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1.  Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported with Cardiovascular Drugs in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital 
Background
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of non-communicable disease related deaths globally. Patients with cardiovascular diseases are often prescribed multiple drugs and have higher risk for developing more adverse drug reactions due to polypharmacy.
Aim
To evaluate the pattern of adverse drug reactions reported with cardiovascular drugs in an adverse drug reaction monitoring centre (AMC) of a tertiary care hospital.
Settings and Design
Adverse drug reactions related to cardiovascular drugs reported to an AMC of a tertiary care hospital were included in this prospective observational study.
Materials and Methods
All cardiovascular drugs related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) received in AMC through spontaneous reporting system and active surveillance method from January 2011 to March 2013 were analysed for demographic profile, ADR pattern, severity and causality assessment.
Statistical Analysis used
The study used descriptive statistics and the values were expressed in numbers and percentages.
Results
During the study period, a total of 463 ADRs were reported from 397 patients which included 319 males (80.4%) and 78 females (19.6%). The cardiovascular drug related reports constituted 18.1% of the total 2188 ADR reports. In this study, the most common ADRs observed were cough (17.3%), gastritis (7.5%) and fatigue (6.5%). Assessment of ADRs using WHO-causality scale revealed that 62% of ADRs were possible, 28.2% certain and 6.8% probable. As per Naranjo’s scale most of the reports were possible (68.8%) followed by probable (29.7%). According to Hartwig severity scale majority of the reports were mild (95%) followed by moderate (4.5%). A system wise classification of ADRs showed that gastrointestinal system (20.7%) related reactions were the most frequently observed adverse reactions followed by respiratory system (18.4%) related adverse effects. From the reported ADRs, the drugs most commonly associated with ADRs were found to be enalapril (17.5%), atorvastatin (14.9%), aspirin (8.4%) and metoprolol (8.4%).
Conclusion
The cardiovascular drug related adverse effects constituted 18.1% of the total ADRs reported during the study period. Cough, gastritis, fatigue and myalgia by enalapril, aspirin, β-blockers and atorvastatin respectively were found to be the most commonly reported ADRs among the cardiovascular drugs.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/13810.6704
PMCID: PMC4668425  PMID: 26675485
Active surveillance; Causality; Spontaneous reporting
2.  Comparison of Ranolazine and Trimetazidine on Glycemic Status in Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease – A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death around the globe and diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk equivalent. Ranolazine, an anti anginal drug has been found to reduce Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetes patients with chronic angina. However the effect of another antianginal drug trimetazidine, on glycemic status is not clear.
Aim: To compare the effect of ranolazine and trimetazidine on glycemic status in diabetic patients with CAD.
Settings and Design: Patients diagnosed with CAD and diabetes mellitus attending Cardiology Out Patient Department (OPD), Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India were recruited for this randomized open label parallel arm trial.
Materials and Methods: The study conducted from January-2012 to April-2013 had 47 eligible patients diagnosed with CAD and diabetes mellitus. They were randomized to receive either ranolazine 500 mg BD or trimetazidine 35 mg BD for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, QT and QTc intervals were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks.
Statistical Analysis: Unpaired t-test was used to compare the baseline characteristics of between the groups while comparison within the groups were done using Paired t-test. Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests were used for non parametric data. Graph pad instat version-3 was used for statistical analysis. Values were expressed as mean ± SD. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The study could not find any change in HbA1c levels in both ranolazine and trimetazidine groups. The adverse effects reported from patients on ranolazine include angina, constipation, postural hypotension, headache, dizziness, nausea and weakness while patients on trimetazidine complained of constipation, weakness, palpitations, angina, dizziness, nausea, dyspepsia, headache, gastric discomfort, joint pain, etc.
Conclusion: In patients with chronic angina and diabetes mellitus Ranolazine 500mg BD and Trimetazidine 35mg BD did not show any effect on HbA1c and fasting blood glucose lebel.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/10594.5448
PMCID: PMC4347105  PMID: 25738014
Glycemic status; HbA1c; QTc; Ranolazine; Trimetazidine
3.  Adverse drug reactions of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: A single-center surveillance study 
Objective:
To monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with imatinib treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out by the Departments of Pharmacology and Medical Oncology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India. The study was carried out from March 2012 to February 2014. The ADRs were reported in a suspected Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting form, provided by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The ADRs were analyzed for their pattern, causality and severity.
Results:
A total of 326 ADRs from 81 patients were reported during the study period. The hematological toxicities were much more prominent than the non-hematological toxicities in this study. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia (21.17%) was higher compared with other reactions. Further analysis showed that most of the ADRs were mild to moderate in nature. The causality assessment revealed that the majority of the ADRs belonged to the possible category.
Conclusion:
The present study in a tertiary care hospital suggests that hematological toxicities are predominant in CML patients treated with imatinib mesylate. The blood and lymphatic system (38.96%) was the most affected, with imatinib therapy and thrombocytopenia (21.17%) being the most commonly encountered ADRs in the present study. Thorough monitoring of ADRs is warranted for better treatment outcomes.
doi:10.4103/0976-500X.149141
PMCID: PMC4319245  PMID: 25709349
Adverse drug reactions; chronic myeloid leukemia; hematological toxicities; imatinib mesylate; thrombocytopenia
4.  Anticancer Drug Induced Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia 
Background: Palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) is a dose limiting toxicity of anticancer agents. In some cases it may mandate for discontinuation of anticancer agents. Evaluation of data of PPE among reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from the Department of Medical Oncology could quantify the burden.
Aim: To evaluate and analyse the PPE among reported ADRs from medical Oncology.
Materials and Methods: The data of all cases of reported PPE were collected during January 2012 to September 2013 and were analysed with WHO causality assessment scale. The severity was clinically graded. The follow-up data regarding outcome of ADRs were also noted.
Results: During the study period of 21 months a total of 1418 ADRs have been reported from 1076 patients. Among them PPE was reported from 31 cases (2.9%). Majority (32.2%) of these patients were on chemotherapy for breast cancer. Patient’s age ranged from 17 to 68 y and the median age was 50 y. There were 18 female (58%) and 13 male patients (42%). Capecitabine was the leading drug involved in PPE, reported with 20 cases (64.5%), and followed by docetaxel with 5 cases (16.1%). Majority (67.7%) of the reactions was categorized as certain and 64.5% was grade II severity clinically.
Conclusion: Our findings show that PPE accounts for 2.9% of total reported ADRs from Medical Oncology during 21 months. Majority of the reactions were classified as certain. Capecitabine is commonly implicated drug.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9133.4975
PMCID: PMC4253184  PMID: 25478366
Adverse drug reaction; Anticancer drugs; Hand foot syndrome; Palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia; Pharmacoepidemiology; Pharmacovigilance
5.  Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population 
Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ATM gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population.
Context:
The novel polymorphism in ATM gene (rs11212617), which is implicated to have association with metformin response, exhibits inter-ethnic variability in the allele and genotype frequency distribution.
Aims and Design:
The objective of the present study is to establish the allele and genotype frequency of rs11212617 single nucleotide polymorphism in ATM gene, in South Indian population and to find if this variant has any role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods:
The study was performed in 2 cohorts of populations, 112 healthy volunteers and 118 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes by phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan assay.
Results:
In South Indian population, the frequency of major A allele was 0.65 and the minor C allele was 0.35. AA and CC are the homozygous genotypes with frequency of 0.39 and 0.09 respectively. The frequency of heterozygous genotype AC (0.52) was found to be higher than the homozygotes. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution in the diabetic population, which implies that this variant does not have any causative role in the disease etiology. The frequency distributions were found to be significantly different from the distributions in other ethnic populations such as Caucasians, Chinese, Japanese and Africans. But there was no significant difference when compared with the Gujarati Indians of Houston.
Conclusion:
The frequency distribution of this novel variant in South Indian population forms a framework for further gene disease association studies to establish the association of this variant with metformin response. Our study could not find any association of this variant with respect to the disease etiology.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.119944
PMCID: PMC4192993  PMID: 25364682
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene; diabetes; metformin
6.  Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling 
A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR) was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) causality assessment, Naranjo's and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as “certain”. This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo's algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig's severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.
doi:10.4103/0976-500X.142446
PMCID: PMC4231558  PMID: 25422569
Adverse drug reaction; oyster shell calcium; parotid swelling
7.  Ethics of genomic research 
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.106405
PMCID: PMC3601693  PMID: 23533991
8.  Effect of eNOS polymorphisms on salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in South Indian healthy subjects 
Background:
The model of pulse plethysmograph using inhalational salbutamol 400 mcg is studied well to assess endothelium dependent vasodilation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism may influence the response to salbutamol in healthy subjects.
Aim:
To find the effect of polymorphisms 894G>T and -786T>C of eNOS gene on endothelium dependent vasodilation in healthy subjects.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and two south Indian healthy subjects of either sex, aged between 18 to 35 years were recruited for the study. The digital volume pulse (DVP)was measured by pulse plethysmograph before and after salbutamol 400mcg inhalation. Three predose and five postdose recordings of DVP were measured. The average change in the DVP parameters namely reflection index (RI) and stiffness index (SI) were determined. The eNOS894G>T and -786T>C gene polymorphism were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The percentage changes in RI and SI from predose baseline recordings were calculated and compared between the genotype groups.
Results:
The genotype and allele frequency of study subjects were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The changes in DVP parameters were not significantly different between the genotype groups.
Conclusion:
eNOS polymorphism do not affect salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in the model of pulse plethysmograph in healthy subjects.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.106427
PMCID: PMC3608305  PMID: 23543259
Digital volume pulse; endothelium dependent vasodilation; eNOS; pulse plethysmograph; polymorphism
9.  Body mass index contributes to sympathovagal imbalance in prehypertensives 
Background
The present study was conducted to assess the nature of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) in prehypertensives by short-term analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) to understand the alteration in autonomic modulation and the contribution of BMI to SVI in the genesis of prehypertension.
Methods
Body mass index (BMI), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product (RPP) and HRV indices such as total power (TP), low-frequency power (LF), normalized LF (LFnu), high-frequency power (HF), normalized HF (HFnu), LF-HF ratio, mean heart rate (mean RR), square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD), standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN), the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms (NN50) and the proportion derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of NN intervals (pNN50) were assessed in three groups of subjects: normotensives having normal BMI (Group 1), prehypertensives having normal BMI (Group 2) and prehypertensives having higher BMI (Group 3). SVI was assessed from LF-HF ratio and correlated with BMI, BHR, BP and RPP in all the groups by Pearson correlation. The contribution of BMI to SVI was assessed by multiple regression analysis.
Results
LF and LFnu were significantly increased and HF and HFnu were significantly decreased in prehypertensive subjects in comparison to normotensive subjects and the magnitude of these changes was more prominent in subjects with higher BMI compared to that of normal BMI. LF-HF ratio, the sensitive indicator of sympathovagal balance had significant correlation with BMI (P = 0.000) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.002) in prehypertensives. BMI was found to be an independent contributing factor to SVI (P = 0.001) in prehypertensives.
Conclusions
It was concluded that autonomic imbalance in prehypertensives manifested in the form of increased sympathetic activity and vagal inhibition. In prehypertensives with higher BMI, vagal withdrawal was predominant than sympathetic overactivity. Magnitude of SVI (alteration in LF-HF ratio) was linked to changes in BMI and DBP. BMI had an independent influence on LF-HF ratio. It was advised that life-style modifications such as yoga and exercise would enable achieve the sympathovagal balance and blood pressure homeostasis in prehypertensives.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-54
PMCID: PMC3441642  PMID: 22812583
Prehypertension; Heart rate variability; Body mass index; Sympathovagal imbalance; LF-HF ratio
10.  Relative Copy Number Variations of CYP2C19 in South Indian Population 
CYP2C19 is a polymorphic enzyme involved in the metabolism of clinically important drugs. Genotype-phenotype association studies of CYP2C19 have reported wide ranges in the metabolic ratios of its substrates. These discrepancies could be attributed to the variations in the promoter region and this aspect has been reported recently. The observations in the recent reports on the influence of promoter region variants on the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates might also have been influenced by the copy number variations of CYP2C19. In this paper, we describe copy number variations of CYP2C19 using real-time polymerase chain reaction by comparative Ct method. No copy number variations were observed in the south Indian population indicating the observed discrepancies in genotype-phenotype association studies might be due to the regulatory region polymorphisms as reported earlier.
doi:10.1155/2012/643856
PMCID: PMC3389726  PMID: 22792463

Results 1-10 (10)