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1.  Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city 
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors.
Methods
Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008.
Results
Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed five-factor solution which accounted 47.8 % of the variance: “fresh vegetables and fruit” “sweets” “porridge and cereals” “potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs” “chicken and fish”. “Fresh vegetables and fruits” factor and “sweets” factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health.
Conclusion
Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single, and older people.
doi:10.1007/s00038-010-0170-3
PMCID: PMC3947489  PMID: 20703510
dietary patterns; socio-demographic factors; education; self-rated health
2.  Comparison of four definitions of the metabolic syndrome and odds of ischemic heart disease in the Lithuanian urban population 
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome diagnosed using four different definitions in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with ischemic heart disease.
Methods
Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008.
Results
In Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city aged 45-72 years, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the new Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definition (44.1% of men and 48.7% of women). After adjusting for age, education, smoking habits the metabolic syndrome (irrespective of definition) was associated with a significantly higher risk of ischemic heart disease.
Conclusion
All four metabolic syndrome definitions were associated with ischemic heart disease risk; however odds of this disease were higher in people with metabolic syndrome defined by American Heart Association National Heart Lung Blood Institute definition and National Cholesterol Education program Adult Treatment Panel III definition, than by the new JIS definition.
doi:10.1007/s00038-011-0244-x
PMCID: PMC3947490  PMID: 21384223
metabolic syndrome; odds of ischemic heart disease
3.  Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population: results from the HAPIEE study 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:149.
Background
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive ability in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population.
Methods
Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45–72 years was screened in 2006–2008.
Results
The scores of immediate recall and delayed verbal recall, cognitive speed and attention were significantly lower in men than in women; yet numerical ability scores were higher in men. Significant associations between lowered cognitive functions and previous stroke (in male OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.75-3.64; in female OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75, 3.64) as well as ischemic heart disease history (among male OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60) have been determined. Higher level of physical activity in leisure time (among female OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.03-1.69), poor self-rated health (among male OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15-2.14) and poor quality of life (in male OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.07-2.61; in female OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.92-4.11) were related to lowered cognitive function.
Conclusions
The findings of the study suggest that associations between cardiovascular risk factors and lowered cognitive function among healthy middle-aged and elderly adults strongly depend on gender.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-149
PMCID: PMC3517768  PMID: 23199035
4.  Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the risk of mortality among middle-aged Lithuanian urban population in 1983–2009 
Background
Arterial hypertension (AH) is a main risk factor for the risk from cardiovascular (CVD) and stroke mortality. Only few data was published on prevalence, awareness and management of AH in Lithuania. Development of objective approaches to the treatment and control of AH reduces the risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate time trends, the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of AH and risk of mortality among Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years during the period of 1983–2009.
Methods
Time trends of AH and risk of mortality were examined in three MONICA health surveys in 1983, 1986, 1992, and in one health survey according to MONICA protocol in 2002 included randomly recruited of 2,218 men and 2,491 women. AH was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. The main outcome measures were all-cause mortality, mortality from CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The mean duration of follow-up was 11.8 ± 9.2 years. All survey periods were age standardized to the year 2006 of Kaunas population. The estimates of hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval were based on the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results
In men during 1983–2002 period hypertension prevalence was 52.1–58.7% and did not significantly change whereas in women decreased from 61.0 to 51.0%. There was a significant increase in hypertension awareness among hypertensive men and women (45.0 to 64.4% and 47.7 to 72.3%, respectively) and in treated hypertensives (55.4 to 68.3% in men and 65.6 to 86.2% in women). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed a strong dose–response association between blood-pressure level and all-cause, CVD, CHD and stroke-mortality risk in both men and women groups.
Conclusion
In Lithuanian urban population the prevalence of hypertension remains high. Despite positive changes in hypertension awareness and treatment, hypertension control remains poor. A strong dose–response association between the level of BP and all-cause, CVD, CHD and stroke mortality risk was indicated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-68
PMCID: PMC3480954  PMID: 22937997
Hypertension; Awareness; Treatment; Control; Risk of mortality

Results 1-4 (4)