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author:("donath, P")
1.  The role of p21-activated kinase in the initiation of atherosclerosis 
Background
p21-activated kinase (PAK) has been implicated in the inflammatory activation of endothelial cells by disturbed fluid shear stress, which is the initiating stimulus in atherosclerosis. The study addresses whether PAK1 contributes to inflammatory marker expression in endothelial cells at atherosclerosis-susceptible regions of arteries in vivo.
Method
Aortas from WT and PAK1-/- C57BL/6J mice on a normal chow diet were fixed, dissected and processed for immunohistochemistry using a panel of inflammatory markers. We visualized and quantified staining in the endothelium at the greater and lesser curvatures of the arch of aorta, as atherosclerosis-resistant and susceptible regions, respectively.
Results
Fibronectin, VCAM-1 and the activated RelA NF-κB subunit were localized to the lesser curvature and decreased in PAK1-/- mice. The activated RelB NF-κB subunit was also localized to the lesser curvature but was increased in PAK1-/- mice. Low levels of staining for ICAM-1 and the monocyte/macrophage marker Mac2 indicated that overall inflammation in this tissue was minimal.
Conclusion
These data show that PAK1 has a significant pro-inflammatory function at atherosclerosis-prone sites in vivo. These effects are seen in young mice with very low levels of inflammation, suggesting that inflammatory activation of the endothelium is primarily biomechanical. Activation involves NF-κB, expression of leukocyte recruitment receptors and fibronectin deposition. These results support and extend in vitro studies demonstrating that PAK contributes to activation of inflammatory pathways in endothelial cells by fluid shear stress.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-55
PMCID: PMC3489605  PMID: 22824149
Fluid shear stress; Endothelial cells; Vascular inflammation; Fibronectin
2.  Adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic medicine with anti tubercular drugs on the therapeutic management of pulmonary tuberculosis 
Background:
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an age old disease described in Vedic Medicine as ‘Yakshma’. Later on, in Ayurveda it earned a prefix and found way into mythology as ‘Rajayakshma’. After the discovery of streptomycin, the therapeutic management of PTB received a major breakthrough. The treatment module changed remarkably with the formulation of newer anti-tubercular drugs (ATD) with appreciable success. Recent resurgence of PTB in developed countries like United States posed a threat to the medical community due to resistant strains. Consequently, WHO looked toward traditional medicine. Literature reveals that Ayurvedic treatment of PTB was in vogue in India before the introduction of ATD with limited success. Records show that 2766 patients of PTB were treated with Ayurvedic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata in the year 1933-1947.
Objectives:
To evaluate the toxicity reduction and early restoration by adjunct therapy of Ayurvedic drugs by increasing the bio-availability of ATDs.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, treatment response of 99 patients treated with ATD as an adjunct with Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) and a multi-herbal formulation described in Chikitsa-sthana of Charaka samhita i.e. Chyawanprash were investigated. Hematological profile, sputum bacterial load count, immunoglobulin IgA and IgM, blood sugar, liver function test, serum creatinine were the assessed parameters besides blood isoniazid and pyrazinamide, repeated after 28 days of treatment.
Results:
The symptoms abated, body weight showed improvement, ESR values were normal, there was appreciable change in IgA and IgM patterns and significantly increased bioavailability of isoniazid and pyrazinamide were recorded.
Conclusion:
This innovative clinical study coupled with empowered research may turn out to be promising in finding a solution for the treatment of PTB.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.100180
PMCID: PMC3487240  PMID: 23125511
Adjunct therapy; anti-tubercular drugs; Ayurveda; tuberculosis
3.  Respiratory performance and grip strength tests in Indian school bodys of different socio-economic status. 
British Journal of Sports Medicine  1980;14(2-3):145-148.
Physical efficiency tests were performed on urban school boys drawn from high socio-economic status in comparison to rural school boys. The height and weight records of the subjects indicating growing process showed that the rural boys attained less physical growth than their urban counterparts. The Vital Capacity and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate data expressed either per unit of height or body surface area were significantly lower in rual boys. these findings indicated a poor development of the thorax in the rural group. However, the determined grip strengths for both the group were similar. The grip test might reflect improvement of muscle mass in case of rural boys as a result of regular physical activity employing the arm muscles.
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PMCID: PMC1858966  PMID: 7407454
4.  Physical efficiency tests in Indian urban adolescent boys and girls. 
Simple anthropometric measurements and physical efficiency tests were performed on adolescent Indian urban boys between 10-14 years and girls between 11-14 years of age. The similar height and weight of the subjects of both sexes were observed and was suggestive of higher growth rate in girls than the boys during only the initial phase of adolescent growth spurt. The vital capacity (total, ml/cm of height, l/m2 of surface area), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (total, l/cm of height, l/kg of weight, l/m2 of surface area, l/year of age) and grip strength were observed to be insignificantly different between the sexes.
PMCID: PMC1859679  PMID: 465912
5.  A comparison of physical efficiency between Indian physical education and medical students. 
The recovery pulse and respiration were analysed to determine the level of physical fitness among the physical education and medical students of Banaras Hindu University. The analysis of the data suggested that physical fitness as measured by recovery rate was better in physical education students than in medical students. Following questionnaire method, it has been noted that the daily activity of physical education students was more than the medical students and probably the reason for higher efficiency in them.
PMCID: PMC1859640  PMID: 687890
6.  Effects of propranolol on gastric secretion in albino rats 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1974;51(2):213-216.
1 Effects of graded doses of propranolol have been studied on gastric secretion and gastric ulcers in pylorus-ligated rats.
2 A dose-dependent action of propranolol was observed; small doses increased total volume, acid output and pepsin secretion along with an increase in the incidence of ulcers but high doses were inhibitory.
PMCID: PMC1776742  PMID: 4451741

Results 1-6 (6)