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1.  Perioperative Outcomes after On- and Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2014;41(2):144-151.
Although numerous reports describe the results of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at specialized centers and in select patient populations, it remains unclear how off-pump CABG affects real-world patient outcomes. We conducted a large, multicenter observational cohort study of perioperative death and morbidity in on-pump (ON) versus off-pump (OFF) CABG.
We reviewed Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program data for all patients (N=65,097) who underwent isolated CABG from October 1997 through April 2011 (intention-to-treat data were available from 2005 onward). The primary outcome was perioperative (30-day or in-hospital) death; the secondary outcomes were perioperative stroke, dialysis dependence, reoperation for bleeding, mechanical circulatory support, myocardial infarction, ventilator support ≥48 hr, and mediastinitis. Propensity scores calculated from age, 17 preoperative risk factors, and year of surgery were used to match 8,911 OFF with 26,733 ON patients.
In the complete cohort, compared with the ON patients (n=53,468), the OFF patients (n=11,629) had less perioperative death (2.02% vs 2.53%, P=0.0012) and lower incidences of all morbidities except perioperative myocardial infarction. In the matched cohort, perioperative death did not differ significantly between OFF and ON patients (1.94% vs 2.28%, P=0.06), but the OFF group had lower incidences of all morbidities except for perioperative myocardial infarction and mediastinitis. A subgroup intention-to-treat analysis yielded similar but smaller outcome differences between the ON and OFF groups.
Off-pump CABG might be associated with decreased operative morbidity but did not affect operative death, compared with on-pump CABG. Future studies should examine the effect of off-pump CABG on long-term outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4004490  PMID: 24808773
Cardiac surgical procedures/adverse effects/methods/mortality; coronary artery bypass/adverse effects/methods/mortality; morbidity; mortality; outcome assessment
2.  Utility of nuclear stress imaging for detecting coronary artery bypass graft disease 
The value of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography stress myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) for detecting graft disease after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied prospectively in an unselected cohort.
Radial Artery Versus Saphenous Vein Graft Study is a Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study to determine graft patency rates after CABG surgery. Seventy-nine participants agreed to SPECT-MPI within 24 hours of their coronary angiogram, one-year after CABG. The choice of the stress protocol was made at the discretion of the nuclear radiologist and was either a symptom-limited exercise test (n = 68) or an adenosine infusion (n = 11). The SPECT-MPI results were interpreted independent of the angiographic results and estimates of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were based on the prediction of a graft stenosis of ≥70% on coronary angiogram.
A significant stenosis was present in 38 (48%) of 79 patients and 56 (22%) of 251 grafts. In those stress tests with an optimal exercise heart rate response (>80% maximum predicted heart rate) (n = 26) sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of SPECT-MPI for predicting the graft stenosis was 77%, 69% and 73% respectively. With adenosine (n = 11) it was 75%, 57% and 64%, respectively. Among participants with a suboptimal exercise heart rate response, the sensitivity of SPECT-MPI for predicting a graft stenosis was <50%. The accuracy of SPECT-MPI for detecting graft disease did not vary significantly with ischemic territory.
Under optimal stress conditions, SPECT-MPI has a good sensitivity and accuracy for detecting graft disease in an unselected patient population 1 year post-CABG.
PMCID: PMC3469356  PMID: 22862805
Coronary artery bypass grafts; CABG; Coronary artery imaging; Cardiac catheterization/intervention

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