Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine and immuno-regulatory molecule, and modulates susceptibility to musculoskeletal diseases. Several meta-analyses and replicated association studies have implicated the minor ‘A’ variant within the TNF promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs361525 (-238A/G) as a risk allele in joint related disorders, including psoriatic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and osteolysis after joint arthroplasty. Here we characterized the effect of this variant on TNF promoter function. A transcriptional reporter, encoding the -238A variant of the TNF promoter, resulted in 2.2 to 2.8 times greater transcriptional activation versus the ‘G’ variant in murine macrophages when stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli. Bioinformatic analysis predicted a putative binding site for thyroid hormone receptor (TR) for the -238A but not the -238G allele. Overexpression of TR-α induced promoter expression 1.8-fold in the presence of the ‘A’ allele only. TR-α expression both potentiated and sensitized the -238A response to LPS or a titanium particulate stimulus, whilst siRNA knockdown of either THRA or THRB impaired transcriptional activation for the -238A variant only. This effect was independent of receptor-ligand binding of triiodothyronine. Immunohistochemical analysis of osteolysis interface membranes from patients undergoing revision surgery confirmed expression of TR-α within osteoclast nuclei at the resorption surface. The ‘A’ allele at rs361525 confers increased transcriptional activation of the TNF promoter and influences susceptibility to several arthritic conditions. This effect is modulated, at least in part, by binding of TR, which both sensitizes and potentiates transcriptional activation of the ‘A’ variant independent of its endogenous ligand.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have now identified 46 independent susceptibility loci for CHD, however, the biological and disease-relevant mechanisms for these associations remain elusive. The large-scale meta-analysis of GWAS recently identified in Caucasians a CHD-associated locus at chromosome 6q23.2, a region containing the transcription factor TCF21 gene. TCF21 (Capsulin/Pod1/Epicardin) is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, and regulates cell fate decisions and differentiation in the developing coronary vasculature. Herein, we characterize a cis-regulatory mechanism by which the lead polymorphism rs12190287 disrupts an atypical activator protein 1 (AP-1) element, as demonstrated by allele-specific transcriptional regulation, transcription factor binding, and chromatin organization, leading to altered TCF21 expression. Further, this element is shown to mediate signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-β) and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) pathways. A second disease allele identified in East Asians also appears to disrupt an AP-1-like element. Thus, both disease-related growth factor and embryonic signaling pathways may regulate CHD risk through two independent alleles at TCF21.
As much as half of the risk of developing coronary heart disease is genetically predetermined. Genome-wide association studies in human populations have now uncovered multiple sites of common genetic variation associated with heart disease. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for linking the disease associations with changes in gene expression are still underexplored. One of these variants occurs within the vascular developmental factor, TCF21, leading to dysregulated gene expression. Using various in silico and molecular approaches, we identify an intricate allele-specific regulatory mechanism underlying altered expression of TCF21. Notably, we observe that two apparently independent risk alleles identified in distinct populations function through a similar regulatory mechanism. Together these data suggest that conserved upstream pathways may organize the complex genetic etiology of coronary heart disease and potentially lead to new treatment opportunities.
Inflammation plays a critical role in atherosclerosis and is associated with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We studied bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track iNOS gene expression in a murine model of vascular inflammation.
Macrophage-rich vascular lesions were induced by carotid ligation plus high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in 18 iNOS-luc reporter mice. In vivo iNOS expression was imaged serially by BLI over 14 days, followed by in situ BLI and histology.
BLI signal from ligated carotids increased over 14 days (9.7±4.4×103 vs. 4.4±1.7×103 photons/s/cm2/sr at baseline, p<0.001 vs. baseline, p<0.05 vs. sham controls). Histology confirmed substantial macrophage infiltration, with iNOS and luciferase expression, only in ligated left carotid arteries and not controls.
BLI allows in vivo detection of iNOS expression in murine carotid lesions and may provide a valuable approach for monitoring vascular gene expression and inflammation in small animal models.
Vascular inflammation; Inducible nitric oxide synthase; Bioluminescence; Macrophages; Atherosclerosis
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have shown the potential to restore cardiac function after myocardial injury. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) have been widely employed to label ESCs for cellular MRI. However, non-specific intracellular accumulation of SPIO limits long-term in vivo assessment of the transplanted cells. To overcome this limitation, a novel reporter gene (RG) has been developed to express antigens on the ESC surface. By employing SPIO-conjugated monoclonal antibody against these antigens (SPIO-MAb), the viability of transplanted ESCs can be detected in vivo. This study aims to develop a new molecular MRI method to assess in vivo ESC viability, proliferation, and teratoma formation.
The RG is designed to express 2 antigens (hemagglutinin A and myc) and luciferase on the ESC surface. The two antigens serve as the molecular targets for SPIO-MAb. The human and mouse ESCs were transduced with the RG (ESC-RGs) and transplanted into the peri-infarct area using the murine myocardial injury model. In vivo MRI was performed following serial intravenous administration of SPIO-MAb. Significant hypointense signal was generated from the viable and proliferating ESCs and subsequent teratoma. This novel molecular MRI technique enabled in vivo detection of early ESC-derived teratoma formation in the injured murine myocardium.
Reporter gene; molecular imaging; embryonic stem cell
Genetic variants near/within the ALDH2 gene encoding the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 have been associated with blood pressure and hypertension in several case–control association studies in East Asian populations.
Three common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) in the ALDH2 gene were genotyped in 1,134 subjects of Chinese origin from the Stanford Asia-Pacific Program for Hypertension and Insulin Resistance (SAPPHIRe) family cohort. We examined whether the ALDH2 SNP genotypes predicted the development of hypertension in the prospective SAPPHIRe cohort.
Over an average follow-up period of 5.7 years, carriers homozygous for the rs2238152 T allele in the ALDH2 gene were more likely to progress to hypertension than were non-carriers (hazard ratio [HR], 2.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-7.84, P = 0.03), corresponding to a population attributable risk of ~7.1%. The risk associated with the rs2238152 T allele were strongest in heavy/moderate alcohol drinkers and was reduced in non-drinkers, indicating an interaction between ALDH2 genetic variants and alcohol intake on the risk of hypertension (P for interaction = 0.04). The risk allele was associated with significantly lower ALDH2 gene expression levels in human adipose tissue.
ALDH2 genetic variants were associated with progression to hypertension in a prospective Chinese cohort. The association was modified by alcohol consumption.
ALDH2; Hypertension; SNP; Chinese
Apelin is a peptide ligand for an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (APJ receptor) and serves as a critical gradient for migration of mesodermal cells fated to contribute to the myocardial lineage. The present study was designed to establish a robust cardiac differentiation protocol, specifically, to evaluate the effect of apelin on directed differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (mESCs and hESCs) into cardiac lineage. Different concentrations of apelin (50, 100, 500 nM) were evaluated to determine its differentiation potential. The optimized dose of apelin was then combined with mesodermal differentiation factors, including BMP-4, activin-A, and bFGF, in a developmentally specific temporal sequence to examine the synergistic effects on cardiac differentiation. Cellular, molecular, and physiologic characteristics of the apelin-induced contractile embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed. It was found that 100 nM apelin resulted in highest percentage of contractile EB for mESCs while 500 nM had the highest effects on hESCs. Functionally, the contractile frequency of mESCs-derived EBs (mEBs) responded appropriately to increasing concentration of isoprenaline and diltiazem. Positive phenotype of cardiac specific markers was confirmed in the apelin-treated groups. The protocol, consisting of apelin and mesodermal differentiation factors, induced contractility in significantly higher percentage of hESC-derived EBs (hEBs), up-regulated cardiac-specific genes and cell surface markers, and increased the contractile force. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the treatment of apelin enhanced cardiac differentiation of mouse and human ESCs and exhibited synergistic effects with mesodermal differentiation factors.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as concomitant disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, central obesity, and high blood pressure, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study tests whether common genetic variants with pleiotropic effects account for some of the correlated architecture among five metabolic phenotypes that define MetS.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Seven studies of the STAMPEED consortium, comprising 22,161 participants of European ancestry, underwent genome-wide association analyses of metabolic traits using a panel of ∼2.5 million imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phenotypes were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria for MetS in pairwise combinations. Individuals exceeding the NCEP thresholds for both traits of a pair were considered affected.
Twenty-nine common variants were associated with MetS or a pair of traits. Variants in the genes LPL, CETP, APOA5 (and its cluster), GCKR (and its cluster), LIPC, TRIB1, LOC100128354/MTNR1B, ABCB11, and LOC100129150 were further tested for their association with individual qualitative and quantitative traits. None of the 16 top SNPs (one per gene) associated simultaneously with more than two individual traits. Of them 11 variants showed nominal associations with MetS per se. The effects of 16 top SNPs on the quantitative traits were relatively small, together explaining from ∼9% of the variance in triglycerides, 5.8% of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 3.6% of fasting glucose, and 1.4% of systolic blood pressure.
Qualitative and quantitative pleiotropic tests on pairs of traits indicate that a small portion of the covariation in these traits can be explained by the reported common genetic variants.
We tested whether genetic factors distinctly contribute to either development of coronary atherosclerosis or, specifically, to myocardial infarction in existing coronary atherosclerosis.
We did two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with coronary angiographic phenotyping in participants of European ancestry. To identify loci that predispose to angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD), we compared individuals who had this disorder (n=12 393) with those who did not (controls, n=7383). To identify loci that predispose to myocardial infarction, we compared patients who had angiographic CAD and myocardial infarction (n=5783) with those who had angiographic CAD but no myocardial infarction (n=3644).
In the comparison of patients with angiographic CAD versus controls, we identified a novel locus, ADAMTS7 (p=4·98×10−13). In the comparison of patients with angiographic CAD who had myocardial infarction versus those with angiographic CAD but no myocardial infarction, we identified a novel association at the ABO locus (p=7·62×10−9). The ABO association was attributable to the glycotransferase-deficient enzyme that encodes the ABO blood group O phenotype previously proposed to protect against myocardial infarction.
Our findings indicate that specific genetic predispositions promote the development of coronary atherosclerosis whereas others lead to myocardial infarction in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. The relation to specific CAD phenotypes might modify how novel loci are applied in personalised risk assessment and used in the development of novel therapies for CAD.
The PennCath and MedStar studies were supported by the Cardiovascular Institute of the University of Pennsylvania, by the MedStar Health Research Institute at Washington Hospital Center and by a research grant from GlaxoSmithKline. The funding and support for the other cohorts contributing to the paper are described in the webappendix.
Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are extracellular lipases that both hydrolyze triglycerides and phospholipids and display potentially overlapping or complementary roles in lipoprotein metabolism.
We sought to dissect the overlapping roles of HL and EL by generating mice deficient in both HL and EL (HL/EL-dko) for comparison with single HL-knockout (ko) and EL-ko mice, as well as wild-type mice.
Methods and Results
Reproduction and viability of the HL/EL-dko mice were impaired compared with the single-knockout mice. The plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non–HDL cholesterol, and phospholipids in the HL/EL-dko mice were markedly higher than those in the single-knockout mice. Most notably, the HL/EL-dko mice exhibited an unexpected substantial increase in small low-density lipoproteins. Kinetic studies with [3H]cholesteryl ether–labeled very-low-density lipoproteins demonstrated that the HL/EL-dko mice accumulated counts in the smallest low-density lipoprotein–sized fractions, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography, suggesting that it arises from lipolysis of very-low-density lipoproteins. HDL from all 3 lipase knockout models had an increased cholesterol efflux capacity but reduced clearance of HDL cholesteryl esters versus control mice. Despite their higher HDL cholesterol levels, neither HL-ko, EL-ko, nor HL/EL-dko mice demonstrated an increased rate of macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo.
These studies reveal an additive effect of HL and EL on HDL metabolism but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice and an unexpected redundant role of HL and EL in apolipoprotein B lipoprotein metabolism.
lipase; lipoprotein; knockout mice; low-density lipoprotein metabolism; reverse cholesterol transport
To investigate apelin–APJ (angiotensin receptor- like 1) signalling in vascular remodelling, we have examined the pathophysiological response to carotid ligation in apelin knockout mice.
Methods and results
Apelin null animals compared with wild-type mice had significantly decreased neointimal lesion area (1.17 ± 0.17 vs. 3.33 ± 1.04 × 104 μm2, P < 0.05) and intima/media ratio (0.81 ± 0.23 vs. 1.49 ± 0.44, P < 0.05), averaged over four sites 0.5–2 mm from the ligation. Exogenous apelin infusion rescued the apelin-KO phenotype, promoting neointima formation in the null animals. Apelin null animals showed decreased smooth muscle positive area in the neointima (82.3 ± 2.4 vs. 63.9 ± 8.4, P < 0.05), and a smaller percentage BrdU positive cells in the neointima and media (11.06 ± 1.00 vs. 6.53 ± 0.86, P < 0.05). Apelin mRNA expression increased initially (5.2-fold, P < 0.01) followed by increased apelin receptor expression (10.1-fold, P < 0.05) in the ligated artery. Cytochemistry studies localized apelin expression to luminal endothelial cells and apelin receptor upregulation to smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the media and neointima. In vitro experiments with cultured rat aortic SMC revealed that apelin stimulation increased migration. In contrast to the increased expression of apelin and apelin receptor in carotid remodelling, expression was not upregulated in the apoE high fat model, and correlated with the known disease-inhibitory effect in this model.
These data suggest that increased apelin receptor expression by SMC provides a paracrine pathway in injured vessels that allows endothelial-derived apelin to stimulate their division and migration into the neointima.
Apelin; APJ; Vascular remodelling; Smooth muscle cell; Migration
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a predictor of cardiovascular events that has been shown to vary with race. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with this racial variation.
We measured Lp-PLA2 mass and activity in 714 healthy older adults with no clinical coronary heart disease and not taking dyslipidemia medication. We evaluated the association between race and Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels after adjustment for various covariates using multivariable linear regression. These covariates included age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, lipid measurements, C-reactive protein, smoking status, physical activity, diet, income, and education level. We further examined genetic covariates that included three single nucleotide polymorphisms shown to be associated with Lp-PLA2 activity levels.
The mean age was 66 years. Whites had the highest Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels, followed by Hispanics and Asians, and then African-Americans; in age and sex adjusted analyses, these differences were significant for each non-White race as compared to Whites (p < 0.0001). For example, African-Americans were predicted to have a 55.0 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 24.7 nmol/ml-min lower activity, compared with Whites, independent of age and sex (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for all covariates, race remained significantly correlated with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels (p < 0.001) with African-Americans having 44.8 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA2 mass and 17.3 nmol/ml-min lower activity compared with Whites (p < 0.0001).
Biological, lifestyle, demographic, and select genetic factors do not appear to explain variations in Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels between Whites and non-Whites, suggesting that Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels may need to be interpreted differently for various races.
The G-protein–coupled receptor APJ and its ligand apelin are highly expressed in the pulmonary vasculature, but their function in this vascular bed is unclear. We hypothesized that disruption of apelin signaling would lead to worsening of the vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH).
Methods and Results
We found that apelin-null mice developed more severe PH compared with wild-type mice when exposed to chronic hypoxia. Microcomputed tomography of the pulmonary arteries demonstrated significant pruning of the microvasculature in the apelin-null mice. Apelin-null mice had a significant reduction of serum nitrate levels. This was secondary to downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which was associated with reduced expression of Kruppel-like factor 2, a known regulator of eNOS expression. In vitro knockdown studies targeting apelin in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells demonstrated decreased eNOS and Kruppel-like factor 2 expression, as well as impaired phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase and eNOS. Moreover, serum apelin levels of patients with PH were significantly lower than those of controls.
These data demonstrate that disruption of apelin signaling can exacerbate PH mediated by decreased activation of AMP-activated kinase and eNOS, and they identify this pathway as a potentially important therapeutic target for treatment of this refractory human disease.
endothelial function; nitric oxide synthase; pulmonary hypertension; AMP-activated kinase; apelin
Aberrant smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity has been implicated in a variety of vascular disorders including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. While the pathways governing this process remain unclear, epigenetic regulation by specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in SMCs. We hypothesized that additional miRNAs might play an important role in determining vascular SMC phenotype. Microarray analysis of miRNAs was performed on human aortic SMCs undergoing phenotypic switching in response to serum withdrawal, and identified 31 significantly regulated entities. We chose the highly conserved candidate miRNA-26a for additional studies. Inhibition of miRNA-26a accelerated SMC differentiation, and also promoted apoptosis, while inhibiting proliferation and migration. Overexpression of miRNA-26a blunted differentiation. As a potential mechanism, we investigated whether miRNA-26a influences TGF-β-pathway signaling. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated enhanced SMAD signaling with miRNA-26a inhibition, and the opposite effect with miRNA-26a overexpression in transfected human cells. Furthermore, inhibition of miRNA-26a increased gene expression of SMAD-1 and SMAD-4, while overexpression inhibited SMAD-1. MicroRNA-26a was also found to be downregulated in two mouse models of AAA formation (2.5- to 3.8-fold decrease, P < 0.02) in which enhanced switching from contractile to synthetic phenotype occurs. In summary, miRNA-26a promotes vascular SMC proliferation while inhibiting cellular differentiation and apoptosis, and alters TGF-β pathway signaling. MicroRNA-26a represents an important new regulator of SMC biology and a potential therapeutic target in AAA disease.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of myocardial infarction (MI) and other forms of coronary artery disease (CAD) have led to the discovery of at least 13 genetic loci. In addition to the effect size, power to detect associations is largely driven by sample size. Therefore, to maximize the chance of finding novel susceptibility loci for CAD and MI, the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication And Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) consortium was formed.
Methods and Results
CARDIoGRAM combines data from all published and several unpublished GWAS in individuals with European ancestry; includes >22 000 cases with CAD, MI, or both and >60 000 controls; and unifies samples from the Atherosclerotic Disease VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology study, CADomics, Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology, deCODE, the German Myocardial Infarction Family Studies I, II, and III, Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Heath Study/AtheroRemo, MedStar, Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium, Ottawa Heart Genomics Study, PennCath, and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Genotyping was carried out on Affymetrix or Illumina platforms followed by imputation of genotypes in most studies. On average, 2.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms were generated per study. The results from each study are combined using meta-analysis. As proof of principle, we meta-analyzed risk variants at 9p21 and found that rs1333049 confers a 29% increase in risk for MI per copy (P=2×10−20).
CARDIoGRAM is poised to contribute to our understanding of the role of common genetic variation on risk for CAD and MI.
coronary artery disease; myocardial infarction; meta-analysis; genetics
Phenotypic alteration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to injury or inflammation is an essential component of vascular disease. Evidence suggests that this process is dependent on epigenetic regulatory processes. P300, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), activates crucial muscle-specific promoters in terminal (non-SMC) myocyte differentiation, and may be essential to SMC modulation as well.
We performed a subanalysis examining transcriptional time-course microarray data obtained using the A404 model of SMC differentiation. Numerous chromatin remodeling genes (up to 62% of such genes on our array platform) showed significant regulation during differentiation. Members of several chromatin-remodeling families demonstrated involvement, including factors instrumental in histone modification, chromatin assembly-disassembly and DNA silencing, suggesting complex, multi-level systemic epigenetic regulation. Further, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, accelerated expression of SMC differentiation markers in this model. Ontology analysis indicated a high degree of p300 involvement in SMC differentiation, with 60.7% of the known p300 interactome showing significant expression changes. Knockdown of p300 expression accelerated SMC differentiation in A404 cells and human SMCs, while inhibition of p300 HAT activity blunted SMC differentiation. The results suggest a central but complex role for p300 in SMC phenotypic modulation.
Our results support the hypothesis that chromatin remodeling is important for SMC phenotypic switching, and detail wide-ranging involvement of several epigenetic modification families. Additionally, the transcriptional coactivator p300 may be partially degraded during SMC differentiation, leaving an activated subpopulation with increased HAT activity and SMC differentiation-gene specificity.
Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor and both apelin and APJ are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to define ontogeny of apelin and APJ in the developing rodent GI tract by measuring expression levels and characterizing abundance and cellular localization at an embryonic stage (E18.5 or E21), two postnatal stages (P4, P16) and in the adult. Apelin and APJ mRNA levels were measured by real time RT-PCR, apelin and APJ-containing cells were identified by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Gastric, duodenal and colonic apelin and APJ mRNA levels were highest at birth and declined postnatally. In the postnatal rat stomach, few apelin peptide-containing cells were identified, the density of gastric apelin-containing cells increased progressively after weaning and into adulthood. A robust APJ immunostaining was observed postnatally in the epithelium, intestinal goblet cells and in smooth muscle cells. In the adult rat, APJ immunostaining in the surface epithelium and goblet cells decreased markedly. During the early postnatal period, in an apelin-deficient mouse, APJ expression and immunostaining in the gut were reduced suggesting that apelin regulates APJ. Together, our data support a role for the apelin-APJ system in regulation of smooth muscle, epithelial and goblet cell function in the GI tract.
expression; immunohistochemistry; localization
Blood lipid levels, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG), are highly heritable traits and major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using individual ancestry estimates at marker locations across the genome, we present a novel quantitative admixture mapping analysis of all three lipid traits in a large sample of African-Americans from the Family Blood Pressure Program. Regression analysis was performed with both total and marker-location-specific European ancestry as explanatory variables, along with demographic covariates. Robust permutation analysis was used to assess statistical significance. Overall European ancestry was significantly correlated with HDL-C (negatively) and TG (positively), but not with LDL-C. We found strong evidence for a novel locus underlying HDL-C on chromosome 8q, which correlated negatively with European ancestry (P = .0014); the same location also showed positive correlation of European ancestry with TG levels. A region on chromosome 14q also showed significant negative correlation between HDL-C levels and European ancestry. On chromosome 15q, a suggestive negative correlation of European ancestry with TG and positive correlation with HDL-C was observed. Results with LDL-C were less significant overall. We also found significant evidence for genome-wide ancestry effects underlying the joint distribution of HDL-C and TG, not fully explained by the locus on chromosome 8. Our results are consistent with a genetic contribution to and may explain the healthier HDL-C and TG profiles found in Blacks versus Whites. The identified regions provide locations for follow-up studies of genetic variants underlying lipid variation in African-Americans and possibly other populations.
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated by de-differentiation of adult somatic cells offer potential solutions for the ethical issues surrounding human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as well as their immunologic rejection after cellular transplantation. However, although hiPSCs have been described as “embryonic stem cell-like”, these cells have a distinct gene expression pattern compared to hESCs, making incomplete reprogramming a potential pitfall. It is unclear to what degree the difference in tissue of origin may contribute to these gene expression differences. To answer these important questions, a careful transcriptional profiling analysis is necessary to investigate the exact reprogramming state of hiPSCs, as well as analysis of the impression, if any, of the tissue of origin on the resulting hiPSCs. In this study, we compare the gene profiles of hiPSCs derived from fetal fibroblasts, neonatal fibroblasts, adipose stem cells, and keratinocytes to their corresponding donor cells and hESCs. Our analysis elucidates the overall degree of reprogramming within each hiPSC line, as well as the “distance” between each hiPSC line and its donor cell. We further identify genes that have a similar mode of regulation in hiPSCs and their corresponding donor cells compared to hESCs, allowing us to specify core sets of donor genes that continue to be expressed in each hiPSC line. We report that residual gene expression of the donor cell type contributes significantly to the differences among hiPSCs and hESCs, and adds to the incompleteness in reprogramming. Specifically, our analysis reveals that fetal fibroblast-derived hiPSCs are closer to hESCs, followed by adipose, neonatal fibroblast, and keratinocyte-derived hiPSCs.
Genome-wide SNP analyses reveal the admixed African genetic ancestry of African Americans.
Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the HGDP, as well as 136 African Americans and 38 European Americans participating in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. To focus on African ancestry, we reduced the data to include only those genotypes in each African American determined statistically to be African in origin.
From cluster analysis, we found that all the African Americans are admixed in their African components of ancestry, with the majority contributions being from West and West-Central Africa, and only modest variation in these African-ancestry proportions among individuals. Furthermore, by principal components analysis, we found little evidence of genetic structure within the African component of ancestry in African Americans.
These results are consistent with historic mating patterns among African Americans that are largely uncorrelated to African ancestral origins, and they cast doubt on the general utility of mtDNA or Y-chromosome markers alone to delineate the full African ancestry of African Americans. Our results also indicate that the genetic architecture of African Americans is distinct from that of Africans, and that the greatest source of potential genetic stratification bias in case-control studies of African Americans derives from the proportion of European ancestry.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) gene have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity and diabetes. We assessed the relationship between 4 PPARG SNPs (C-681G, C-689T, Pro12Ala, and C1431T) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the PRIME (249 cases/494 controls, only men) and ADVANCE (1,076 cases/805 controls, men or women) studies. In PRIME, homozygote individuals for the minor allele of the PPARG C-689T, Pro12Ala, and C1431T SNPs tended to have a higher risk of CHD than homozygote individuals for the frequent allele (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 3.43 [0.96–12.27], P = .058, 3.41 [0.95–12.22], P = .060 and 5.10 [0.99–26.37], P = .050, resp.). No such association could be detected in ADVANCE. Haplotype distributions were similar in cases and control in both studies. A meta-analysis on the Pro12Ala SNP, based on our data and 11 other published association studies (6,898 CHD cases/11,287 controls), revealed that there was no evidence for a significant association under the dominant model (OR = 0.99
[0.92–1.07], P = .82). However, there was a borderline association under the recessive model (OR = 1.29 [0.99–1.67], P = .06) that became significant when considering men only (OR = 1.73 [1.20–2.48], P = .003). In conclusion, the PPARG Ala12Ala genotype might be associated with a higher CHD risk in men but further confirmation studies are needed.
Leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection or inflammation requires multiple adhesive events. While numerous players promoting leukocyte-endothelial interactions have been characterized, functionally important endogenous inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion have not been identified. Here, we describe the endothelial-derived secreted molecule, developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), as an anti-adhesive factor that interferes with the integrin LFA-1-dependent leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Endothelial Del-1-deficiency increased LFA-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. Del-1-/-mice displayed significantly higher neutrophil accumulation in LPS-induced lung inflammation in vivo, which was reversed in Del-1/LFA-1-double deficient mice. Thus, Del-1 is an endogenous inhibitor of inflammatory cell recruitment and could provide a basis for targeting leukocyte-endothelial interactions in disease.
A susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) at chromosome 9p21 has recently been reported, which may influence the age of onset of CAD. We sought to replicate these findings among white subjects and to examine whether these results are consistent with other racial/ethnic groups by genotyping three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the risk interval in the Atherosclerotic Disease, Vascular Function, and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. One or more of these SNPs was associated with clinical CAD in whites, U.S. Hispanics and U.S. East Asians. None of the SNPs were associated with CAD in African Americans although the power to detect an odds ratio (OR) in this group equivalent to that seen in whites was only 24–30%. ORs were higher in Hispanics and East Asians and lower in African Americans, but in all groups the 95% confidence intervals overlapped with ORs observed in whites. High-risk alleles were also associated with increased coronary artery calcification in controls and the magnitude of these associations by racial/ethnic group closely mirrored the magnitude observed for clinical CAD. Unexpectedly, we noted significant genotype frequency differences between male and female cases (P = 0.003–0.05). Consequently, men tended towards a recessive and women tended towards a dominant mode of inheritance. Finally, an effect of genotype on the age of onset of CAD was detected but only in men carrying two versus one or no copy of the high-risk allele and presenting with CAD at age >50 years. Further investigations in other populations are needed to confirm or refute our findings.
Murine genetic models suggest that function of the 12/15 LOX enzyme promotes atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that exonic and/or promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human 12/15-LOX gene (ALOX15) alter the risk of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods & Results
We resequenced ALOX15 and then genotyped a common promoter and a less common novel coding SNP (T560M) in 1809 subjects with CAD and 1734 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. We found no association between the promoter SNP and the risk of CAD. However, heterozygote carriers of the 560M allele had an increased risk of CAD (adjusted OR, 1.62; P=0.02) compared to non-carriers. In vitro studies demonstrated a 20-fold reduction in the catalytic activity of 560M when compared to 560T. We then genotyped T560M in 12974 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and similarly found that heterozygote carriers had an increased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted HR, 1.31; P=0.06). In both population studies, homozygote carriers were rare and associated with a non-significant decreased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted OR, 0.55; P=0.63 and HR, 0.93; P=0.9).
A coding SNP in ALOX15 (T560M) results in a near null variant of human 12/15-LOX. Assuming a co-dominant mode of inheritance, this variant does not protect against CAD. Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, the effect of this mutation remains unclear, but is unlikely to provide a protective effect to the degree suggested by mouse knockout studies.
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase; polymorphism – single nucleotide; coronary disease
Apelin, a novel peptide with significant cardioactive properties, is upregulated by insulin in adipocytes. However, the mechanism by which insulin promotes apelin production is unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor involved in the angiogenic and metabolic responses to tissue hypoxia, has been shown to be activated by insulin in various settings. We therefore hypothesized that HIF-1 regulates insulin-mediated apelin expression in adipocytes. 3T3L1 cells were differentiated into adipocytes in culture. For experiments, serum starved 3T3L1 cells were exposed to insulin and/or a 1% O2 environment. Apelin expression was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. To directly assess the role of HIF-1 in apelin production, we differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) containing a targeted deletion of the HIF-1α gene into adipocytes and measured their response to insulin and hypoxia. Apelin expression in mature 3T3L1 adipocytes was increased significantly by insulin, and was attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of insulin signaling. Exposure of cells to either hypoxia or the chemical HIF activators cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG), resulted in significant upregulation of apelin, consistent with a role for HIF in apelin induction. Moreover, hypoxia-, CoCl2-, DMOG-, and insulin-induced apelin expression were all attenuated in differentiated HIF-1α-deficient MEFs. In summary, in cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes and differentiated MEFs, HIF-1 appears to be involved in hypoxia- and insulin-induced apelin expression.
Apelin; hypoxia inducible factor; adipocyte; insulin; obesity
Signaling by the peptide ligand apelin and its cognate G-protein coupled receptor APJ has a potent inotropic effect on cardiac contractility and modulates systemic vascular resistance through nitric oxide dependent signaling. In addition, there is evidence for counter-regulation of the angiotensin and vasopressin pathways. Regulatory stimuli of the apelin-APJ pathway are of obvious importance, but remain to be elucidated. To better understand the physiological response of apelin-APJ to disease states such as heart failure and elucidate the mechanism by which such a response might occur, we have utilized the murine model of LAD-ligation induced ischemic cardiac failure. To identify the key cells responsible for modulation and production of apelin in vivo, we have created a novel apelin-lacZ reporter mouse. Data from these studies demonstrate apelin and APJ are upregulated in the heart and skeletal muscle following myocardial injury, and suggest that apelin expression remains restricted to the endothelium. In cardiac failure, endothelial apelin expression correlates with other hypoxia-responsive genes, and in healthy animals both apelin and AJP are markedly upregulated in various tissues following systemic hypoxic exposure. Experiments with cultured endothelial cells in vitro show apelin mRNA and protein levels to be increased by hypoxia, through a HIF-mediated pathway. These studies suggest that apelin-expressing endothelial cells respond to conditions associated with heart failure, possibly including local tissue hypoxia, and modulate apelin-APJ expression to regulate cardiovascular homeostasis. The apelin-APJ pathway may thus provide a mechanism for systemic endothelial monitoring of tissue perfusion and adaptive regulation of cardiovascular function.
congestive heart failure; endothelium; gene expression