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1.  Right ventricular myocardial infarction: From pathophysiology to prognosis 
Right ventricle myocardial infarctions (RVMIs) accompany inferior wall ischemia in up to one-half of cases. The clinical sequelae of RVMIs vary from no hemodynamic compromise to severe hypotension and cardiogenic shock. Diagnosis is based on physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography and coronary angiography. Because the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram is insufficient for the assessment of RV involvement, right-sided precordial leads should always be included. Adequate fluid administration in combination with positive inotropic agents and early coronary reperfusion are crucial components of treatment, while diuretics and nitrates should be avoided. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation and right ventricle assist devices may be used with success in RVMIs associated with medically refractory heart failure. Right ventricular involvement appears to be an independent prognostic factor that dramatically increases in-hospital mortality, due, in part, to a significantly higher risk of hemodynamically compromising arrhythmias. Thus, using right-sided precordial leads and early RVMI identification to trigger an appropriately aggressive treatment protocol may improve patients’ prognosis.
PMCID: PMC3716484  PMID: 24294033
Arrhythmias; Revascularization; Right ventricular myocardial infarction; Treatment
2.  The Association Between Levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 with Acute Heart Failure and Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Aims: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) bind to active matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), and thereby inhibit their proteolytic activity. We investigated the role of polymorphisms in the gene for TIMP-1 and serum levels of TIMP-1 in association with postmyocardial infarction (MI), left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and symptoms of acute heart failure (AHF) in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods: In total, 556 patients with STEMI were evaluated. Levels of TIMP-1 were measured at admission and 24 h after MI onset. The TIMP-1 exon 5 SNP rs4898 (F124F with T>C) located at X chromosome was assayed. Results: TIMP-1 levels were higher for men with AHF as well as for men with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF]<40%). According to multivariate analysis, the TIMP-1 level was a factor with an independent negative relationship to EF and AHF in men. An independent relationship between exon 5 TIMP-1 gene polymorphism and EF, AHF or TIMP-1 level was not documented. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that a higher level of circulating TIMP-1 is independently associated with worse EF and AHF.
PMCID: PMC3468114  PMID: 22971139
3.  Pharmaco-mechanic Antithrombotic Strategies to Reperfusion of the Infarct-Related Artery in Patients with ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarctions 
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the best treatment of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). When managing a STEMI patient, our approach must be rapid and aggresive in order to interrupt the pathological process of thrombus formation and stabilization. The therapy must be initiated prior to angiography (pretreatment), continued during the procedure (periprocedural), recovery phase (in-hospital), and follow-up. The treatment strategies resulting in thrombus dissolution/extraction have focused on optimization of both pharmacological and interventional therapies. At present, there is no optimal evidence-based approach to all patients with STEMI, and the treatment of these patients needs to be modified with respect to the risk profile, availability of medical resources, and our experience. In this review, we summarize current pharmacological and interventional strategies used in the setting of STEMI and discuss potential benefits of novel dosing regimens and combinations of drugs and techniques.
PMCID: PMC3650237  PMID: 23408112
Acute myocardial infarction; Thrombectomy; Antiplatelet therapy; STEMI; Thrombus management
4.  Prognostic Utility of Biomarkers in Predicting of One-Year Outcomes in Patients with Aortic Stenosis Treated with Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Implantation 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e48851.
The aim of the work was to find biomarkers identifying patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes after TAVI and SAVR in addition to currently used predictive model (EuroSCORE).
There is limited data about the role of biomarkers in predicting prognosis, especially when TAVI is available.
The multi-biomarker sub-study included 42 consecutive high-risk patients (average age 82.0 years; logistic EuroSCORE 21.0%) allocated to TAVI transfemoral and transapical using the Edwards-Sapien valve (n = 29), or SAVR with the Edwards Perimount bioprosthesis (n = 13). Standardized endpoints were prospectively followed during the 12-month follow-up.
The clinical outcomes after both TAVI and SAVR were comparable. Malondialdehyde served as the best predictor of a combined endpoint at 1 year with AUC (ROC analysis) = 0.872 for TAVI group, resp. 0.765 (p<0.05) for both TAVI and SAVR groups. Increased levels of MDA, matrix metalloproteinase 2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP1), ferritin-reducing ability of plasma, homocysteine, cysteine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were all predictors of the occurrence of combined safety endpoints at 30 days (AUC 0.750–0.948; p<0.05 for all). The addition of MDA to a currently used clinical model (EuroSCORE) significantly improved prediction of a combined safety endpoint at 30 days and a combined endpoint (0–365 days) by the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (p<0.05).
Cystatin C, glutathione, cysteinylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitrite/nitrate and MMP9 did not prove to be significant. Total of 14.3% died during 1-year follow-up.
We identified malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress, as the most promising predictor of adverse outcomes during the 30-day and 1-year follow-up in high-risk patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVI. The development of a clinical “TAVIscore” would be highly appreciated. Such dedicated scoring system would enable further testing of adjunctive value of various biomarkers.
PMCID: PMC3522688  PMID: 23272045
5.  Comparison of outcomes in ST-segment depression and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated with emergency PCI: data from a multicentre registry 
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa  2012;23(9):495-500.
Traditionally, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been described as either STEMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction) or non-STEMI myocardial infarction. This classification is historically related to the use of thrombolytic therapy, which is effective in STEMI. The current era of widespread use of coronary angiography (CAG), usually followed by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) puts this classification system into question.
To compare the outcomes of patients with STEMI and ST-depression myocardial infarction (STDMI) who were treated with emergency PCI.
This multicentre registry enrolled a total of 6 602 consecutive patients with AMI. Patients were divided into the following subgroups: STEMI (n = 3446), STDMI (n = 907), left bundle branch block (LBBB) AMI (n = 241), right bundle branch block (RBBB) AMI (n = 338) and other electrocardiographic (ECG) AMI (n = 1670). Baseline and angiographic characteristics were studied, and revascularisation therapies and in-hospital mortality were analysed.
Acute heart failure was present in 29.5% of the STDMI vs 27.4% of the STEMI patients (p < 0.001). STDMI patients had more extensive coronary atherosclerosis than patients with STEMI (three-vessel disease: 53.1 vs 30%, p < 0.001). The left main coronary artery was an infract-related artery (IRA) in 6.0% of STDMI vs 1.1% of STEMI patients (p < 0.001). TIMI flow 0–1 was found in 35.0% of STDMI vs 66.0% of STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Primary PCI was performed in 88.1% of STEMI (with a success rate of 90.8%) vs 61.8% of STDMI patients (with a success rate of 94.5%) (p = 0.012 for PCI success rates). In-hospital mortality was not significantly different (STDMI 6.3 vs STEMI 5.4%, p = 0.330).
These data suggest that similar strategies (emergency CAG with PCI whenever feasible) should be applied to both these types of AMI.
PMCID: PMC3721943  PMID: 23108517
coronary artery disease; acute myocardial infarction; primary PCI
6.  Age – related treatment strategy and long-term outcome in acute myocardial infarction patients in the PCI era 
Older age, as a factor we cannot affect, is consistently one of the main negative prognostic values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. One of the most powerful factors that improves outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes is the revascularization preferably performed by percutaneous coronary intervention. No data is currently available for the role of age in large groups of consecutive patients with PCI as the nearly sole method of revascularization in AMI patients. The aim of this study was to analyze age-related differences in treatment strategies, results of PCI procedures and both in-hospital and long-term outcomes of consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Retrospective multicenter analysis of 3814 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients divided into two groups according to age (1800 patients ≤ 65 years and 2014 patients > 65 years). Significantly more older patients had a history of diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarctions.
The older population had a significantly lower rate of coronary angiographies (1726; 95.9% vs. 1860; 92.4%, p < 0.0001), PCI (1541; 85.6% vs. 1505; 74.7%, p < 0.001), achievement of optimal final TIMI flow 3 (1434; 79.7% vs. 1343; 66.7%, p < 0.001) and higher rate of unsuccessful reperfusion with final TIMI flow 0-1 (46; 2.6% vs. 78; 3.9%, p = 0.022). A total of 217 patients (5.7%) died during hospitalization, significantly more often in the older population (46; 2.6% vs. 171; 8.5%, p < 0.001). The long-term mortality (data for 2847 patients from 2 centers) was higher in the older population as well (5 years survival: 86.1% vs. 59.8%). Though not significantly different and in contrast with PCI, the presence of diabetes mellitus, previous MI, final TIMI flow and LAD, as the infarct-related artery, had relatively lower impact on the older patients. Severe heart failure on admission (Killip III-IV) was associated with the worst prognosis in the whole group of patients, though its significance was higher in the youngers (HR 6.04 vs. 3.14, p = 0.051 for Killip III and 12.24 vs. 5.65, p = 0.030 for Killip IV). We clearly demonstrated age as a strong discriminator for the whole population of AMI patients.
In a consecutive AMI population, the older group (>65 years) was associated with a less pronounced impact of risk factors on long-term outcome. To ascertain the coronary anatomy by coronary angiography and proceed to PCI if suitable regardless of age is crucial in all patients, though the primary success rate of PCI in the older age is lower. Age, when viewed as a risk factor, was a dominant discriminating factor in all patients.
PMCID: PMC3407529  PMID: 22533539
7.  Primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction with right bundle branch block: should new onset right bundle branch block be added to future guidelines as an indication for reperfusion therapy? 
European Heart Journal  2011;33(1):86-95.
The current guidelines recommend reperfusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with ST-segment elevation or left bundle branch block (LBBB). Surprisingly, the right bundle branch block (RBBB) is not listed as an indication for reperfusion therapy. This study analysed patients with AMI presenting with RBBB [with or without left anterior hemiblock (LAH) or left posterior hemiblock (LPH)] and compared them with those presenting with LBBB or with other electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns. The aim was to describe angiographic patterns and primary angioplasty use in AMI patients with RBBB.
Methods and results
A cohort of 6742 patients with AMI admitted to eight participating hospitals was analysed. Baseline clinical characteristics, ECG patterns, coronary angiographic, and echocardiographic data were correlated with the reperfusion therapies used and with in-hospital outcomes. Right bundle branch block was present in 6.3% of AMI patients: 2.8% had RBBB alone, 3.2% had RBBB + LAH, and 0.3% had RBBB + LPH. TIMI flow 0 in the infarct-related artery was present in 51.7% of RBBB patients vs. 39.4% of LBBB patients (P = 0.023). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed in 80.1% of RBBB patients vs. 68.3% of LBBB patients (P< 0.001). In-hospital mortality of RBBB patients was similar to LBBB (14.3 vs. 13.1%, P = 0.661). Patients with new or presumably new blocks had the highest (LBBB 15.8% and RBBB 15.4%) incidence of cardiogenic shock from all ECG subgroups. Percutaneous coronary intervention was done more frequently (84.8%) in patients with new or presumably new RBBB when compared with other patients with blocks (old RBBB 66.0%, old LBBB 62.3%, new or presumably new LBBB 73.0%). In-hospital mortality was highest (18.8%) among patients presenting with new or presumably new RBBB, followed by new or presumably new LBBB (13.2%), old LBBB (10.1%), and old RBBB (6.4%). Among 35 patients with acute left main coronary artery occlusion, 26% presented with RBBB (mostly with LAH) on the admission ECG.
Acute myocardial infarction with RBBB is frequently caused by the complete occlusion of the infarct-related artery and is more frequently treated with primary PCI when compared with AMI + LBBB. In-hospital mortality of patients with AMI and RBBB is highest from all ECG presentations of AMI. Restoration of coronary flow by primary PCI may lead to resolution of the conduction delay on the discharge ECG. Right bundle branch block should strongly be considered for listing in future guidelines as a standard indication for reperfusion therapy, in the same way as LBBB.
PMCID: PMC3249219  PMID: 21890488
Acute myocardial infarction; Right bundle branch block; Left bundle branch block; Primary angioplasty; Reperfusion
8.  RUBY-1: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and tolerability of the novel oral factor Xa inhibitor darexaban (YM150) following acute coronary syndrome 
European Heart Journal  2011;32(20):2541-2554.
To establish the safety, tolerability and most promising regimen of darexaban (YM150), a novel, oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, for prevention of ischaemic events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
In a 26-week, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study, 1279 patients with recent high-risk non-ST-segment or ST-segment elevation ACS received one of six darexaban regimens: 5 mg b.i.d., 10 mg o.d., 15 mg b.i.d., 30 mg o.d., 30 mg b.i.d., or 60 mg o.d. or placebo, on top of dual antiplatelet treatment. Primary outcome was incidence of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events. The main efficacy outcome was a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic thromboembolism, and severe recurrent ischaemia.
Bleeding rates were numerically higher in all darexaban arms vs. placebo (pooled HR: 2.275; 95% CI: 1.13–4.60, P = 0.022). Using placebo as reference (bleeding rate 3.1%), there was a dose–response relationship (P = 0.009) for increased bleeding with increasing darexaban dose (6.2, 6.5, and 9.3% for 10, 30, and 60 mg daily, respectively), which was statistically significant for 30 mg b.i.d. (P = 0.002). There was no decrease (indeed a numerical increase in the 30 and 60 mg dose arms) in efficacy event rates with darexaban, but the study was underpowered for efficacy. Darexaban showed good tolerability without signs of liver toxicity.
Darexaban when added to dual antiplatelet therapy after ACS produces an expected dose-related two- to four-fold increase in bleeding, with no other safety concerns but no signal of efficacy. Establishing the potential of low-dose darexaban in preventing major cardiac events after ACS requires a large phase III trial. Identifier: NCT00994292
PMCID: PMC3295208  PMID: 21878434
Anticoagulant; Acute coronary syndrome; Secondary prevention; Darexaban
9.  ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism has a mild influence on the acute development of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary PCI 
We evaluated the associations among angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, ACE activity and post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular dysfunction and acute heart failure (AHF) early after presentation with MI with ST-segment elevation (STEMI).
A total of 556 patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI (421 patients without AHF and 135 patients with AHF) were the study population. The activity of BNP, NT-ProBNP and ACE were measured at hospital admission and 24 h after MI onset. Left ventricular angiography was done before PCI; echocardiography was undertaken between the third and fifth day after MI.
In comparison with the II genotypes group, the DD/ID group had a higher level of ACE activity upon hospital admission (p < 0.001). We found a significantly higher level of ACE activity in patients with moderate LV dysfunction (EF 40-54%) in comparison both with patients with preserved LV function (EF ≥55%) and with patients with severe LV dysfunction (p = 0.028). A non-significant trend towards a higher incidence of mild AHF (22.1% vs. 16.02%, p = 0,093), a significantly higher value of end-systolic volume (ESV/BSA) (30.0 ± 12.3 vs. 28.5 ± 13.0; p < 0.05) and lower EF (50.2 ± 11.1 vs. 52.7 ± 11.7; p < 0.05) in the DD/ID genotypes group was noted. Even after multiple adjustments according to multivariate models, the EF for the DD/ID group remained significantly lower (p = 0,033). The DD/ID genotypes were associated with a significantly higher risk of EF <45% (OR 2.04 [95% CI 1.28; 3.25]).
These results suggest that the I/D polymorphism of ACE is associated with the development of LV dysfunction in the acute phase after STEMI. We demonstrated for the first time an association of the low ACE activity with the severe LV dysfunction, although patients with moderate LV dysfunction had higher level ACE activity than patients with preserved LV function.
PMCID: PMC3022786  PMID: 21162760
10.  Reperfusion therapy for ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in Europe: description of the current situation in 30 countries 
European Heart Journal  2009;31(8):943-957.
Patient access to reperfusion therapy and the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) or thrombolysis (TL) varies considerably between European countries. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic contemporary picture of how patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are treated in different European countries.
Methods and results
The chairpersons of the national working groups/societies of interventional cardiology in European countries and selected experts known to be involved in the national registries joined the writing group upon invitation. Data were collected about the country and any existing national STEMI or PCI registries, about STEMI epidemiology, and treatment in each given country and about PCI and p-PCI centres and procedures in each country. Results from the national and/or regional registries in 30 countries were included in this analysis. The annual incidence of hospital admission for any acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varied between 90–312/100 thousand/year, the incidence of STEMI alone ranging from 44 to 142. Primary PCI was the dominant reperfusion strategy in 16 countries and TL in 8 countries. The use of a p-PCI strategy varied between 5 and 92% (of all STEMI patients) and the use of TL between 0 and 55%. Any reperfusion treatment (p-PCI or TL) was used in 37–93% of STEMI patients. Significantly less reperfusion therapy was used in those countries where TL was the dominant strategy. The number of p-PCI procedures per million per year varied among countries between 20 and 970. The mean population served by a single p-PCI centre varied between 0.3 and 7.4 million inhabitants. In those countries offering p-PCI services to the majority of their STEMI patients, this population varied between 0.3 and 1.1 million per centre. In-hospital mortality of all consecutive STEMI patients varied between 4.2 and 13.5%, for patients treated by TL between 3.5 and 14% and for patients treated by p-PCI between 2.7 and 8%. The time reported from symptom onset to the first medical contact (FMC) varied between 60 and 210 min, FMC-needle time for TL between 30 and 110 min, and FMC-balloon time for p-PCI between 60 and 177 min.
Most North, West, and Central European countries used p-PCI for the majority of their STEMI patients. The lack of organized p-PCI networks was associated with fewer patients overall receiving some form of reperfusion therapy.
PMCID: PMC2854523  PMID: 19933242
Acute myocardial infarction; Reperfusion therapy; Thrombolysis; Primary angioplasty; Europe; Mortality; Incidence
11.  Clopidogrel pre-treatment in stable angina: for all patients >6 h before elective coronary angiography or only for angiographically selected patients a few minutes before PCI? A randomized multicentre trial PRAGUE-8 
European Heart Journal  2008;29(12):1495-1503.
To compare two different clopidogrel regimens on the outcomes of patients undergoing elective coronary angiography (CAG)±ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods and results
Open-trial randomized 1028 patients with stable angina to group A (‘non-selective’—clopidogrel 600 mg >6 h before CAG; n = 513) or group B (‘selective’—clopidogrel 600 mg in the cath-lab after CAG, only in case of PCI; n = 515). Combined primary endpoint was death/periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke/re-intervention within 7 days. Secondary endpoints were troponin elevation and bleeding complications. Primary endpoint occurred in 0.8% group A patients vs. 1% group B (P = 0.749; 90% CI for the percentage difference −1.2–0.8). Periprocedural troponin elevation (>3× ULN) was detected in 2.6% group A vs. 3.3% group B (P = 0.475; 90% CI −2.5–1.0). Bleeding complications occurred in 3.5% group A patients vs. 1.4% group B (P = 0.025). After adjustment for covariates and factors that may influence the bleeding risk, patients in group A were shown to have more likely bleeding complications when compared with group B (OR = 3.03; 95% CI 1.14–8.10; P = 0.027).
High (600 mg) loading dose of clopidogrel before elective CAG increased the risk of minor bleeding complications, while the benefit on periprocedural infarction was not significant. Clopidogrel can be given safely in the catheterization laboratory between CAG and PCI in chronic stable angina patients.
PMCID: PMC2429977  PMID: 18441320
Elective percutaneous coronary intervention; Clopidogrel pre-treatment; Stable coronary artery disease; Bleeding complications; Periprocedural ischaemic complications

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