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1.  The Bleeding Risk Score as a Mortality Predictor in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome 
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia  2013;101(6):511-518.
Background
It is well known that the occurrence of bleeding increases in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and there is a good correlation between bleeding risk scores and bleeding incidence. However, the role of bleeding risk score as mortality predictor is poorly studied.
Objective
The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the role of bleeding risk score as in-hospital mortality predictor in a cohort of patients with ACS treated in a single cardiology tertiary center.
Methods
Out of 1,655 patients with ACS (547 with ST-elevation ACS and 1,118 with non-ST-elevation ACS), we calculated the ACUITY/HORIZONS bleeding score prospectively in 249 patients and retrospectively in the remaining 1,416. Mortality information and hemorrhagic complications were also obtained.
Results
Among the mean age of 64.3 ± 12.6 years, the mean bleeding score was 18 ± 7.7. The correlation between bleeding and mortality was highly significant (p < 0.001, OR = 5.296), as well as the correlation between bleeding score and in-hospital bleeding (p < 0.001, OR = 1.058), and between bleeding score and in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR = 1.121, p < 0.001, area under the ROC curve 0.753, p < 0.001). The adjusted OR and area under the ROC curve for the population with ST-elevation ACS were, respectively, 1.046 (p = 0.046) and 0.686 ± 0.040 (p < 0.001); for non-ST-elevation ACS the figures were, respectively, 1.150 (p < 0.001) and 0.769 ± 0.036 (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Bleeding risk score is a very useful and highly reliable predictor of in-hospital mortality in a wide range of patients with acute coronary syndromes, especially in those with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.
doi:10.5935/abc.20130223
PMCID: PMC4106809  PMID: 24217405
Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications; Hemorrhage/mortality; Probability
2.  In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction, the Impact of Hyperglycemia as a Risk Factor for Mortality Is Not Homogeneous Across Age-Groups 
Diabetes Care  2011;35(1):150-152.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the impact of hyperglycemia in different age-groups of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 2,027 patients with AMI were categorized into one of five age-groups: <50 years (n = 301), ≥50 and <60 (n = 477), ≥60 and <70 (n = 545), ≥70 and <80 (n = 495), and ≥80 years (n = 209). Hyperglycemia was defined as initial glucose ≥115 mg/dL.
RESULTS
The adjusted odds ratios for hyperglycemia predicting hospital mortality in groups 1–5 were, respectively, 7.57 (P = 0.004), 3.21 (P = 0.046), 3.50 (P = 0.003), 3.20 (P < 0.001), and 2.16 (P = 0.021). The adjusted P values for correlation between glucose level (as a continuous variable) and mortality were 0.007, <0.001, 0.043, <0.001, and 0.064. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were 0.785, 0.709, 0.657, 0.648, and 0.613. The AUC in group 1 was significantly higher than those in groups 3–5.
CONCLUSIONS
The impact of hyperglycemia as a risk factor for hospital mortality in AMI is more pronounced in younger patients.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1170
PMCID: PMC3241319  PMID: 22028280
3.  Hypotheses, rationale, design, and methods for prognostic evaluation of cardiac biomarker elevation after percutaneous and surgical revascularization in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction. A comparative analysis of biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance. The MASS-V Trial 
Background
Although the release of cardiac biomarkers after percutaneous (PCI) or surgical revascularization (CABG) is common, its prognostic significance is not known. Questions remain about the mechanisms and degree of correlation between the release, the volume of myocardial tissue loss, and the long-term significance. Delayed-enhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) consistently quantifies areas of irreversible myocardial injury. To investigate the quantitative relationship between irreversible injury and cardiac biomarkers, we will evaluate the extent of irreversible injury in patients undergoing PCI and CABG and relate it to postprocedural modifications in cardiac biomarkers and long-term prognosis.
Methods/Design
The study will include 150 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and a formal indication for CABG; 50 patients will undergo CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); 50 patients with the same arterial and ventricular condition indicated for myocardial revascularization will undergo CABG without CPB; and another 50 patients with CAD and preserved ventricular function will undergo PCI using stents. All patients will undergo CMR before and after surgery or PCI. We will also evaluate the release of cardiac markers of necrosis immediately before and after each procedure. Primary outcome considered is overall death in a 5-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes are levels of CK-MB isoenzyme and I-Troponin in association with presence of myocardial fibrosis and systolic left ventricle dysfunction assessed by CMR.
Discussion
The MASS-V Trial aims to establish reliable values for parameters of enzyme markers of myocardial necrosis in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction after mechanical interventions. The establishments of these indices have diagnostic value and clinical prognosis and therefore require relevant and different therapeutic measures. In daily practice, the inappropriate use of these necrosis markers has led to misdiagnosis and therefore wrong treatment. The appearance of a more sensitive tool such as CMR provides an unprecedented diagnostic accuracy of myocardial damage when correlated with necrosis enzyme markers. We aim to correlate laboratory data with imaging, thereby establishing more refined data on the presence or absence of irreversible myocardial injury after the procedure, either percutaneous or surgical, and this, with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-65
PMCID: PMC3468382  PMID: 22898311
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Necrosis markers; Myocardial infarction; PCI; CABG
4.  Efficacy of aneurysmectomy in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction: favorable short‐ and long‐term results in ischemic cardiomyopathy 
Clinics  2010;65(10):947-952.
INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the functional results after aneurysm surgery in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and (2) identify predictors of favorable outcomes.
METHODS AND MATERIAL:
Patients (n = 169) with angiographic left ventricular ejection fraction of 22±5% underwent aneurysm surgery and were prospectively followed for three years. Prior to surgery, 40% and 60% of the patients were in congestive heart failure NYHA class I/II and III/IV, respectively. Concomitant revascularization was performed on 95% of the patients.
RESULTS:
Cumulative in‐hospital and 36‐month mortalities were 7% and 15%, respectively. These respective rates varied according to preoperative parameters: CHF class I‐II, 4% and 13%; CHF class III‐IV, 8% and 16%; LVEF<20%, 12% and 26%; LVEF 21‐30%, 2% and 6%; gated LVEF exercise/rest >5%, <1% and 4%; and gated LVEF exercise/rest ≤5%, 17% and 38%. Higher LVEF ex/rest ratio (p = 0.01), male sex (p = 0.05), and a higher number of grafts (p = 0.01) were predictive of improvement in CHF class at follow‐up based on the results of a multivariate analysis. After three years of follow‐up, 84% of the patients were in class I/II, LVEF was 45±7%, and gated LVEF ex/rest ratio was 13% higher (p<0.01) compared to the beginning of the study.
CONCLUSIONS:
These data suggest that aneurysmectomy among patients with severe LV dysfunction result in short‐ and long‐term favorable functional outcome and survival. Selection of appropriate surgical candidates may substantially improve survival rates among these patients.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010001000004
PMCID: PMC2972609  PMID: 21120292
Myocardial revascularization; Ventricular dysfunction; Ischemic cardiomyopathy; Cardiac surgery; Aneurysmectomy
5.  Effect of β-Blockers on the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Clinics  2010;65(3):265-270.
INTRODUCTION:
Oral β-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with β-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this drug.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the effect of β-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
METHODS:
We analyzed 1401 patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluated the occurrence or absence of atrial fibrillation, the use of oral β-blockers and mortality during the first 24 hours.
RESULTS:
a) The use of β-blockers was inversely correlated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (ρ = 0.004; OR = 0.54). b) Correlations with mortality were as follows: 31.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation, 9.2% in those without atrial fibrillation (ρ < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 4.52), and 17.5% in patients not treated with β-blockers and 6.7% in those who received the drug (ρ < 0.001; OR = 0.34). c) Adjusted Models: The presence of atrial fibrillation was independently correlated with mortality (OR = 2.48, ρ = 0.002). The use of β-blockers was inversely and independently correlated with mortality (OR = 0.53; ρ = 0.002). The patients who used β-blockers showed a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (OR = 0.59; ρ = 0.029) in the adjusted model.
CONCLUSION:
The presence of atrial fibrillation and the absence of oral β-blockers increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Oral β-blockers reduced the incidence of atrial fibrillation, which might be at least partially responsible for the drug’s benefit.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000300005
PMCID: PMC2845766  PMID: 20360916
Acute myocardial infarction; β-blockers; Atrial fibrillation; Mortality; Arrhythmias
6.  Surgical Myocardial Revascularization of Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy and Severe Left Ventricular Disfunction 
Clinics  2010;65(1):3-8.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine long-term survival, identify preoperative factors predictive of a favorable outcome, and assess functional improvement after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with advanced left ventricular dysfunction.
METHODS:
Between 1995 and 2001, 244 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and had a preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 35% were included. left ventricular ejection fraction was determined by uniplanar or biplanar ventriculography during left heart catheterization. Indication for surgery was predominance of tissue viability. Functional improvement was evaluated through echocardiography and gated scintigraphy at exercise/rest. Survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS:
Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 29±4% (ranged from 9% to 35%). An average of 3.01 coronary bypass grafts per patient were performed. In-hospital mortality was 3.7% (9 patients). The 4-year survival rate was 89.7%. Multivariate correlates of favorable short- and long-term outcome were preoperative New York Heart Association Funcional classification for congestive heart failure class I/II, lower PAsP, higher left ventricular ejection fraction and gated left ventricular ejection fraction Ex/Rest ratio >5%. Left ventricular ejection fraction rise from 32±5% to 39±5%, p <0.001. Gated left ventricular ejection fraction at exercise/rest increased markedly after surgery: from 27±8%/23±7% to 37±5%/31±6%, p <0.001.
CONCLUSIONS:
In selected patients with severe ischemic left ventricular dysfunction and predominance of tissue viability, coronary artery bypass grafting may be capable of implement preoperative clinical/functional parameters in predicting outcome as left ventricular ejection fraction and gated left ventricular ejection fraction at exercise/rest.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000100002
PMCID: PMC2815280  PMID: 20126339
Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery; Left ventricular dysfunction; Myocardial revascularization; Functional improvement; Preoperative predictive factors

Results 1-7 (7)