China’s food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution’s technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield.
The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land.
Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s — the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China’s major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980.
Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the ‘Agricultural Miracle in China’ would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving inherent soil productivity.
Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) is a hallmark of the metastatic cascade. Cancer cells require adhesion to surrounding tissues for efficient migration to occur, which is mediated through the integrin family of receptors. Alterations in expression levels of β1 and β3 integrins have previously been reported in a number of human cancers. However, whether there are specific roles for these ubiquitous receptors in mediating cell invasion remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that loss of β1 but not β3 integrins leads to increased spread cell area and focal adhesion number in cells on 2D immobilized fibronectin. Increased adhesion numbers in β1 knockdown cells correlated with decreased cell migration on 2D surfaces. Conversely, cells depleted of β1 integrins showed increased migration speed on 3D cell-derived matrix as well as in 3D organotypic cultures and inverted invasion assays. This increased invasive potential was also seen in cells lacking β3 integrin but only in 3D cultures containing fibroblasts. Mechanistically, in situ analysis using FRET biosensors revealed that enhanced invasion in cells lacking β1 integrins was directly coupled with reduced activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the small GTPase RhoA resulting in formation of enhanced dynamic protrusions and increased invasion. These reductions in FAK-RhoA signal activationwere not detected in β3 knockdown cells under the same conditions. This data demonstrates a specific role for β1 integrins in the modulation of a FAK-RhoA-actomyosin signaling axis to regulate cell invasion through complex ECM environments.
We examined the hypothesis that adipocyte dysfunction in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet can be prevented by lentiviral-mediated and adipocyte specific-targeting delivery of the human heme oxygenase-1 (aP2-HO-1). A bolus intracardial injection of aP2-HO-1 resulted in expression of human HO-1 for up to 9.5 months. Transduction of aP2-HO-1 increased human HO-1 expression in fat tissues without affecting murine HO-1. In mice fed a HF diet, aP2-HO-1 transduction attenuated the increases in body weight, blood glucose, blood pressure and inflammatory cytokines as well as the content of both visceral and subcutaneous fat. Transduction of aP2-HO-1 increased the numbers of adipocytes of small cell size (p<0.05), insulin sensitivity (p<0.05),adiponectin levels as well as vascular relaxation to acetylcholine compared to HF mice administered the aP2-Green Fluorescent Protein (aP2-GFP). Adipocytes of mice fed a HF diet expressed high levels of PPARγ, aP2, C/EBP and Wnt5b proteins and displayed marked increases in Peg1/Mest (p<0.03). Transduction of aP2-HO-1 lowered the elevated levels of these proteins and increased Shh, Wnt10b and β-catenin (p<0.05). Inhibition of HO activity by administration of tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) to HF-fed mice transduced with the aP2-HO-1 reversed the decrease in Peg 1/Mest, TNFα and MCP-1 levels. Collectively, this novel study demonstrates that adipocyte-specific overexpression of HO-1 attenuates HF-mediated adiposity and vascular dysfunction, increases insulin sensitivity and improves adipocyte function by increasing adiponectin, Shh and WNT10b and decreasing inflammatory cytokines.
HO-1; adiposity; Wnt 10b; Peg1/Mest; lentivirus
Previous studies related impaired myocardial microcirculation in diabetes to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the effect of up-regulating pAMPK-pAKT signaling on coronary microvascular reactivity in the isolated heart of diabetic mice. We measured coronary resistance in wild-type and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice, during perfusion pressure changes. Glucose, insulin, and adiponectin levels in plasma and superoxide formation, NOx levels and heme oxygenase (HO) activity in myocardial tissue were determined. In addition, the expression of HO-1, 3-nitrotyrosine, pLKB1, pAMPK, pAKT, and peNOS proteins in control and diabetic hearts were measured. Coronary response to changes in perfusion pressure diverged from control in a time-dependent manner following STZ administration. The responses observed at 28 weeks of diabetes (the maximum time examined) were mimicked by L-NAME administration to control animals and were associated with a decrease in serum adiponectin and myocardial pLKB1, pAMPK, pAKT, and pGSK-3 expression. Cobalt protoporphyrin treatment to induce HO-1 expression reversed the microvascular reactivity seen in diabetes towards that of controls. Up-regulation of HO-1 was associated with an increase in adiponectin, pLKB1, pAKT, pAMPK, pGSK-3, and peNOS levels and a decrease in myocardial superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. In the present study we describe the time course of microvascular functional changes during the development of diabetes and the existence of a unique relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin, pLKB1, pAKT, and pAMPK activation in diabetic hearts. The restoration of microvascular function suggests a new therapeutic approach to even advanced cardiac microvascular derangement in diabetes.
Coronary Microcirculation; Diabetic Cardiomyopathy; Heme-Oxygenase-1; Endothelial Dysfunction; Adiponectin
Within the accompanying paper (Reger, A. S, Wu, R., Dunaway-Mariano, D. and Gulick, A. M. (2008) Crystallographic trapping of a 140° domain movement in the two-step reaction catalyzed by 4 chlorobenzoate:CoA ligase. Biochemistry) we reported the X-ray structure of 4-chlorobenzoate: CoA ligase (CBL) bound with 4-chlorobenzoyl-adenylate (4-CB-AMP) and the X-ray structure of CBL bound with 4-chlorophenacyl-CoA (4-CP-CoA) (an inert analog of the product 4-chlorobenzoyl-coenzyme A (4-CB-CoA)) and AMP. These structures defined two CBL conformational states. In conformation 1, CBL is poised to catalyze the adenylation of 4-chlorobenzoate (4-CB) with ATP (partial reaction 1) and in conformation 2, CBL is poised to catalyze the formation of 4-CB-CoA from 4-CB-AMP and CoA (partial reaction 2). These two structures showed that, by switching from conformation 1 to conformation 2, the cap domain rotates about the domain linker and thereby changes its interface with the N-terminal domain. The present work was carried out to determine the contributions made by each of the active site residues in substrate/cofactor binding and catalysis, and also to test the role of domain alternation in catalysis. In this paper, we report the results of steady-state kinetic and transient state kinetic analysis of wild-type CBL and of a series of site-directed CBL active site mutants. The major findings are as follows. First, wild-type CBL is activated by Mg+2 (a 12 to 75-fold increase in activity is observed depending on assay conditions) and its kinetic mechanism (ping-pong) supports the structure-derived prediction that PPi dissociation must precede the switch from conformation 1 to conformation 2 and therefore, CoA binding. Also, transient kinetic analysis of wild-type CBL identified the rate-limiting step of the catalyzed reaction as one that follows the formation of 4-CB-CoA (viz. CBL conformational change and/or product dissociation). The single turnover rate of 4-CB and ATP to form 4-CB-AMP and PPi (k= 300 s−1) is not effected by the presence of CoA, and it is ~3-fold faster than the turnover rate of 4-CB-AMP and CoA to form 4-CB-CoA and AMP (k= 120 s−1). Second, the active site mutants screened via steady-state kinetic analysis, were ranked based on the degree of reduction observed in any one of the substrate kcat/Km values, and those scoring higher than a 50-fold reduction in kcat/Km value were selected for further evaluation via transient state kinetic analysis. The single-turnover time courses, measured for the first partial reaction, and then for the full reaction, were analyzed to define the microscopic rate constants for the adenylation reaction and the thioesterification reaction. Based on our findings we propose a catalytic mechanism that centers on a small group of key residues (some of which serve in more than one role) and that includes several residues that function in domain alternation.
4-chlorobenzoate: CoA ligase; 4-chlorobenzoate; aromatic degradation; coenzyme A; 4-chlorobenzoyl-adenosine-5′-monophosphate; 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA; adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily; acyl-adenylate; catalytic mechanism; rapid quench; transient kinetics; kinetic mechanism; domain alternation; separate site catalysis
Cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells have been identified in many solid tumors; however, most of these investigations are performed using established cancer cell lines. Cancer cells in tumor tissue containing fibroblasts and many other types of cells are much more complex than any cancer cell line. Although SP cells were identified in the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell line Hep-2 in our pilot study, it is unknown whether the LSCC tissue contains SP cells. In this study, LSCC cells (LSCCs) were primary cultured and purified from a surgically resected LSCC specimen derived from a well-differentiated epiglottic neoplasm of a Chinese male. This was followed by the verification of epithelium-specific characteristics, such as ultrastructure and biomarkers. A distinct SP subpopulation (4.45±1.07%) was isolated by Hoechst 33342 efflux analysis from cultured LSCCs by using a flow cytometer. Cancer stem cell (CSC)-associated assays, including expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, proliferation, differentiation, spheroid formation, chemotherapy resistance, and tumorigenicity were then conducted between SP and non-SP (NSP) LSCCs. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that SP cells manifested preferential expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, higher capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and spheroid formation; enhanced resistance to chemotherapy; and greater xenograft tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice compared with NSP cells. These findings suggest that the primary cultured and purified LSCCs contain cancer stem-like SP cells, which may serve as a valuable model for CSC research in LSCC.
Despite the fact that mitochondrial dysfunction has an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Mitochondrial Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and the largest protein complex of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain (ETC),which has an essential role in maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. In this study, we separately knocked down two subunits of mitochondrial complex I, GRIM-19 or NDUFS3, and investigated their effects on metastatic behaviors and explored the possible mechanisms. Our data showed that stable down-modulation of GRIM-19 or NDUFS3 decreased complex I activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; led to enhanced cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and spheroid formation; and influenced the expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and its related proteins. We also observed that the expressions of GRIM-19, NDUFS3, and ECM elements were correlated with invasive capabilities of breast cancer cell lines. These results suggest that inhibition of complex I affects metastatic properties of cancer cells, and mitochondrial ROS might play a crucial role in these processes by regulating ECM.
Cystic echinococcosis is a global parasitic disease caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus larvae with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. To date, the status of the immune cells believed to be associated with the pathogenicity of E. granulosus infection has not been demonstrated clearly.
In this study, we developed a multiplex flow cytometry assay to investigate the systemic immune status of innate and adaptive immunity at 30, 180, 360 days post-infection (dpi) in mice infected with E. granulousus. At 30 dpi, an increase in the number of CD11b+ and CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was observed. This was accompanied by the slight down-regulated expression of the co-stimulatory molecule MHC-II, indicating the impairment of APCs in early infection through the release of secretory-excretory products. In all infected groups, we observed a significant increase in innate immune cells, including APCs and GR-1+ cells, and a dramatic increase in the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) expressing CD11b+/GR-1+. Moreover, the upregulation of the activated markers CD69, CD44, CD40L, and the downregulation of CD62L were observed in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following infection. Regulatory T cells expressing CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+ increased significantly over the course of infection.
Our findings demonstrate that the microenvironment in the peripheral immune system after E. granulosus infection changes in subtle but detectably ways, especially during the persistent period of infection. We found that T cells were activated following infection, but observed that the significant increase of immunosuppressive cells such as MDSC and Treg cells could inhibit T cell response to E. granulosus antigens. We suggest these cells may play a neglected but key role in the downregulation of the immune response in long-term parasitic infection. Understanding the basic functions and temporal interactions of these immunosuppressive cells will pave the way for new strategies of parasite vaccine design.
Cardiolipin, a major component of mitochondria, is critical for mitochondrial functioning including the regulation of cytochrome c release during apoptosis and proper electron transport. Mitochondrial cardiolipin with its unique bulky amphipathic structure is a potential substrate for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in vivo. We have developed mass spectrometric methodology for analyzing PLA2 activity toward various cardiolipin forms and demonstrate that cardiolipin is a substrate for sPLA2, cPLA2 and iPLA2, but not for Lp-PLA2. Our results also show that none of these PLA2s have significant PLA1 activities toward dilyso-cardiolipin. To understand the mechanism of cardiolipin hydrolysis by PLA2, we also quantified the release of monolyso-cardiolipin and dilyso-cardiolipin in the PLA2 assays. The sPLA2s caused an accumulation of dilyso-cardiolipin, in contrast to iPLA2 which caused an accumulation of monolyso-cardiolipin. Moreover, cardiolipin inhibits iPLA2 and cPLA2, and activates sPLA2 at low mol fractions in mixed micelles of Triton X-100 with the substrate 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-phosphtidylcholine. Thus, cardiolipin functions as both a substrate and a regulator of PLA2 activity and the ability to assay the various forms of PLA2 is important in understanding its function.
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, is reported to have anticancer activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which casticin induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and A2780 were cultured in vitro. Various molecular techniques, including histone/DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and gene transfection, were used to assess the expression of FOXO3a and forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) in casticin-treated ovarian cancer cell lines. Casticin-induced apoptotic cell death was accompanied by the activation of transcription factor FOXO3a, with a concomitant decrease in the expression levels of FoxM1 and its downstream target factors, namely survivin and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and an increase in p27KIP1. A small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) knockout of FoxM1 potentiated casticin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Silencing FOXO3a expression using siRNA increased FoxM1 expression levels and clearly attenuated the induction of apoptosis by casticin treatment. These results show that casticin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer may be caused by the activation of FOXO3a, leading to FoxM1 inhibition.
ovarian cancer; casticin; FOXO3a; forkhead box protein M1; apoptosis
To assess the prevalence of and related risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Two hundred and forty-six elderly patients (75.9 ± 7.4 years) with CAD who received daily aspirin therapy (≥ 75 mg) over one month were recruited. The effect of aspirin was assessed using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and thrombelastography platelet mapping assay (TEG). Aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 20% arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation and ≥ 70% adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation in the LTA assay. An aspirin semi-responder was defined as meeting one (but not both) of the criteria described above. Based on the results of TEG, aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 50% aggregation induced by AA.
As determined by LTA, 23 (9.3%) of the elderly CAD patients were resistant to aspirin therapy; 91 (37.0%) were semi-responders. As determined by TEG, 61 patients (24.8%) were aspirin resistant. Of the 61 patients who were aspirin resistant by TEG, 19 were aspirin resistant according to LTA results. Twenty-four of 91 semi-responders by LTA were aspirin resistant by TEG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated fasting serum glucose level (Odds ratio: 1.517; 95% CI: 1.176–1.957; P = 0.001) was a significant risk factor for aspirin resistance as determined by TEG.
A significant number of elderly patients with CAD are resistant to aspirin therapy. Fasting blood glucose level is closely associated with aspirin resistance in elderly CAD patients.
Aspirin resistance; Coronary artery disease; Risk factors
Background & Aims
Integrity of the intestinal epithelium is required for nutrition absorption and defense against pathogens. Claudins are cell adhesion molecules that localize at tight junctions (TJs); many are expressed in the intestinal tract, but little is known about their functions. Claudin-7 is unique in that it has a stronger basolateral membrane distribution than other claudins, which localize primarily to apical TJs in the intestinal epithelium. We investigated the basolateral functions of claudin-7 and assessed the effects of disruption of Cldn7 in intestines of mice.
We generated Cldn7−/− mice and examined their intestines by histology, molecular and cellular biology, and biochemistry approaches. We carried out gene silencing experiments in epithelial cell lines using small interfering (si)RNAs.
The Cldn7−/− mice had severe intestinal defects that included mucosal ulcerations, epithelial cell sloughing, and inflammation. Intestines of Cldn7−/− mice produced significantly higher levels of cytokines, the NF-κB p65 subunit, and COX-2; they also upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-3 and -7. siRNA in epithelial cell lines demonstrated that the increased expression of MMP-3 resulted directly from claudin-7 depletion, whereas that of MMP-7 resulted from inflammation. Electron microscopy analysis showed that intestines of Cldn7−/− mice had intercellular gaps below TJs and cell-matrix loosening. Deletion of Cldn7 reduced expression and altered localization of the integrin α2 subunit; disrupted formation of complexes of claudin-7, integrin α2, and claudin-1 that normally form in epithelial basolateral compartments of intestines.
In mice, claudin-7 has non-TJ functions, including maintenance of epithelial cell–matrix interactions and intestinal homeostasis.
Mucosal integrity; epithelial barrier; mouse model; permeability; IBD
During the process of tumor invasion, cells require footholds on extracellular matrices (ECM) that are created by forming focal adhesions (FAs) using integrins. On the other hand, cells must degrade the ECM barrier using extracellular proteases including MMPs in the direction of cell movement. Degradation occurs at the leading edges or invadopodia of cells, which are enriched in proteases and adhesion molecules. Recently, we showed that the phosphoinositide-binding protein ZF21 regulates FA disassembly. ZF21 increased cell migration by promoting the turnover of FAs. In addition, ZF21 promotes experimental tumor metastasis to lung in mice and its depletion suppresses it. However, it is not known whether ZF21 regulates cancer cell invasion in addition to its activity on FAs. In this study, we demonstrate that ZF21 also regulates invasion of tumor cells, whereas it does not affect the overall production of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP by the cells. Also, we observe that the ECM-degrading activity specifically at the invadopodia is severely abrogated. In the ZF21 depleted cells MT1-MMP cannot accumulate to the invadopodia and thereby cannot contribute to the ECM degradation. Thus, this study demonstrates that ZF21 is a key player regulating multiple aspects of cancer cell migration and invasion. Possible mechanisms regulating ECM degradation at the invadopodia are discussed.
In this study, we evaluate the effect of HO-1 upregulation on blood pressure and cardiac function in the new model of infarct spontaneous hypertensive rats (ISHR). Male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) at 13 weeks (n = 40) and age-matched male Wistar (WT) rats (n = 20) were divided into six groups: WT (sham + normal saline (NS)), WT (sham + Co(III) Protoporphyrin IX Chloride (CoPP)), SHR (myocardial infarction (MI) + NS), SHR (MI + CoPP), SHR (MI + CoPP + Tin Mesoporphyrin IX Dichloride (SnMP)), SHR (sham + NS); CoPP 4.5 mg/kg, SnMP 15 mg/kg, for six weeks, one/week, i.p., n = 10/group. At the sixth week, echocardiography (UCG) and hemodynamics were performed. Then, blood samples and heart tissue were collected. Copp treatment in the SHR (MI + CoPP) group lowered blood pressure, decreased infarcted area, restored cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), +dp/dtmax, (−dp/dtmax)/left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP)), inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular enlargement (downregulating left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD) and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW)), lowered serum CRP, IL-6 and Glu levels and increased serum TB, NO and PGI2 levels. Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed that HO-1 expression was elevated in the SHR (MI + CoPP) group, while co-administration with SnMP suppressed the benefit functions mentioned above. In conclusion, HO-1 upregulation can lower blood pressure and improve post-infarct cardiac function in the ISHR model. These functions may be involved in the inhibition of inflammation and the ventricular remodeling process and in the amelioration of glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction.
hypertension; myocardial infarction; heme oxygenase; bilirubin
Prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSLCs) are considered to be the ‘seed’ of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to confirm that the PC-3 cells, which we isolated and enriched from PC-3 cells through magnetic bead cell sorting (MACS) and serum-free medium (SFM) culture, were PCSLCs. Combinations of MACS, flow cytometry (FCM), SFM and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to ensure the positive expression of CD133 and CD44 on PC-3 and sphere-forming cell membranes. Self-renewal, multi-potential differentiation, unlimited proliferation and permanency assays were also applied to indentify whether the PC-3 cells exhibited the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs). As a result, there was a low proportion of PCSLCs in the PC-3 cells. In the FCM assay, the proportion of cells expressing CD133 or CD44 in the PC-3 cells was 0.51 and 0.31%, respectively. In addition, we found that the proportion of PC-3 cells sorted by MACS that expressed CD133 was significantly increased compared with that of the sphere-forming cells cultured in SFM (99.09 vs. 84.80%, P<0.05), while no difference was observed in the proportion of cells expressing CD44 between them (99.88 vs. 99.82%, P>0.05). The expression of PAP and AR as detected by western blot analysis of induced PCSLCs was significantly increased compared with that of uninduced PCSLCs (P<0.05); the proliferation capacity of PCSLCs was significantly higher than that of both the PC-3 cells (P<0.05) and induced PCSLCs (P<0.05). Furthermore, the PCSLCs that were isolated from SFM and MACS both demonstrated certain characteristics of stem cells and should be considered as stem cell-like. These data may hold potential for further exploring the role of PCSLCs.
prostate cancer; stem cell; PC-3 cell; CD133; CD44; magnetic bead cell sorting; serum-free medium
We previously demonstrated that 5,7-dihydroxy-8-nitrochrysin (NOC), a novel synthetic chrysin analog, preferentially inhibits HER-2/neu-overexpressing MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis; however, the precise molecular mechanism was unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that NOC significantly induces apoptosis of MDA-MB-453 cells and that this is primarily mediated through a mitochondrial death cascade. This was presented as a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9. NOC induces a significant increase in levels of the BH3-only protein Bim. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Bim markedly attenuated NOC-induced apoptosis. An upstream transcriptional regulator of Bim, forkhead box O3a transcription factor (FOXO3a), experienced a decrease in phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Silencing of FOXO3a resulted in a marked attenuation in the expression of Bim, as well as protection against NOC-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, NOC-induced activation and nuclear localization of FOXO3a was associated with reduced levels of Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that NOC induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-453 human breast cancer cells via caspase activation and modulation of the Akt/FOXO3a pathway.
breast cancer; chrysin; 5,7-dihydroxy-8-nitrochrysin; Akt; forkhead box O3a; Bim
AIM: To investigate whether the 7-difluoromethoxyl-5, 4’-di-n-octylgenistein (DFOG), a novel synthetic genistein analogue, affects the growth of gastric cancer cells and its mechanisms.
METHODS: A series of genistein analogues were prepared by difluoromethylation and alkylation, and human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and SGC-7901 cultured in vitro were treated with various concentrations of genistein and genistein analogues. The cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cells were incubated by DFOG at different concentrations. The growth inhibitory effects were evaluated using MTT and clonogenic assay. The distribution of the phase in cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. The expression of the transcription factor forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The expression levels of CDK1, Cdc25B, cyclin B and p27KIP1 protein were detected using Western blotting.
RESULTS: Nine of the genistein analogues had more effective antitumor activity than genistein. Among the tested analogues, DFOG possessed the strongest activity against AGS and SGC-7901 cells in vitro. DFOG significantly inhibited the cell viability and colony formation of AGS and SGC-7901 cells. Moreover, DFOG efficaciously arrested the cell cycle in G2/M phase. DFOG decreased the expression of FOXM1 and its downstream genes, such as CDK1, Cdc25B, cyclin B, and increased p27KIP1 at protein levels. Knockdown of FOXM1 by small interfering RNA before DFOG treatment resulted in enhanced cell growth inhibition in AGS cells. Up-regulation of FOXM1 by cDNA transfection attenuated DFOG-induced cell growth inhibition in AGS cells.
CONCLUSION: DFOG inhibits the growth of human gastric cancer cells by down-regulating the FOXM1 expression.
Gastric cancer; 7-difluoromethoxyl-5,4’-di-n-octylgenistein; Genistein; Forkhead box M1; Therapeutic action
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that upregulated expression of KIAA1199 in human cancer bodes for poor survival. The regulatory mechanism controlling KIAA1199 expression in cancer remains to be characterized. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized the human KIAA1199 promoter in terms of regulation of KIAA1199 gene expression. A 3.3 kb fragment of human genomic DNA containing the 5′-flanking sequence of the KIAA1199 gene possesses both suppressive and activating elements. Employing a deletion mutagenesis approach, a 1.4 kb proximal region was defined as the basic KIAA1199 promoter containing a TATA-box close to the transcription start site. A combination of 5′-primer extension study with 5′RACE DNA sequencing analysis revealed one major transcription start site that is utilized in the human KIAA1199 gene. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the 1.4 kb KIAA1199 promoter contains putative activating regulatory elements, including activator protein-1(AP-1), Twist-1, and NF-κB sites. Sequential deletion and site-direct mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that the AP-1 and distal NF-κB sites are required for KIAA1199 gene expression. Further analyses using an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the requirement of these cis- and trans-acting elements in controlling KIAA1199 gene expression. Finally, we found that upregulated KIAA1199 expression in human breast cancer specimens correlated with hypomethylation of the regulatory region. Involvement of DNA methylation in regulation of KIAA1199 expression was recapitulated in human breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, our study unraveled the regulatory mechanisms controlling KIAA1199 gene expression in human cancer.
Although angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are equally important in the treatment of hypertension, there is less evidence whether they have equal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective effects, especially in elder hypertensive patients. This study aims to clarify this unresolved issue.
This cross-sectional study included clinical data on 933 aged male patients with hypertension who received either an ARB or ACEI for more than two months between January 2007 and May 2011. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. The secondary endpoints were unstable angina, new atrial fibrillation, and transient ischemic attack.
The median follow-up time was 24 months. Age, drug types, cerebral infarction history, renal dysfunction history were the independent predictors of the primary endpoint. The risk of an occurrence of a primary endpoint event was higher in the ARB group than the ACEI group [P = 0.037, hazard ratios (HR): 2.124, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.048–4.306]. The Kaplan-Meier method also suggests that the rate of primary endpoint occurrence was higher in the ARB group than the ACEI group (P = 0.04). In regard to the secondary endpoints, there were no significant differences between the two treatment arms (P = 0.137, HR: 1.454, 95% CI: 0.888–2.380). Patient age and coronary heart disease history were independent predictors of the secondary endpoint.
ACEI were more effective than ARB in reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in aged patients with hypertension.
Angiotensin receptor blocker; Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; Angiotensin type 2 receptor
The data are inconsistent regarding whether extreme N-terminal fragment pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) levels are associated with impaired renal function. Furthermore, the relationship between extreme NT pro-BNP levels and cardiac and renal function in elderly patients has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine a hypothesis that extreme NT pro-BNP levels may be associated with impaired cardiac and renal function in elderly patients.
We retrospectively analyzed the data of demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic features on 152 consecutive elderly patients aged more than 80 years old (average age, 83.65 ± 3.58 years) with NT pro-BNP levels ≥ 3000 pg/ml. The participants were divided into two categories according to their NT pro-BNP levels: (1) 3000–10000 pg/mL and (2) >10000 pg /mL.
The number of patients with impaired renal function (P = 0.019) and the mortality (P < 0.001) in the period of inpatient was higher in the group with NT pro-BNP > 10000 pg /mL. The levels of serum creatinine and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) in the group of NT pro-BNP > 10000 pg / mL were higher than those in the group of NT pro-BNP = 3000-10000 pg/mL (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). Furthermore, no significant difference in the distribution by NYHA class in different NT pro-BNP levels was observed. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that with NT pro-BNP levels as the dependent variable, NT pro-BNP levels were positively correlated with CK-MB (β = 0.182, P = 0.024) and creatinine levels (β = 0.281, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of NT pro-BNP levels and clinical diagnosis of impaired renal function was 0.596 and reached significant difference (95%CI:0.503-0.688, P = 0.044).
These data suggest that the extreme elevation of NT pro-BNP levels (≥3000 pg/ml) is mainly determined by impaired renal function in elderly patients above 80 years. Extreme NT pro-BNP levels may be useful for assessing the severity of impaired renal function.
NT pro-BNP; Factors; Elderly; Impaired renal function
Lack of target specificity by existing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors has hindered anti-metastatic cancer drug discovery. Inhibitors that bind to non-catalytic sites of MMPs and disrupt protease signaling function have the potential to be more specific and selective. In this work, compounds that target the hemopexin (PEX) domain of MMP-9 were identified using an in silico docking approach and evaluated using biochemical and biological approaches. Two of the selected compounds interfere with MMP-9-mediated cancer cell migration and proliferation in cells expressing exogenous or endogenous MMP-9. Furthermore, these inhibitors do not modulate MMP-9 catalytic activity. The lead compound, N-[4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-[(4-oxo-6-propyl-1H-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfanyl]-acetamide, specifically binds to the PEX domain of MMP-9, but not other MMPs. This interaction between the compound and the PEX domain results in the abrogation of MMP-9 homodimerization and leads to blockage of a downstream signaling pathway required for MMP-9-mediated cell migration. In a tumor xenografic model, this pyrimidinone retarded MDA-MB-435 tumor growth and inhibited lung metastasis. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time that a novel small molecule interacts specifically with the PEX domain of MMP-9 and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by reducing cell migration and proliferation.
MMP-9; small molecule compound; hemopexin; migration; metastasis
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) plays important roles in both the inhibition and promotion of inflammation in human disease. It catalyzes the hydrolytic inactivation of plasma platelet activating factor (PAF) and is also known as PAF acetylhydrolase. High levels of PAF are implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as asthma, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. Lp-PLA2 also associates with lipoproteins in human plasma where it hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids to produce pro-inflammatory lipid mediators that can promote inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. Lp-PLA2 plasma levels have recently been identified as a biomarker of vascular inflammation, atherosclerotic vulnerability, and future cardiovascular events. The enzyme is thus a prominent target for the development of inflammation and atherosclerosis-modulating therapeutics. While the crystallographically-determined structure of the enzyme is known, the enzyme's mechanism of interaction with PAF and the function-modulating lipids in lipoproteins is unknown. We have employed peptide amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) to characterize the association of Lp-PLA2 with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles, and found that specific residues 113-120 in one of the enzyme's surface-disposed hydrophobic α-helices likely mediate liposome binding.