There is paucity of methodologically sound published studies on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) from India, on pub med/embase search.
To explore etiology of ICH and correlate the causes, location, and size of hemorrhage to clinical outcome.
Materials and Methods:
A hospital-based descriptive study from South Indian eastern coastal town of Puducherry; 60 consecutive subjects aged > 12 years, predominantly of inbred Tamil population, with head CT evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage not associated with trauma and brain tumors, were recruited. Outcome at three months was measured using Glasgow Outcome scale, NIHSS and mortality. SPSS v 19 was used for statistical analysis.
Commonest etiological factor was hypertension, followed by bleeding diathesis, thrombolysis for myocardial infarction, and cortical vein thrombosis. Most frequent locations of hematoma were basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. Hematoma volume correlated significantly with systolic and mean arterial pressure but not with diastolic blood pressure. Poor outcome was correlated to size (P < 0.05) and intraventricular extension of hematoma (P < 0.05), and to systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, but not to age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and blood sugar level. Among diabetic patients with ICH, the size of hematoma (P = 0.04) and severity of coma (P = 0.01) at admission were significantly worse compared to the non-diabetic, but not the outcome at three months [Glasgow outcome scale or mortality (P = 0.94 and 0.14)].
The location of hemorrhage and correlation with outcome agreed with the patterns described for the non-white races in prior reports. Independence of outcome to diabetic status despite a more severe initial presentation may indicate importance of good care, even in high risk groups.