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1.  Correlation between Serum Levels of High Mobility Group Box-1 Protein and Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:430185.
Background. Aberrant expression of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) contributes to the progression of various inflammatory diseases. This meta-analysis focused on the clinical significance of serum HMGB1 levels in pancreatitis patients, with the goal of building a novel diagnostic score model. Method. We conducted a meta-analysis by searching in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases without any language restrictions. Studies were pooled and standard mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Version 12.0 STATA software was used for statistical analysis. Results. We performed a final analysis of 841 subjects from 12 clinical case-control studies. The meta-analysis results showed a positive association between serum HMGB1 levels and the progression of pancreatitis. In the subgroup analysis by country, high serum level of HMGB1 may be related to pancreatitis progression in China, Korea, Hungary, and Japan populations (all P < 0.05). Conclusion. The present meta-analysis indicated that serum HMGB1 level was statistically elevated in patients with pancreatitis, and thus serum levels of HMGB1 could be determined to be a useful biomarker for pancreatitis patients.
doi:10.1155/2015/430185
PMCID: PMC4324490
2.  Salinomycin inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and migration through JNK/JunD pathway-mediated MMP9 expression 
Oncology Reports  2014;33(3):1057-1063.
The antibiotic salinomycin (Salin) was recently identified as an antitumor drug for the treatment of several types of solid tumors. However, the effects of Salin on the migratory and invasive properties of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are unclear. The present study aimed to determine the antitumor efficacy and mechanism of Salin in HCC cells. Human HCC cells (HCCLM3) treated with Salin showed a concentration-dependent reduction in cell migration and invasion, and this was associated with reduced MMP9 expression. The MMP9 promoter and enhancer in a luciferase reporter assay revealed that Salin can regulate MMP9 expression through an activator protein (AP-1) site within the MMP9 enhancer. JunD, one of the AP-1 components, was significantly decreased by Salin in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Salin was able to induce c-Jun NH2-kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and to block both JunD and MMP9 expression. Our results showed that JNK phosphorylation and JunD may be involved in the Salin-regulated MMP9 signaling pathway in HCCLM3 cells and may mediate HCC cell biological characteristics. Our studies provide new insight into the antitumor effects of Salin.
doi:10.3892/or.2014.3680
PMCID: PMC4324482  PMID: 25522777
salinomycin; hepatocellular carcinoma; invasion; migration
3.  Preventive effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice 
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Lee (LF-Lee) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered lactic acid bacteria for nine days. Body weight, dietary and water intake, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation time, as well as levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were measured to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Lee on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was administered as a positive control. The time taken until the first defecation of a black stool for normal, control, bisacodyl- (100 mg/kg, oral administration), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB)-, LF-Lee low dose (L)- and LF-Lee high dose (H)-treated mice was 90, 218, 117, 180, 161 and 151 min, respectively. Following the consumption of LB, LF-Lee (L) or LF-Lee (H), or the oral administration of bisacodyl, the GI transit was reduced to 55.2, 65.8, 73.1 and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and those of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Lee compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria have preventive effects on constipation in mice and that LF-Lee has superior functional activity.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.2064
PMCID: PMC4247307  PMID: 25452815
Lactobacillus fermentum Lee; activated carbon; constipation; bisacodyl; gastrointestinal transit
4.  Effects of the Inflammatory Cytokines TNF-α and IL-13 on Stromal Interaction Molecule–1 Aggregation in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Intracellular Ca2+ Regulation 
Inflammation elevates intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) concentrations in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is an important source of [Ca2+]i mediated by stromal interaction molecule–1 (STIM1), a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein. In transducing SR Ca2+ depletion, STIM1 aggregates to form puncta, thereby activating SOCE via interactions with a Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel protein (Orai1) in the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that STIM1 aggregation is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines, thereby augmenting SOCE in human ASM cells. We used real-time fluorescence microscopic imaging to assess the dynamics of STIM1 aggregation and SOCE after exposure to TNF-α or IL-13 in ASM cells overexpressing yellow fluorescent protein–tagged wild-type STIM1 (WT-STIM1) and STIM1 mutants lacking the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand (STIM1-D76A), or lacking the cytoplasmic membrane binding site (STIM1ΔK). STIM1 aggregation was analyzed by monitoring puncta size during the SR Ca2+ depletion induced by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). We found that puncta size was increased in cells expressing WT-STIM1 after CPA. However, STIM1-D76A constitutively formed puncta, whereas STIM1ΔK failed to form puncta. Furthermore, cytokines increased basal WT-STIM1 puncta size, and the SOCE triggered by SR Ca2+ depletion was increased in cells expressing WT-STIM1 or STIM1-D76A. Meanwhile, SOCE in cells expressing STIM1ΔK and STIM1 short, interfering RNA (siRNA) was decreased. Similarly, in cells overexpressing STIM1, the siRNA knockdown of Orai1 blunted SOCE. However, exposure to cytokines increased SOCE in all cells, increased basal [Ca2+]i, and decreased SR Ca2+ content. These data suggest that cytokines induce a constitutive increase in STIM1 aggregation that contributes to enhanced SOCE in human ASM after inflammation. Such effects of inflammation on STIM1 aggregations may contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2013-0040OC
PMCID: PMC3824046  PMID: 23713409
airway smooth muscle; asthma; inflammation; SOCE; STIM1
6.  Neddylation pathway is up-regulated in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and serves as a potential therapeutic target 
Oncotarget  2014;5(17):7820-7832.
Therapeutic intervention in neddylation pathway is an emerging area for cancer treatment. Herein, we evaluated the clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Immunohistochemistry of neddylation pathway components in a cohort of 322 cases showed that E1 (NAE1 and UBA3) and E2 (UBC12) enzymes, as well as global NEDD8 conjugation, were upregulated in over 2/3 of human ICC. Notably, NAE1 was identified as an independent prognosticator for postoperative recurrence (P=0.009) and a combination of NEDD8 and NAE1 provided a better power for predicting patient clinical outcomes. In vitro treatment with MLN4924, a small-molecule NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, led to a dose-dependent decrease of viability in both established and primary cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Additionally, MLN4924 exhibited at least additive effect when combined with cisplatin. By blocking cullins neddylation, MLN4924 inactivated Cullin-Ring ligase (CRL) and caused the accumulation of CRL substrates that triggered cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Meanwhile, MLN4924 was well-tolerated and significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model of cholangiocarcinoma. Taken together, our findings indicated that upregulated neddylation pathway was involved in ICC progression and interference in this pathway could be a promising target for ICC therapy.
PMCID: PMC4202163  PMID: 25229838
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Neddylation; NEDD8; MLN4924; Cullin-Ring ligase
7.  HBV and HCV Coinfection Associated with Warm-Type Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report 
Turkish Journal of Hematology  2014;31(3):328-331.
doi:10.4274/tjh.2012.0198
PMCID: PMC4287044  PMID: 25330536
HBV; HCV; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
8.  Isolation, Identification, and Pathogenicity of Neospora caninum China Yanbian strain 
Iranian Journal of Parasitology  2014;9(3):394-401.
Background
The aim of the study was to provide a point of reference to study the Neospora caninum infections in China.
Methods
Genome DNA was extracted from the brains of aborted fetuses and specific PCR was performed with N. caninum Nc5-targeted specific primers. Fetal bovine brain tissues were homogenized and continuously cultured in Vero cells with double antibodies. The medium was replaced at 2-d intervals and the state of cells was observed.
Results
A 608 bp Nc5 gene band was detected by PCR amplification. After sequencing, the sequence of the sample shared 99.5% homology with GenBank (AF061249). Brain homogenates were continuously cultured in Vero cells for 34 d and N. caninum was found. The results of IFAT and Nc5 gene-based PCR detection were N. caninum-positive, and the parasite was tentatively named N. caninum China Yanbian strain. BABL/c mice were inoculated with the separated parasites and showed clinical symptoms of ataxia and limb paralysis after 12 d. Only 3 mice survived. The blood of dying mice and the hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, kidneys, and brains of dead mice were collected aseptically. The Nc5 gene-based PCR showed that N. caninum may exist in brains, livers, and spleen. Based on immunohistochemical observations, we showed that N. caninum tachyzoites existed in the brains and livers.
Conclusion
We have successfully isolated bovine-specific N. caninum strain from brain tissues of aborted cattle in the China Yanbian region. This isolated strain has a strong infectious ability towards BABL/c mice.
PMCID: PMC4316571
Neospora caninum; Bovine; China; Isolation
9.  Role of WNT7B-induced Noncanonical Pathway in Advanced Prostate Cancer 
Molecular cancer research : MCR  2013;11(5):482-493.
Advanced prostate cancer is characterized by incurable castration-resistant progression and osteoblastic bone metastasis. While androgen deprivation therapy remains the primary treatment for advanced prostate cancer, resistance inevitably develops. Importantly, mounting evidence indicates that androgen receptor (AR) signaling continues to play a critical role in the growth of advanced prostate cancer despite androgen deprivation. While the mechanisms of aberrant AR activation in advanced prostate cancer have been extensively studied, the downstream AR target genes involved in the progression of castration resistance are largely unknown. Here, we identify WNT7B as a direct AR target gene highly expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells. Our results show that expression of WNT7B is necessary for the growth of prostate cancer cells and that this effect is enhanced under androgen-deprived conditions. Further analyses reveal that WNT7B promotes androgen-independent growth of CRPC cells likely through the activation of protein kinase C isozymes. Our results also show that prostate cancer-produced WNT7B induces osteoblast differentiation in vitro through a direct cell–cell interaction, and that WNT7B is upregulated in human prostate cancer xenografts that cause an osteoblastic reaction when grown in bone. Taken together, these results suggest that AR-regulated WNT7B signaling is critical for the growth of CRPC and development of the osteoblastic bone response characteristic of advanced prostate cancer.
doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-12-0520
PMCID: PMC4141540  PMID: 23386686
10.  Effect of human interferon-λ1 recombinant adenovirus on a gastric cancer orthotopic transplantation model 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of human interferon-λ1 recombinant adenovirus (r-Ad-hIFN-λ1) on gastric carcinoma. Human SGC-7901 cells were utilized to create an orthotopic implantation model of gastric cancer in nude mice through sterile surgery. The mice were randomly divided into three groups: Phosphate-buffered saline control (blank), adenovirus encoding bacterial β-galactosidase (Ad-Lac Z) empty vector and r-Ad-hIFN-λ1. Tumor size was measured every seven days. After three weeks of treatment, the tumors in the mice were detected by abdominal B ultrasound. The cDNA of IFN-λ1 expression in skeletal muscle was detected by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and IFN-λ1 protein expression in the tumors was detected by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were conducted to analyze the proportion of natural killer (NK) cells in the spleen and the rate of cell apoptosis in tumor paraffin sections. Prior to sacrifice, the size of the tumors in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1, Ad-Lac Z and blank groups was 184.29±10.84 mm3, 234.62±10.59 mm3 and 253.18±7.69 mm3, respectively (P<0.001). The lymph node metastasis in the abdominal cavity was 0% in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1 group, 50% in the Ad-Lac Z group and 80% in the blank group (P<0.005). Furthermore, IFN-λ1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1 group, and the apoptosis rate in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1 group was higher than that in the Ad-Lac Z and blank groups. The proportion of NK cells in the spleens of nude mice in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1, Ad-Lac Z and blank groups was 26.53±1.54, 17.70±1.09 and 16.35±1.43%, respectively (P<0.001). The TUNEL results showed there was significantly more severe apoptosis in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1 group than that in the two other groups. The apoptosis indices in the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1, Ad-Lac Z and blank groups were 0.772±0.075, 0.329±0.169 and 0.265±0.049, respectively. In conclusion, the r-Ad-hIFN-λ1 significantly inhibited human gastric cancer, possibly by promoting apoptosis of the tumors and stimulating immunological function.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1896
PMCID: PMC4151633  PMID: 25187807
human interferon-λ1 recombinant adenovirus; gastric cancer; orthotopic transplantation; apoptosis
11.  Performance comparison of SNP detection tools with illumina exome sequencing data—an assessment using both family pedigree information and sample-matched SNP array data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(12):e101.
To apply exome-seq-derived variants in the clinical setting, there is an urgent need to identify the best variant caller(s) from a large collection of available options. We have used an Illumina exome-seq dataset as a benchmark, with two validation scenarios—family pedigree information and SNP array data for the same samples, permitting global high-throughput cross-validation, to evaluate the quality of SNP calls derived from several popular variant discovery tools from both the open-source and commercial communities using a set of designated quality metrics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale performance comparison of exome-seq variant discovery tools using high-throughput validation with both Mendelian inheritance checking and SNP array data, which allows us to gain insights into the accuracy of SNP calling through such high-throughput validation in an unprecedented way, whereas the previously reported comparison studies have only assessed concordance of these tools without directly assessing the quality of the derived SNPs. More importantly, the main purpose of our study was to establish a reusable procedure that applies high-throughput validation to compare the quality of SNP discovery tools with a focus on exome-seq, which can be used to compare any forthcoming tool(s) of interest.
doi:10.1093/nar/gku392
PMCID: PMC4081058  PMID: 24831545
12.  Thrombospondin-1 and Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Enhance Responsiveness of KM12 Colon Tumor to Metronomic Cyclophosphamide but have Disparate Effects on Tumor Metastasis 
Cancer letters  2012;330(2):241-249.
The anti-tumor activity, metronomic chemotherapy sensitization potential and metastatic effects of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors thrombospondin-1 and PEDF were investigated in KM12 colon adenocarcinoma xenografts. Thrombospondin-1 and PEDF decreased KM12 tumor microvessel density, increased macrophage infiltration, and improved responsiveness to metronomic-cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment, but did not activate the anti-tumor innate immunity stimulated by metronomic-CPA in other tumor models. Moreover, thrombospondin-1, but not PEDF, significantly increased KM12 metastasis to the lung, while PEDF augmented the anti-metastatic activity of metronomic-CPA. Thus, while thrombospondin-1 and PEDF both increase the KM12 tumor responsiveness to metronomic-CPA, they have disparate effects on tumor metastasis.
doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.11.055
PMCID: PMC3563872  PMID: 23228633
thrombospondin-1; pigment epithelial derived factor; angiogenesis; metronomic chemotherapy; innate anti-tumor immunity
13.  The Role of Alpha-1 and Alpha-2 Adrenoceptors in Restraint Stress-Induced Liver Injury in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92125.
Acute stress affects cellular integrity in many tissues including the liver, but its underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential involvement of catecholamines and adrenoceptors in the regulation of acute restraint stress-induced liver injury. Restraint was achieved by placing mice in restraint tubes. Mice were treated with either an α-l antagonist, prazosin, an α-2 antagonist, yohimbine, a β-l antagonist, betaxolol, a β-2 antagonist, ICI 118551, or a central and peripheral catecholamine depleting agent, reserpine, and followed by restraint stress. Assessment of liver injury (serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , hepatic total GSH, GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratio) , histopathology and of apoptosis, by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay and western blotting, was performed. Three hours of restraint stress resulted in liver injury, as indexed by elevated serum transaminase levels, decreased hepatic total GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased hepatic GSSG levels as well as enhanced hepatocytes apoptosis. Either reserpine or prazosin or yohimbine was found to attenuate liver injury. Furthermore, prazosin and yohimbine protected against restraint-induced hepatocytes apoptosis through attenuating the activation of caspases-9 and -3 and reducing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that α-1 and α-2 adrenoceptors mediate restraint-induced liver oxidative injury through caspase-9 and Bcl-2 family of apoptotic regulatory proteins.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092125
PMCID: PMC3969348  PMID: 24682087
14.  Raf-1, Actin Dynamics, and Abelson Tyrosine Kinase in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells 
Raf-1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that has an essential role in cell proliferation. The mechanisms that regulate Raf-1 in airway smooth muscle are not well understood. In this study, treatment with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induced spatial redistribution of Raf-1 from the cytoplasm to the periphery of human airway smooth muscle cells. Moreover, a pool of Raf-1 was found in F-actin of human airway smooth muscle cells. Activation with PDGF led to an increase in the association of Raf-1 with cytoskeletal actin. Treatment of cells with the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin A (LAT-A), but not the microtubule depolymerizer nocodazole, inhibited the interaction of Raf-1 with actin in response to PDGF activation. Because abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) is known to specifically regulate actin dynamics in smooth muscle, the role of Abl in modulating the coupling of Raf-1 with actin was also evaluated. Abl knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the association of Raf-1 with actin, which is recovered by Abl rescue. Treatment with LAT-A, but not nocodazole, inhibited the spatial redistribution of Raf-1 during PDGF activation. However, treatment with both LAT-A and nocodazole attenuated smooth muscle cell proliferation. Finally, Abl knockdown attenuated the redistribution of Raf-1 and cell proliferation, which were restored by Abl reexpression. The results suggest a novel mechanism that the interaction of Raf-1 with cytoskeletal actin is critical for Raf-1 redistribution and airway smooth muscle cell proliferation during activation with the growth factor.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0315OC
PMCID: PMC3604063  PMID: 23087049
Raf-1; actin polymerization; tyrosine kinase; smooth muscle; cell proliferation
15.  Inhibition of the K+ Channel KCa3.1 Reduces TGF-β1-Induced Premature Senescence, Myofibroblast Phenotype Transition and Proliferation of Mesangial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87410.
Objective
KCa3.1 channel participates in many important cellular functions. This study planned to investigate the potential involvement of KCa3.1 channel in premature senescence, myofibroblast phenotype transition and proliferation of mesangial cells.
Methods & Materials
Rat mesangial cells were cultured together with TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) and TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) + TRAM-34 (16 nM) separately for specified times from 0 min to 60 min. The cells without treatment served as controls. The location of KCa3.1 channels in mesangial cells was determined with Confocal laser microscope, the cell cycle of mesangial cells was assessed with flow cytometry, the protein and mRNA expression of KCa3.1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) were detected with Western blot and RT-PCR. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls-q test (SNK-q) were used to do statistical analysis. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05.
Results
Kca3.1 channels were located in the cell membranes and/or in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. The percentage of cells in G0-G1 phase and the expression of Kca3.1, α-SMA and FSP-1 were elevated under the induction of TGF-β1 when compared to the control and decreased under the induction of TGF-β1+TRAM-34 when compared to the TGF-β1 induced (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
Conclusion
Targeted disruption of KCa3.1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced premature aging, myofibroblast-like phenotype transdifferentiation and proliferation of mesangial cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087410
PMCID: PMC3905019  PMID: 24489911
16.  Reversal Effect of ST6GAL 1 on Multidrug Resistance in Human Leukemia by Regulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway and the Expression of P-gp and MRP1 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85113.
β-galactoside α2, 6-sialyltransferse gene (ST6GAL) family has two members, which encode corresponding enzymes ST6Gal I and ST6Gal II. The present atudy was to investigate whether and how ST6GAL family involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in human leukemia cell lines and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) of leukemia patients. Real-time PCR showed a high expression level of ST6GAL1 gene in both MDR cells and BMMCs (*P<0.05). Alternation of ST6GAL1 levels had a significant impact on drug-resistant phenotype changing of K562 and K562/ADR cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, no significant changes were observed of ST6GAL2 gene. Further data revealed that manipulation of ST6GAL1 modulated the activity of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and consequently regulated the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, *P<0.05) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1, *P<0.05), which are both known to be associated with MDR. Therefore we postulate that ST6GAL1 is responsible for the development of MDR in human leukemia cells probably through medicating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling and the expression of P-gp and MRP1.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085113
PMCID: PMC3894187  PMID: 24454800
17.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nemonoxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an In Vitro Infection Model 
The aim of this paper was to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of nemonoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro. A modified infection model was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin following scaling of single oral doses and multiple oral dosing. Four S. pneumoniae strains with different penicillin sensitivities were selected, and the drug efficacy was quantified by the change in log colony counts within 24 h. A sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) model was used to analyze the relationship between PK/PD parameters and drug effect. Analysis indicated that the killing pattern of nemonoxacin shows a dualism which is mainly concentration dependent when the MIC is low and that the better PK/PD index should be the area under the concentration-time curve for the free, unbound fraction of the drug divided by the MIC (fAUC0–24/MIC), which means that giving the total daily amount of drug as one dose is appropriate under those conditions. When the MIC is high, the time (T) dependency is important and the valid PK/PD index should be the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period in which the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (f%T>MIC), which means that to split the maximum daily dose into several separate doses will benefit the eradication of the bacteria. To obtain a 3-log10-unit decrease, the target values of fAUC0–24/MIC and f%T>MIC are 47.05 and 53.4%, respectively.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01098-12
PMCID: PMC3697386  PMID: 23587953
18.  Frequently asked questions in allergy practice 
Asia Pacific Allergy  2014;4(1):48-53.
Background
Over the last 10-20 years, international guidelines and consensus statements for the management of common allergic diseases (e.g. allergic rhinitis and asthma) have been developed and disseminated worldwide. However, their impact on knowledge and standard of clinical practice among primary care physicians and specialists is unknown.
Objective
To investigate need for an improvement in the dissemination of international guidelines for the diagnosis and management of allergic rhinitis.
Methods
Seven medical students who attended 3-day 1st International Basic Allergy Course (2010) took down all questions raised during the entire course. A systemic analysis of these questions was performed to identify areas for improvement in diagnosis and management of allergic diseases mainly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.
Results
268 participants, 143 males and 125 females, comprising Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) specialists (n = 106) and trainees (n = 34), general practitioners (n = 87), and other healthcare professionals (n = 41) attended the course. Of the 103 questions recorded, 59 were regarding treatment modalities in allergy practice such as immunotherapy (n = 38), pharmacologics (n = 15), nasal surgery (n = 2), and others (n = 4). 41 questions (39.8%) have answers based in the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines (2001 and 2008). Certain questions were selected for further analysis because they appeared to be (a) more commonly asked (e.g. immunotherapy) or (b) were deemed to be challenging or, even controversial (e.g. food allergy and differential diagnosis between vasovagal and anaphylaxis reaction), as the recommendations in current international guidelines were less well-defined.
Conclusion
Our study identified several problems that, if tackled, could help minimize confusion and provide better care for patients suffering from allergic diseases especially in the ASEAN region.
doi:10.5415/apallergy.2014.4.1.48
PMCID: PMC3921870  PMID: 24527411
Allergic diseases; International guidelines; Management; Immunotherapy; Vasovagal and anaphylaxis reaction; Food allergy
19.  Incidence Trends of Urinary Bladder and Kidney Cancers in Urban Shanghai, 1973-2005 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82430.
Objectives
We examined the incidence trends of bladder and kidney cancers using a population-based cancer registration data.
Methods
Age-standardized incidence rates were analyzed using data from the Shanghai Cancer Registry during 1973 to 2005. Annual percentage changes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the incidence changes. Age-period-cohort analysis was further implemented to assess the contributions of age, period and cohort effects to the trends using the intrinsic estimator method.
Results
In total, 12,676 bladder and 5,811 kidney cancer patients were registered in urban Shanghai. The age-standardized rates of bladder cancer in males increased from 6.39 to 7.66 per 100,000, or 0.62% per year, whereas the rates in females increased from 1.95 to 2.09 per 100,000, or 0.33% per year. For kidney cancer, the age-standardized rates in males increased from 1.20 to 5.64 per 100,000, or 6.98% per year. Similarly in females, the rates increased from 0.85 to 3.33 per 100,000, or 5.93% per year. Age-period-cohort analysis showed increasing curves of age and period effects but generally decreasing cohort effects for bladder and kidney cancers.
Conclusions
Our results show increasing incidence trends of bladder and kidney cancers in Chinese men and women, especially for kidney cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082430
PMCID: PMC3853415  PMID: 24324788
20.  Why bortezomib cannot go with ‘green’? 
Cancer Biology & Medicine  2013;10(4):206-213.
Eat more ‘green’ or eat ‘five a day’ is one of the most important healthy lifestyle behaviours in the 21 century. Aiming to fight cancer effectively, more than half patients use vitamins or herbs concurrently with conventional anticancer treatment. Flavonoids or polyphenols existing in vegetables, fruits and green tea are common plant pigments with antioxidant properties and considered acting as cancer preventing or anti-cancer agents. Recently it was found that some flavonoids and vitamin C in diet or supplements have antagonistic effect with the anti-cancer drug bortezomib. Bortezomib is a specific inhibitor for proteasome and is currently used for treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Despite its successful rates in treating multiple myeloma and other solid tumors, it is unable to kill leukemic cells in the blood. It was recently revealed that some flavonoids and vitamin C present in green leaves and green teas in the blood can neutralize bortezomib by directly interaction between two chemicals. Here we summarize why dietary flavonoids should be avoided in patients who take bortezomib as chemotherapeutic drug.
doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2013.04.004
PMCID: PMC3860349  PMID: 24349830
Bortezomib; flavonoids; polyphenols; myeloma
21.  Gaucher Disease: Transcriptome Analyses Using Microarray or mRNA Sequencing in a Gba1 Mutant Mouse Model Treated with Velaglucerase alfa or Imiglucerase 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e74912.
Gaucher disease type 1, an inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in GBA1 leading to defective glucocerebrosidase (GCase) function and consequent excess accumulation of glucosylceramide/glucosylsphingosine in visceral organs. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with the biosimilars, imiglucerase (imig) or velaglucerase alfa (vela) improves/reverses the visceral disease. Comparative transcriptomic effects (microarray and mRNA-Seq) of no ERT and ERT (imig or vela) were done with liver, lung, and spleen from mice having Gba1 mutant alleles, termed D409V/null. Disease-related molecular effects, dynamic ranges, and sensitivities were compared between mRNA-Seq and microarrays and their respective analytic tools, i.e. Mixed Model ANOVA (microarray), and DESeq and edgeR (mRNA-Seq). While similar gene expression patterns were observed with both platforms, mRNA-Seq identified more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (∼3-fold) than the microarrays. Among the three analytic tools, DESeq identified the maximum number of DEGs for all tissues and treatments. DESeq and edgeR comparisons revealed differences in DEGs identified. In 9V/null liver, spleen and lung, post-therapy transcriptomes approximated WT, were partially reverted, and had little change, respectively, and were concordant with the corresponding histological and biochemical findings. DEG overlaps were only 8–20% between mRNA-Seq and microarray, but the biological pathways were similar. Cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle, heme metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction were most altered with the Gaucher disease process. Imig and vela differentially affected specific disease pathways. Differential molecular responses were observed in direct transcriptome comparisons from imig- and vela-treated tissues. These results provide cross-validation for the mRNA-Seq and microarray platforms, and show differences between the molecular effects of two highly structurally similar ERT biopharmaceuticals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074912
PMCID: PMC3790783  PMID: 24124461
22.  Effect of enhanced expression of COL8A1 on lymphatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice 
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of COL8A1 expression on cell invasiveness, drug sensitivity and tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells with low metastatic potential. COL8A1-1-pEGFP-N2 and pEGFP-N2 were transfected into experimental and control group cells. The COL8A1 expression in transfected Hepa1-6 cells was analyzed with RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The invasive potential of transfected Hepa1-6 cells was tested in invasion experiments in vitro and the tumorigenic ability of the transfected Hepa1-6 cells was tested in mouse tumors in vivo. Hepa1-6 cell proliferation and D-limonene sensitivity was analyzed using the MTT method. Expression of COL8A1 in the Hepa1-6/COL8A1 group showed a significant increase when compared with the untransfected cells of the Hepa1-6 control group and empty-plasmid transfected cells from the Hepa1-6/mock control group. Enhanced COL8A1 expression increased cell proliferation and matrix adhesion ability via invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo while the sensitivity to D-limonene was concurrently inhibited. The expression of COL8A1 in hepatocarcinoma cells was correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation, invasion, in vivo tumorigenicity and reduced antitumor drug sensitivity, and may provide novel targets for tumor therapy.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.652
PMCID: PMC3501407  PMID: 23170115
hepatocarcinoma; COL8A1; D-limonene; lymphatic metastasis
23.  Effect of a straw-derived xylooligosaccharide on broiler growth performance, endocrine metabolism, and immune response 
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 3 levels of supplemental xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from straw on the growth performance, endocrine metabolism, and immune response of broiler chickens. Day-old, healthy Arbor Acres broilers (n = 192) received a basal diet of maize–soybean meal and, depending on the group to which they were allocated, no additive (control group) or the following experimental treatments for 59 d: treatment 1: 5 g XOS/kg; treatment 2: 10 g XOS/kg; and treatment 3: 20 g XOS/kg. By day 59 the body weight gain of the chickens receiving treatment 2 had increased by 9.44% (P < 0.01) over the gain of the control group. The levels of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and insulin on day 44 were significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the control group. The titers of antibody to the avian influenza H5N1 virus on day 24 were also significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the control group, and on day 59 the titer of the chickens receiving treatment 2 were still significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thus, the addition of XOS to feed can increase growth performance, enhance endocrine metabolism, and improve immune function in broiler chickens.
PMCID: PMC3605925  PMID: 24082401
24.  Online Coregularization for Multiview Semisupervised Learning 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:398146.
We propose a novel online coregularization framework for multiview semisupervised learning based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. Using the weak duality theorem, we reduce the online coregularization to the task of increasing the dual function. We demonstrate that the existing online coregularization algorithms in previous work can be viewed as an approximation of our dual ascending process using gradient ascent. New algorithms are derived based on the idea of ascending the dual function more aggressively. For practical purpose, we also propose two sparse approximation approaches for kernel representation to reduce the computational complexity. Experiments show that our derived online coregularization algorithms achieve risk and accuracy comparable to offline algorithms while consuming less time and memory. Specially, our online coregularization algorithms are able to deal with concept drift and maintain a much smaller error rate. This paper paves a way to the design and analysis of online coregularization algorithms.
doi:10.1155/2013/398146
PMCID: PMC3782153  PMID: 24194680
25.  Tregs are Dysfunctional in Vivo in a Spontaneous Murine Model of Crohn’s Disease 
Mucosal immunology  2012;6(2):267-275.
Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Tregs from Crohn’s disease (CD) patients are increased in number and function normally in vitro. To clarify this disparity, we studied Treg function in vivo using a spontaneous model of CD-like ileitis. We first administered anti-CD25 depleting antibodies to SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice to assess ileitis; mesenteric lymph node cells were then transferred into SCID recipients to induce colitis. CD25 depletion increased the severity of both spontaneous ileitis and adoptively transferred colitis. Interestingly, a second transfer of CD4+CD25+ cells from untreated AKR control mice was able to ameliorate the induced colitis, while CD4+CD25+ cells from untreated SAMP mice were not, suggesting a functional abnormality in SAMP Tregs. Anti-CD25 treatment in SAMP mice also induced proliferation of CD25−Foxp3+ Tregs, which had a proinflammatory intestinal Th1/Th2 effector phenotype. These studies demonstrate Treg dysfunction in a spontaneous model of CD-like ileitis.
doi:10.1038/mi.2012.67
PMCID: PMC3606708  PMID: 22785225
Crohn’s disease; SAMP1/YitFc; regulatory T cells; CD25+Foxp3+

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