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1.  Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice 
ISRN Pharmacology  2014;2014:575423.
Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them.
PMCID: PMC3964684  PMID: 24734193
2.  Both Castration and Goserelin Acetate Ameliorate Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Apoptosis in Male Rats 
ISRN Pharmacology  2014;2014:206951.
Although reperfusion of an ischemic organ is essential to prevent irreversible tissue damage, it may amplify tissue injury. This study investigates the role of endogenous testosterone in myocardial ischemia reperfusion and apoptosis in male rats. Material and method. Twenty four male rats were randomized into 4 equal groups: Group (1), sham group, rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedure as the control group except for LAD ligation; Group (2), Active control group, rats underwent LAD ligation; Group (3), castrated, rats underwent surgical castration, left 3wks for recovery, and then underwent LAD ligation; and Group (4), Goserelin acetate treated, rats received 3.6 mg of Goserelin 3 wks before surgery and then underwent LAD ligation. At the end of experiment, plasma cTn I, cardiac TNF-α, IL1-β, ICAM-1, and Apoptosis level were measured and histological examination was made. Results. Compared to sham group, the levels of myocardial TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, apoptosis, and plasma cTn I were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in control group and all rats showed significant myocardial injury (P < 0.05). Castration and Goserelin acetates significantly counteract the increase in myocardial levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, plasma cTn I, and apoptosis (P < 0.05) and significantly reduce (P < 0.05) the severity of myocardial injury. We conclude that castration and Goserelin acetates ameliorate myocardial I/R injury and apoptosis in rats via interfering with inflammatory reactions.
PMCID: PMC3960567  PMID: 24729888
3.  Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Clopidogrel: Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Approaches 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:790263.
Background. Atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and the buildup of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the intima of the walls of large and medium size arteries. Objective. To evaluate the effect of clopidogrel on atherosclerosis progression. Materials and Methods. A total of 28 local domestic rabbits were assigned to four groups: normal control, atherogenic control, vehicle control, and clopidogrel treated. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, plasma high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured at the end of the experiment. Immunohistochemical of aortic atherosclerotic changes were also performed. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between atherogenic control group and vehicle group. Levels of lipid profile, atherogenic index, hsCRP, and MDA are increased while GSH levels were decreased in animals on atherogenic diet. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that aortic expressions of VCAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly increased in atherogenic control group. Histopathologic finding showed that animals on atherogenic diet have significant atherosclerotic lesion. Compared to atherogenic control group clopidogrel do not have significant effect on lipid profile. Clopidogrel significantly reduces hsCRP and MDA levels and increases GSH level. Furthermore, clopidogrel treatment significantly reduced aortic expressions parameters and the histopathologic examination of the aortic arch showed a significant reduction of atherosclerotic lesion. Conclusions. This study outlines how clopidogrel reduces lipid peroxidation, systemic inflammation, and aortic expression of inflammatory markers and hence reduces the progression of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC3888675  PMID: 24455725
4.  Antiapoptotic Effect of Simvastatin Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury 
ISRN Pharmacology  2013;2013:815094.
Background. Myocardial ischemial reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemial reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart. Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Simvastatin in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Adult male Swiss Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1): sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedures as those in the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (2): control group: rats were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (3): control vehicle group: rats received vehicle of Simvastatin (normal saline) via IP injection and were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (4): Simvastatin treated group: rats were pretreated with Simvastatin 1 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before ligation of LAD coronary artery. At the end of experiment (2 hr of reperfusion), blood samples were collected from the heart for the measurement of plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). After that the heart was harvested and divided into 3 parts; one part was used for measurement of apoptosis, another part was homogenized for the measurement of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and the last part for histopathology study. Results. Compared with the sham group, levels of myocardial TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1α and plasma cTnI were increased (P < 0.05). Histologically, all rats in control group showed significant (P < 0.05) cardiac injury. Furthermore, all rats in control group showed significant (P < 0.05) apoptosis. Simvastatin significantly counteracted the increase in myocardium level of TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1α, plasma cTnI, and apoptosis (P < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed that Simvastatin markedly reduced (P < 0.05) the severity of heart injury in the rats that underwent LAD ligation procedure. Conclusions. The results of the present study reveal that Simvastatin may ameliorate myocardial I/R injury in rats via interfering with inflammatory reactions and apoptosis which were induced by I/R injury.
PMCID: PMC3880747  PMID: 24455299
5.  Effects of Thyroid Hormone Analogue and a Leukotrienes Pathway-Blocker on Reperfusion Injury Attenuation after Heart Transplantation 
ISRN Pharmacology  2013;2013:303717.
Background. Global myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury after heart transplantation is believed to impair graft function and aggravate both acute and chronic rejection episodes. Objectives. To assess the possible protective potential of MK-886 and 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid DITPA against global myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury after heart transplantation. Materials and Methods. Adult albino rats were randomized into 6 groups as follows: group I sham group; group II, control group; groups III and IV, control vehicles (1,2); group V, MK-886 treated group. Donor rats received MK-886 30 min before transplantation, and the same dose was repeated for recipients upon reperfusion; in group VI, DITPA treated group, donors and recipients rats were pretreated with DITPA for 7 days before transplantation. Results. Both MK-886 and DITPA significantly counteract the increase in the levels of cardiac TNF-α, IL-1β, and ICAM-1 and plasma level of cTnI (P < 0.05). Morphologic analysis showed that both MK-886 and DITPA markedly improved (P < 0.05) the severity of cardiac injury in the heterotopically transplanted rats. Conclusions. The results of our study reveal that both MK-886 and DITPA may ameliorate global myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury after heart transplantation via interfering with inflammatory pathway.
PMCID: PMC3791567  PMID: 24167735
6.  Ultrasonic Assessment of Females with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Proved by Nerve Conduction Study 
Neural Plasticity  2013;2013:754564.
Introduction. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most commonly diagnosed entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. The objective of this study was to diagnose CTS and to assess its severity using high resolution ultrasound (HRUS) depending on the results of nerve conduction study (NCS). Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study, in which HRUS was performed at 63 wrists of 35 female patients with different severity of CTS (as proved by NCS). Furthermore, 40 healthy volunteers (80 wrists) underwent the same tests as the patients and have been chosen to match the patients in gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). The cross section area (CSA) of the median nerve (MN) was obtained using HRUS at the carpal tunnel inlet by direct tracing method. Results. There was a significant difference in the CSA of the MN at the tunnel inlet in CTS patients when compared with the control group. In fact, the CSA of the control group showed a significant difference from each of patients subgroups. Furthermore, a significant difference in the CSA was seen in between these subgroups. In conclusion, the US examination of the MN seems to be a promising method in diagnosing and grading of carpal tunnel syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3706011  PMID: 23864961
7.  Vitamin E and telmisartan attenuates doxorubicin induced cardiac injury in rat through down regulation of inflammatory response 
The importance of doxorubicin (Dox), as a potent antitumor antibiotic, is limited by the development of life-threatening cardiomyopathy. It has been shown that free radicals are involved in acute doxorubicin-induced toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of vitamin E and telmisartan in acute doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity.
Thirty two male Sprague - Dawly rats were involved in this study and were randomly separated into 4 groups, eight rats in each group, one group received normal saline I.P as control and second group received doxorubicin 20 mg/kg I.P, the other two groups also received doxorubicin 20 mg/kg I.P as single dose after seven cumulative doses (for seven days) of vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and telmisartan (1 mg/kg) respectively. Immunofluorescent staining for monocytes infiltration and analyses of plasma by (ELISAs) for MCP-1and troponin I. Western immunoblotting assay for ICAM-1, while left ventricular function was analyzed by microcatheter, also estimated the level of oxidative stress parameters (MDA and Catalase) and cardiac enzymes activities (CK-MB and LDH) before starting drugs treatment and after treatment period by 48 hours.
The immunofluorescent staining showed that administration of vitamin E and telmisartan are attenuated of mononuclear cell infiltration; (p < 0.05 vs. Dox group), also reduced the level of chemokines MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression compared with Dox group only, and there is marked reduction of myocardial troponin-I levels with improved LV function in vitamin E and telmisartan treated group. Doxorubicin treatment increased MDA, LDH, CK-MB levels significantly (P < 0.01), and were counteracted by administration of vitamin E and telmisartan, but did not significantly affect serum catalase activity.
Antioxidant effect (Vitamin E and telmisartan) have been shown to decrease doxorubicininduced cardiotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3483230  PMID: 22867422
8.  Metformin ameliorates methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity 
To study the effect of metformin on amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate.
Materials and Methods:
After a 2-weeks of acclimatization period, the animals were randomly separated into three groups (seven rabbits each), all groups were maintained on standard chow diet throughout the experiment (8 weeks). Group 1 was treated with normal saline water (control), Group 2 with methotrexate (MTX, hepatotoxic), and Group 3 with MTX plus metformin. Induction of hepatotoxicity was carried out by administration of MTX to the rabbit in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg /day i.m. for 8 weeks.
The treatment with MTX to rabbits for 8 weeks resulted in significant changes in serum liver enzymes, as compared to the baseline group. SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin were significantly increased (P < 0.001), while total serum protein was significantly decreased. Similarly, 8 weeks of MTX treatment produced significant (P < 0.001) prolongation in PT. PTT was not significantly changed. It was found that serum MDA levels and SOD activity were significantly increased (P < 0.001), while serum GSH levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Adding metformin to MTX is found to be significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the liver function test and shortening of PT and a significant increase in TSP (P < 0.001).
It can be concluded that administration of metformin restored the altered liver function parameters and produced significant improvement in liver histopathological findings. Therefore, this additive drug possesses hepatoprotection against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3487273  PMID: 23129960
Hepatotoxicity; metformin; methotrexate
9.  Autonomic cerebral vascular response to sildenafil in diabetic patient 
Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in type 2 diabetic patients who are at higher risk of cerebrovascular events, and it's recorded with sildenafil, a drug which is primarily used for erectile dysfunction.
We tested the hypothesis whether or not sildenafil modulates cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A total of 35 male participants were enrolled; eighteen with type 2 diabetes mellitus matched with seventeen normal individuals. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonographic examination (TCD) was performed for all participants to insonate the middle cerebral artery (MCA) through a trans-temporal window. CVR was assessed by using breath holding (BH)-hyperventilation (HV) test, before and after oral 50 mg sildenafil; recordings were analyzed by using SPSS program version 12.
In normal individuals, sildenafil did not result in statistically significant change in breath holding index (BHI) from 0.91 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.09 and full range of vasodilatation (FVD) from (59.4% ± 6.3%) to (53.7% ± 4.9%). In diabetic patients, giving sildenafil resulted in significant increase in BHI (from 0.74 ± 0.14 to 1.03 ± 0.14) and FVD (from 60.2% ± 4.96% to 74% ± 4.8%), (p < 0.05).
Sildenafil significantly improves CVR in type 2 diabetic patients but not in normal subjects.
PMCID: PMC3292818  PMID: 22284589
cerebrovascular reactivity; stroke; breath holding-hyperventilation test transcranial Doppler; sildenafil
10.  Evaluation of the effects of glimepiride (Amaryl) and repaglinide (novoNorm) on atherosclerosis progression in high cholesterol-fed male rabbits 
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall, characterized in early stages by endothelial dysfunction, recruitment and activation of monocyte/macrophages. Glimepiride is one of the third generation sulphonylurea drugs, useful for control of diabetes mellitus type two and it may exert anti inflammatory activity, by induction of nitric oxide production or through selective suppression of the cyclooxygenase pathway. Repaglinide is a new hypoglycemic agent, and a member of the carbamoylmethyl benzoic acid family. Some results from the literature demonstrate that repaglinide has favorable effects on the parameters of antioxidative balance.
The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of glimepiride and repaglinide on atherosclerosis via interfering with the inflammatory and oxidative pathways.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty four local domestic male rabbits were involved in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups; Group I rabbits fed normal chow (oxiod) diet for 10 weeks. Group II rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol enriched diet. Group III rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol enriched diet together with Glimepiride (0.1 mg/kg once daily before morning feed). Group IV rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol enriched diet together with Repaglinide (0.3 mg/kg once daily before morning feed). Blood samples were collected before (0 time) and every two weeks of experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high sensitive C - reactive protein (hsCRP), Interleukin – 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. At the end of 10 weeks, the aorta was removed for measurement of aortic Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and aortic intimal thickness.
Glimepiride and repaglinide treatment did show significant effect on lipid parameters compared with induced untreated group (P < 0.05). Also, they significantly reduced the elevation in hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-α, aortic MDA and aortic intimal thickness compared with induced untreated group (P < 0.05), and they helped to restore the aortic GSH levels (P < 0.05).
Glimepiride and repaglinide may reduce atherosclerosis progression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by interfering with the inflammatory and oxidative pathways without affecting lipid parameters.
PMCID: PMC3271684  PMID: 22346138
Atherosclerosis; glimepiride; inflammatory markers; oxidative stress; repaglinide
11.  Effects of thyroid hormone analogue and a leukotrienes pathway-blocker on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice 
BMC Nephrology  2011;12:70.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is an important clinical problem with a high mortality and morbidity. One of the primary causes of ARF is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Inflammatory process and oxidative stress are thought to be the major mechanisms causing I/R. MK-886 is a potent inhibitor of leukotrienes biosynthesis which may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects through inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) infiltration into renal tissues. 3, 5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA) have evidences of improving effects on I/R in heart through modulation of cellular signaling in response to ischemic stress. The objective of present study was to assess the effects of MK-886 and DITPA on renal I/R injury.
A total of 24 Adult males of Swiss albino mice were randomized to four groups: I/R group (n = 6), mice underwent 30 minute bilateral renal ischemia and 48 hr reperfusion. Sham group (n = 6), mice underwent same anesthetic and surgical procedures except for ischemia induction. MK-886-treated group: (n = 6), I/R + MK-886 (6 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. DITPA-treated group: (n = 6), I/R + DITPA (3.75 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection.
After the end of reperfusion phase mice were sacrificed, blood samples were collected directly from the heart for determination of serum TNF-a, IL-6, urea and Creatinine. Both kidney were excised, the right one homogenized for oxidative stress parameters (MDA and GSH) measurements and the left kidney fixed in formalin for histological examination.
Serum TNF-α, IL-6, urea and Creatinine, kidney MDA levels and scores of histopathological changes were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in I/R group as compared with that of sham group. Kidney GSH level was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in I/R group as compared with that of sham group. MK-886 treated group has significantly (P < 0.05) lowered levels of all study parameters except for GSH level which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared with that of I/R group. DITPA caused non-significant (P > 0.05) changes in levels of all study parameters as compared with that of I/R group.
The results of the present study show that MK-886 significantly ameliorated kidney damage that resulted from I/R. For DITPA, as its administration might not be successful, administration using a different protocol may give different effects on I/R.
PMCID: PMC3259032  PMID: 22196041
12.  Leukotriene biosynthesis inhibition ameliorates acute lung injury following hemorrhagic shock in rats 
Hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation is conceived as an insult frequently induces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and oxidative stress that results in multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome including acute lung injury. MK-886 is a leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor exerts an anti inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
The objective of present study was to assess the possible protective effect of MK-886 against hemorrhagic shock-induced acute lung injury via interfering with inflammatory and oxidative pathways.
Materials and methods
Eighteen adult Albino rats were assigned to three groups each containing six rats: group I, sham group, rats underwent all surgical instrumentation but neither hemorrhagic shock nor resuscitation was done; group II, Rats underwent hemorrhagic shock (HS) for 1 hr then resuscitated with Ringer's lactate (1 hr) (induced untreated group, HS); group III, HS + MK-886 (0.6 mg/kg i.p. injection 30 min before the induction of HS, and the same dose was repeated just before reperfusion period). At the end of experiment (2 hr after completion of resuscitation), blood samples were collected for measurement of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The trachea was then isolated and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was carried out for measurement of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and total protein. The lungs were harvested, excised and the left lung was homogenized for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the right lung was fixed in 10% formalin for histological examination.
MK-886 treatment significantly reduced the total lung injury score compared with the HS group (P < 0.05). MK-886 also significantly decreased serum TNF-α & IL-6; lung MDA; BALF LTB4, LTC4 & total protein compared with the HS group (P < 0.05). MK-886 treatment significantly prevented the decrease in the lung GSH levels compared with the HS group (P < 0.05).
The results of the present study reveal that MK-886 may ameliorate lung injury in shocked rats via interfering with inflammatory and oxidative pathways implicating the role of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic shock-induced lung inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3118110  PMID: 21649921
MK-886; hemorrhagic shock; acute lung injury; oxidative stress; inflammatory markers
13.  Iraq lacks facilities and expertise in emergency medicine 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;333(7573):847.
PMCID: PMC1618447  PMID: 17053243

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