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1.  On-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients older than 60 years: five-year follow-up of MASS III trial 
We aim to evaluate in-hospital events and long-term clinical outcomes in patients over 60 years of age with stable coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction undergoing off-pump or on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
The MASS III was a single-center randomized trial that evaluate 308 patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function assigned for: 155 to off-pump and 153 to on-pump CABG. Of this, 176 (58.3%) patients were 60 years or older at the time of randomization (90 of-pump and 86 on-pump). The primary short-term end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and overall mortality occurring within 30 days after surgery or before discharge, whichever was later. The primary long-term end point was death from any cause within 5 years, non-fatal myocardial infarction between 30 days and 5 years, or additional revascularization between 30 days and 5 years.
On-pump CABG had a higher incidence of 30-day composite outcome than off-pump CABG (15,1% and 5.6%, respectively; P = 0.036). However, after the multivariate analysis, this association lost statistical significance, P = 0.05. After 5-year follow-up, there were no significant differences between both strategies of CABG in the composite end points 16.7% and 15.1%; Hazard Ratio 1.07; CI 0.41 – 1.82; P = 0.71, for off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively.
On-pump and off-pump CABG achieved similar results of combined events at short-term and 5-year follow-up.
Trial registration
Clinical Trial Registration Information—URL: Registration number: ISRCTN59539154.
PMCID: PMC4304776  PMID: 25096030
Coronary artery disease; Coronary artery bypass grafts; CABG; Cardiopulmonary bypass; CPB
2.  Hypotheses, rationale, design, and methods for evaluation of ischemic preconditioning assessed by sequential exercise tests in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease – a prospective study 
Ischemic preconditioning is a powerful mechanism of myocardial protection and in humans it can be evaluated by sequential exercise tests. Coronary Artery Disease in the presence of diabetes mellitus may be associated with worse outcomes. In addition, some studies have shown that diabetes interferes negatively with the development of ischemic preconditioning. However, it is still unknown whether diabetes may influence the expression of ischemic preconditioning in patients with stable multivessel coronary artery disease.
This study will include 140 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chronic, stable coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function. The patients will be submitted to two sequential exercise tests with 30-minutes interval between them. Ischemic parameters will be compared between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Ischemic preconditioning will be considered present when time to 1.0 mm ST-segment deviation is greater in the second of two sequential exercise tests. Exercise tests will be analyzed by two independent cardiologists.
Ischemic preconditioning was first demonstrated by Murry et al. in dog’s hearts. Its work was reproduced by other authors, clearly demonstrating that brief periods of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion triggers cardioprotective mechanisms against subsequent and severe ischemia. On the other hand, the demonstration of ischemic preconditioning in humans requires the presence of clinical symptoms or physiological changes difficult to be measured. One methodology largely accepted are the sequential exercise tests, in which, the improvement in the time to 1.0 mm ST depression in the second of two sequential tests is considered manifestation of ischemic preconditioning.
Diabetes is an important and independent determinant of clinical prognosis. It's a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the association of diabetes with stable coronary artery disease imposes worse prognosis, irrespective of treatment strategy. It’s still not clearly known the mechanisms responsible by these worse outcomes. Impairment in the mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning may be one major cause of this worse prognosis, but, in the clinical setting, this is not known.
The present study aims to evaluate how diabetes mellitus interferes with ischemic preconditioning in patients with stable, multivessel coronary artery disease and preserved systolic ventricular function.
PMCID: PMC4029531  PMID: 24330253
Ischemic preconditioning; Exercise test; Coronary heart disease; Angina; Myocardial ischemia
3.  Hypotheses, rationale, design, and methods for prognostic evaluation of cardiac biomarker elevation after percutaneous and surgical revascularization in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction. A comparative analysis of biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance. The MASS-V Trial 
Although the release of cardiac biomarkers after percutaneous (PCI) or surgical revascularization (CABG) is common, its prognostic significance is not known. Questions remain about the mechanisms and degree of correlation between the release, the volume of myocardial tissue loss, and the long-term significance. Delayed-enhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) consistently quantifies areas of irreversible myocardial injury. To investigate the quantitative relationship between irreversible injury and cardiac biomarkers, we will evaluate the extent of irreversible injury in patients undergoing PCI and CABG and relate it to postprocedural modifications in cardiac biomarkers and long-term prognosis.
The study will include 150 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and a formal indication for CABG; 50 patients will undergo CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); 50 patients with the same arterial and ventricular condition indicated for myocardial revascularization will undergo CABG without CPB; and another 50 patients with CAD and preserved ventricular function will undergo PCI using stents. All patients will undergo CMR before and after surgery or PCI. We will also evaluate the release of cardiac markers of necrosis immediately before and after each procedure. Primary outcome considered is overall death in a 5-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes are levels of CK-MB isoenzyme and I-Troponin in association with presence of myocardial fibrosis and systolic left ventricle dysfunction assessed by CMR.
The MASS-V Trial aims to establish reliable values for parameters of enzyme markers of myocardial necrosis in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction after mechanical interventions. The establishments of these indices have diagnostic value and clinical prognosis and therefore require relevant and different therapeutic measures. In daily practice, the inappropriate use of these necrosis markers has led to misdiagnosis and therefore wrong treatment. The appearance of a more sensitive tool such as CMR provides an unprecedented diagnostic accuracy of myocardial damage when correlated with necrosis enzyme markers. We aim to correlate laboratory data with imaging, thereby establishing more refined data on the presence or absence of irreversible myocardial injury after the procedure, either percutaneous or surgical, and this, with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.
PMCID: PMC3468382  PMID: 22898311
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Necrosis markers; Myocardial infarction; PCI; CABG
4.  Pericardial Fat Is Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification in Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114358.
Pericardial fat (PF) a component of visceral adipose tissue has been consistently related to coronary atherosclerosis in the general population. This study evaluated the association between PF and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This is a post-hoc cross sectional analysis of the baseline of a prospective cohort of 117 outward CKD patients without manifest coronary artery disease (age, 56.9±11.0 years, 64.1% males, 95.1% hypertensives, 25.2% diabetics, 15.5% ever smokers, CKD stage 2 to 5 with estimated glomerular filtration rate 36.8±18.1 ml/min). CAC scores, PF volume and abdominal visceral fat (AVF) areas were measured by computed tomography. The association of PF as a continuous variable with the presence of CAC was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. CAC (calcium score >0) was present in 59.2% patients. Those presenting CAC were on average 10 years older, had a higher proportion of male gender (78.7% vs. 42.9%, p<0.001), and had higher values of waist circumference (95.9±10.7 vs. 90.2±13.2 cm, p = 0.02), PF volumes (224.8±107.6 vs. 139.1±85.0 cm3, p<0.01) and AVF areas (109.2±81.5 vs. 70.2±62.9 cm2, p = 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, smoking and, left ventricular concentric hypertrophy, PF was significantly associated with the presence of CAC (OR: 1.88 95% CI: 1.03–3.43 per standard deviation). PF remained associated with CAC even with additional adjustments for estimated glomerular filtration rate or serum phosphorus (OR: 1.85 95% CI: 1.00–3.42, p = 0.05). PF is independently associated with CAC in non-dialysis dependent CKD patients.
PMCID: PMC4257663  PMID: 25479288
6.  Single-Breathhold Four-Dimensional Assessment of Left Ventricular Morphological and Functional Parameters by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using the VAST Technique 
The accurate and reproducible assessment of cardiac volumes, function, and mass is of paramount importance in cardiology. In the present study we sought to determine whether the 3D cine-magnetic resonance (MR) technique, using the variable asymmetric sampling in time (VAST) approach, provided an accurate assessment of LV functional parameters when compared with the conventional 2D cine-MR technique.
A total of 43 consecutive patients referred for a CMR examination for clinical reasons and 14 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Cine images were acquired using a steady-state free precession pulse sequence. Two different multiphase acquisitions were performed: conventional 2D cine-MR and 3D cine-MR. The short-axis cine images acquired by both cine-MR techniques were used for the quantitative assessment of LV end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes, LV mass and ejection fraction.
All CMR examinations were completed successfully, with both cine-MR imaging techniques yielding interpretable diagnostic results in all patients. Regarding the quantitative assessment, Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated a good agreement between the measurements of both cine-MR techniques for all LV parameters. In addition, the agreement between 2D and 3D cine-MR techniques for the qualitative assessment of LV global function was perfect (kappa = 1.0, P<0.001) for the two observers in consensus. The assessment performed by the third independent observer also demonstrated very good agreement (kappa = 0.88, P<0.001).
The single breathhold 3D cine-MR technique provides an accurate and reproducible quantitative assessment of LV volumes, mass and function when compared with the conventional 2D cine-MR method.
PMCID: PMC3111704  PMID: 21673978
Magnetic resonance imaging; left ventricular function; cine imaging; three-dimensional; steady-state free precession; fast imaging.

Results 1-6 (6)