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1.  Loss of the oxidative stress sensor NPGPx compromises GRP78 chaperone activity and induces systemic disease 
Molecular cell  2012;48(5):747-759.
Summary
NPGPx is a member of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family; however, it lacks GPx enzymatic activity due to the absence of a critical selenocysteine residue, rendering its function an enigma. We report that NPGPx is a novel stress sensor that transmits oxidative stress signals by transferring the disulfide bond between its Cys57 and Cys86 residues to downstream effectors. Oxidized NPGPx binds and oxidizes the chaperone glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 in the endoplasmic reticulum through covalent bonding between Cys86 of NPGPx and Cys41/Cys420 of GRP78, and facilitates the refolding of misfolded proteins by GRP78 to alleviate stress. NPGPx-deficient cells display impaired GRP78 chaperone activity, accumulate misfolded proteins, and suffer oxidative stress. Complete loss of NPGPx in animals causes systemic oxidative stress, increases carcinogenesis, and shortens lifespan. These results, for the first time, suggest that NPGPx is essential for mediating the oxidative stress response by modulating GRP78 chaperone activity to maintain physiological homeostasis.
doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.10.007
PMCID: PMC3582359  PMID: 23123197
2.  Activation of Robo1 signaling of breast cancer cells by Slit2 from stromal fibroblast restrains tumorigenesis via blocking PI3K/Akt/β-catenin pathway 
Cancer research  2012;72(18):4652-4661.
Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in regulating tumor progression by secreting factors that mediate cancer cell growth. Stromal fibroblasts can promote tumor growth through paracrine factors; however, restraint of malignant carcinoma progression by the microenvironment also has been observed. The mechanisms that underlie this paradox remain unknown. Here, we report that the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells is determined by an interaction between the Robo1 receptor and its ligand Slit2, which is secreted by stromal fibroblasts. The presence of an active Slit2/Robo1 signal blocks the translocation of β-catenin into nucleus, leading to down-regulation of c-myc and cyclin D1 via the PI3K pathway. Clinically, high Robo1 expression in the breast cancer cells correlates with increased survival in breast cancer patients, and low Slit2 expression in the stromal fibroblasts is associated with lymph node metastasis. Together, our findings explain how a specific tumor microenvironment can restrain a given type of cancer cell from progression and demonstrate that both stromal fibroblasts and tumor cell heterogeneity affect breast cancer outcomes.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-0877
PMCID: PMC3445732  PMID: 22826604
3.  Deficiency of NPGPx, an oxidative stress sensor, leads to obesity in mice and human 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2013;5(8):1165-1179.
Elevated oxidative stress is closely associated with obesity. Emerging evidence shows that instead of being a consequence of obesity, oxidative stress may also contribute to fat formation. Nonselenocysteine-containing phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (NPGPx) is a conserved oxidative stress sensor/transducer and deficiency of NPGPx causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this communication, we show that NPGPx was highly expressed in preadipocytes of adipose tissue. Deficiency of NPGPx promoted preadipocytes to differentiate to adipocytes via ROS-dependent dimerization of protein kinase A regulatory subunits and activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ). This enhanced adipogenesis was alleviated by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Consistently, NPGPx-deficient mice exhibited markedly increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy, while treatment with NAC ablated these phenotypes. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human NPGPx gene, which correlated with lower NPGPx expression level in adipose tissue, were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in several independent human populations. These results indicate that NPGPx protects against fat accumulation in mice and human via modulating ROS, and highlight the importance of targeting redox homeostasis in obesity management.
Deficiency of the glutathione peroxidase NPGPx increases ROS levels in preadipocytes and promotes adipocyte differentiation via increasing oxidative stress and consequent increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy.
doi:10.1002/emmm.201302679
PMCID: PMC3944459  PMID: 23828861
adipogenesis; C/EBPβ; N-acetylcysteine; NPGPx; oxidative stress
4.  Genetic Variation in the NOC Gene Is Associated with Body Mass Index in Chinese Subjects 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69622.
Circadian clock genes are critical regulators of energy homeostasis and metabolism. However, whether variation in the circadian genes is associated with metabolic phenotypes in humans remains to be explored. In this study, we systemically genotyped 20 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 candidate genes involved in circadian clock, including CLOCK, BMAL1(ARNTL), PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E,, and NOC(CCRN4L) in 1,510 non-diabetic Chinese subjects in Taipei and Yunlin populations in Taiwan. Their associations with metabolic phenotypes were analyzed. We found that genetic variation in the NOC gene, rs9684900 was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0016, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.032). Another variant, rs135764 in the CSNK1E gene was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.0023, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.046). These associations were consistent in both Taipei and Yunlin populations. Significant epistatic and joint effects between SNPs on BMI and related phenotypes were observed. Furthermore, NOC mRNA levels in human abdominal adipose tissue were significantly increased in obese subjects compared to non-obese controls.
Conclusion
Genetic variation in the NOC gene is associated with BMI in Chinese subjects.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069622
PMCID: PMC3724939  PMID: 23922759
5.  Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 8 new loci for type 2 diabetes in East Asians 
Nature genetics  2011;44(1):67-72.
We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in East Asian populations. The first stage meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases and 11,865 controls) was followed by a second stage in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which were mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression1,2, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels3,4. The evidence of T2D association for PEPD5 and HNF4A6,7 has been detected in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings derived from East Asians provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
doi:10.1038/ng.1019
PMCID: PMC3582398  PMID: 22158537
6.  Common ALDH2 genetic variants predict development of hypertension in the SAPPHIRe prospective cohort: Gene-environmental interaction with alcohol consumption 
Background
Genetic variants near/within the ALDH2 gene encoding the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 have been associated with blood pressure and hypertension in several case–control association studies in East Asian populations.
Methods
Three common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) in the ALDH2 gene were genotyped in 1,134 subjects of Chinese origin from the Stanford Asia-Pacific Program for Hypertension and Insulin Resistance (SAPPHIRe) family cohort. We examined whether the ALDH2 SNP genotypes predicted the development of hypertension in the prospective SAPPHIRe cohort.
Results
Over an average follow-up period of 5.7 years, carriers homozygous for the rs2238152 T allele in the ALDH2 gene were more likely to progress to hypertension than were non-carriers (hazard ratio [HR], 2.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-7.84, P = 0.03), corresponding to a population attributable risk of ~7.1%. The risk associated with the rs2238152 T allele were strongest in heavy/moderate alcohol drinkers and was reduced in non-drinkers, indicating an interaction between ALDH2 genetic variants and alcohol intake on the risk of hypertension (P for interaction = 0.04). The risk allele was associated with significantly lower ALDH2 gene expression levels in human adipose tissue.
Conclusion
ALDH2 genetic variants were associated with progression to hypertension in a prospective Chinese cohort. The association was modified by alcohol consumption.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-58
PMCID: PMC3476438  PMID: 22839215
ALDH2; Hypertension; SNP; Chinese
7.  Cross-Sectional Validation of Diabetes Risk Scores for Predicting Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Taiwanese 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(12):2294-2296.
OBJECTIVE
To validate the performance of current diabetes risk scores (DRSs) based on simple clinical information in detecting type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The performance of 10 DRSs was evaluated in a cross-sectional population screening of 2,759 Taiwanese subjects.
RESULTS
All DRSs significantly correlated with measures of insulin resistance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin excretion. The prevalence of screening-detected diabetes (SDM), MetSyn, and CKD increased with higher DRSs. For prediction of SDM, the Cambridge DRS by Griffin et al. and the Finnish DRS outperformed other DRSs in terms of discriminative power and model fit. For prediction of MetSyn and CKD, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community Study score by Schmidt et al. outperformed other DRSs.
CONCLUSIONS
Risk scores based on simple clinical information are useful to identify individuals at high risk for diabetes, MetSyn, and CKD in different ethnic populations.
doi:10.2337/dc09-0694
PMCID: PMC2782993  PMID: 19755627
8.  SLC2A10 genetic polymorphism predicts development of peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. SLC2A10 and PAD in type 2 diabetes 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:126.
Background
Recent data indicate that loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT10 (SLC2A10) causes arterial tortuosity syndrome via upregulation of the TGF-β pathway in the arterial wall, a mechanism possibly causing vascular changes in diabetes.
Methods
We genotyped 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms and one microsatellite spanning 34 kb across the SLC2A10 gene in a prospective cohort of 372 diabetic patients. Their association with the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in type 2 diabetic patients was analyzed.
Results
At baseline, several common SNPs of SLC2A10 gene were associated with PAD in type 2 diabetic patients. A common haplotype was associated with higher risk of PAD in type 2 diabetic patients (haplotype frequency: 6.3%, P = 0.03; odds ratio [OR]: 14.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3- 160.7) at baseline. Over an average follow-up period of 5.7 years, carriers with the risk-conferring haplotype were more likely to develop PAD (P = 0.007; hazard ratio: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.66- 27.6) than were non-carriers. These associations remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors of PAD.
Conclusion
Our data demonstrate that genetic polymorphism of the SLC2A10 gene is an independent risk factor for PAD in type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-126
PMCID: PMC2939510  PMID: 20735855
9.  The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes: from molecular mechanism to clinical implication 
A surplus of food supply has evoked a worldwide increase in incidence of type 2 diabetes. This trend will have a significant impact on the life span of people living in modern societies. In contrast, reduced calorie intake has significant impact on preventing type 2 diabetes and increasing longevity. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative stress, has long been proposed as a unifying mechanism linking nutrient excess and diabetes. This review describes the updated mechanism by which oxidative stress provoked by nutrient excess contributes to the development of insulin resistance and pancreatic betacell failure. However, despite the promising results in cellular and animal models, major clinical trials have failed to demonstrate beneficial effect of antioxidants on the prevention of type 2 diabetes or the degree of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Emerging evidence shows that ROS also function as an insulin-signaling molecule in normal physiology and casts doubt on the potential beneficial effect of antioxidants. The gap between basic research and clinical outcomes heightens the importance for elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms by which cellular redox status affects insulin signaling.
PMCID: PMC2892404  PMID: 20589170
Reactive oxygen species; type 2 diabetes; insulin resistance; pancreatic beta-cell
10.  Common Variation in the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Confers Risk of Obesity and Modulates BMI in the Chinese Population 
Diabetes  2008;57(8):2245-2252.
OBJECTIVE— Genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been linked with obesity and type 2 diabetes in European populations. We aimed to test the role of FTO genetic variants in obesity and type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We genotyped 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning from the 3′ end of the neighboring RPGRIP1L gene to the 5′ flanking region of the FTO gene. We analyzed their associations with obesity (638 case and 1,610 control subjects), type 2 diabetes (759 case and 784 control subjects), and obesity-related traits in nondiabetic subjects.
RESULTS— Among the 19 SNPs, the rs9939609 A allele was strongly associated with obesity (P = 7.0 × 10−4) and BMI (P = 0.0024) in the Chinese population. The odds ratio for obesity was 2.60 (95% CI 1.24–5.46) (P = 0.011) for the AA genotype and 1.32 (1.05–1.66) (P = 0.018) for the AT genotype compared with the TT genotype. Each additional copy of the rs9936609 A allele was associated with a BMI increase of ∼0.37 kg/m2. The rs9939609 A allele was substantially less common in the Chinese population than in the European population (12.6 vs. 45%). We did not find significant associations of the 19 SNPs with type 2 diabetes or other obesity-related traits.
CONCLUSIONS— Genetic variation in the FTO gene is strongly associated with obesity and BMI in the Chinese population. The risk variant is less common in the Chinese population, but its effect size on BMI is comparable with that in the European population.
doi:10.2337/db08-0377
PMCID: PMC2494679  PMID: 18487448

Results 1-10 (10)