inconsistent in different racial/ethnic groups. The current study was to investigate the plausible association of MTP -493G/T polymorphism with serum lipid levels and longevity in Zhuang long-lived families residing in Bama area, a famous home of longevity in Guangxi, China.
Methods
The MTP -493G/T was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 391 Bama Zhuang long-lived families (BLF, n = 1467, age 56.60 ± 29.43 years) and four control groups recruited from Bama and out-of-Bama area with or without a familial history of exceptional longevity: Bama non-long-lived families (BNLF, n = 586, age 44.81 ± 26.83 years), Bama non-Zhuang long-lived families (BNZLF, n = 444, age 52.09 ± 31.91 years), Pingguo long-lived families (PLF, n = 658, age 50.83 ± 30.30 years), and Pingguo non-long-lived families (PNLF, n = 539, age 38.74 ± 24.69 years). Correlation analyses between genotypes and serum lipid levels and longevity were then performed.
Results
No particularly favorable lipoprotein and clinical phenotypes were seen in BLF as compared to general families in the same area. Instead, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were significantly higher in the three Bama families as compared to the two non-Bama families (P < 0.01 for all). There were no differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the tested cohorts (P > 0.05 for all), but the TT genotype tended to enrich in the three long-lived cohorts from both areas. In addition, the individuals harboring TT genotype exhibited lower LDL-C and TC levels in the overall populations and Bama populations with a region- and sex-specific pattern. Multiple linear regression analyses unraveled that LDL-C levels were correlated with genotypes in Bama combined population, BNLF, and the total population (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Pingguo populations; TC and HDL-C levels were correlated with genotypes in Bama combined population and BLF, respectively (P < 0.05 for each).
Conclusions
MTP -493G/T polymorphism may play an important role in fashioning the serum lipid profiles of Bama populations, despite no direct association between MTP -493G/T and longevity was detected.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-177
PMCID: PMC3554484  PMID: 23273182
22.  Association of MYLIP rs3757354 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations 
Background
The association of rs3757354 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP, also known as IDOL) gene and serum lipid levels is not well known in the general population. The present study aimed to detect the association of rs3757354 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations.
Method
A total of 627 subjects of Bai Ku Yao minority and 614 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the rs3757354 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of G allele was 49.92% in Bai Ku Yao and 56.27% in Han (P < 0.05). The frequencies of AA, GA and GG genotypes were 25.52%, 49.12% and 25.36% in Bai Ku Yao, and 19.87%, 47.72% and 32.41% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in both ethnic groups. The levels of HDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C levels than the G allele noncarriers. The levels TC, HDL-C and ApoAI in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05 for all), the participants with GA genotype had lower serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with AA genotype. These findings were found only in females but not in males. The levels of TG and HDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with the genotypes, whereas the levels of TC in Han, and TC, LDL-C in Han females were associated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, and body mass index in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001).
Conclusions
The present study suggests that the MYLIP rs3757354 SNP is associated with serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. But the association is different between the two ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-141
PMCID: PMC3496621  PMID: 23107276
23.  Several genetic polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels 
Background
Information about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on serum lipid profiles is still scarce. The present study was undertaken to detect ten SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on serum lipid levels.
Methods
A total of 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects of Bai Ku Yao were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) < 24, 24–28, and > 28 kg/m2; respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB levels were measured. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions were detected by factorial design covariance analysis.
Results
The genotypic and allelic frequencies of LIPC and PCSK9 were different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, the genotypic frequency of LIPG and allelic frequency of MYLIP were also different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of TC, ApoA1 (ABCA-1); TC, LDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TG, HDL-C, and ApoA1 (LIPG); TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); HDL-C and ApoA1 (MYLIP) in normal weight subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of LDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (ABCA-1); HDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TC, HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (LIPG); TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); TC, TG and ApoB (MYLIP); TG (PCSK9); TG, ApoA1 and ApoB (PPARD); and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (SCARB1) in overweight/obese subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1 (LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB); LIPC (TC, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB); LIPG (ApoB); MTHFR (TC, TG and LDL-C); MYLIP (TC and TG); PCSK9 (TG, HDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB); PPARD (TG and ApoA1/ApoB); and SCARB1 (TG, ApoA1 and ApoB) interacted with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels (P < 0.05-0.001).
Conclusions
The differences in serum lipid levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different genetic polymorphisms and the interactions between several SNPs and overweight/obesity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-123
PMCID: PMC3508802  PMID: 23039238
Lipid; Apolipoprotein; Genetic polymorphism; Overweight; Obesity; Interaction
24.  Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of thoracic epidural anesthesia in preventing atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting 
Background
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is one of the most common complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The goal of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) in preventing POAF in adult patients undergoing CABG.
Methods
MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify randomized controlled trails in adult patients undergoing CABG who were randomly assigned to receive general anesthesia plus thoracic epidural anesthesia (GA + TEA) or general anesthesia only (GA). Two authors independently extracted data using a standardized Excel file. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of POAF. We used DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models to compute summary risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals.
Results
Five studies involving 540 patients met our inclusion criteria. No significant difference in the incidence of POAF was observed between the two groups (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 1.12; P = 0.11), with significant heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 73%, P = 0.005). Sensitivity analyses by primary endpoint, methodological quality and surgical technique yielded similar results.
Conclusions
The limited evidence suggests that TEA shows no beneficial efficacy in preventing POAF in adult patients undergoing CABG. However, the results of this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due to significant heterogeneity of the studies included. Thus, the potential infuence of TEA on the incidence of atrial fibrillation following CABG warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-67
PMCID: PMC3489521  PMID: 22900930
Thoracic epidural anesthesia; Postoperative atrial fibrillation; Meta-analysis
25.  Association of rs5888 SNP in the scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene and serum lipid levels 
Background
Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 598 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 585 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower but ApoB was higher in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequencies of C and T alleles were 78.3% and 21.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 73.7% and 26.3% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotypes were 60.0%, 36.6% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 54.2%, 39.0% and 6.8% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The subjects with TT genotype in both ethnic groups had lower HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the subjects with TT genotype in Bai Ku Yao had lower HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males than the subjects with CC or CT genotype (P < 0.05 for all), and the T allele carriers had higher TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels in females than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all). The participants with TT genotype in Han also had a lower tendency of HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males than the participants with CC or CT genotype, but the difference did not reach statistically significant (P = 0.063 and P = 0.086; respectively). The association of serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels and genotypes was confirmed by the multiple linear regression analysis in both ethnic groups. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors.
Conclusions
The differences in serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partially attribute to the differences in the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP and several environmental factors.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-50
PMCID: PMC3391995  PMID: 22583964

Results 1-25 (46)