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1.  Study exploring depression and cardiovascular diseases amongst Arabic speaking patients living in the State of Qatar: Rationale and methodology 
Abstract: In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Studies show that depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular patients. Thus, early detection of, and intervention for, depression among cardiovascular patients can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To date there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among cardiovascular patients. The goals of our three-phase research program are to (1) understand the mental health issues, specifically depression, as experienced by cardiovascular patients living in the State of Qatar; (2) identify and implement strategies that would prevent depression and assist patients to deal with depression; and (3) evaluate, facilitate, and sustain strategies that are effective at reducing depression and foster its treatment among cardiovascular patients. This paper describe phase I of the research program. Using both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, we will investigate (1) the prevalence and severity of depression among patients who have confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (2) how contextual factors such as social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the risk of depression and its management among cardiovascular patients, and (3) formulate effective intervention strategies that are expected to increase awareness, prevention of and treatment for depression among cardiovascular patients, thus reducing cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in Qatar.
doi:10.5339/gcsp.2012.24
PMCID: PMC3963714
2.  Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program 
Abstract: In this article, we outline the plans, protocols and strategies to set up the first nationwide primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) program for ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in Qatar, as well as the difficulties and the multi-disciplinary solutions that we adopted in preparation. We will also report some of the landmark literature that guided our plans. The guidelines underscore the need for adequate number of procedures to justify establishing a primary-PCI service and maintain competency. The number of both diagnostic and interventional procedures in our centre has increased substantially over the years. The number of diagnostic procedures has increased from 1470 in 2007, to 2200 in 2009 and is projected to exceed 3000 by the end of 2012. The total number of PCIs has also increased from 443 in 2007, to 646 in 2009 and 1176 in 2011 and is expected to exceed 1400 by the end of 2012. These figures qualify our centre to be classified as ‘high volume’, both for the institution and for the individual interventional operators. The initial number of expected primary PCI procedures will be in excess of 600 procedures per year. Guidelines also emphasize the door to balloon time (DBT), which should not exceed 90 minutes. This interval mainly represents in-hospital delay and reflects the efficiency of the hospital system in the rapid recognition and transfer of the STEMI patient to the catheterization laboratory for primary-PCI. Although DBT is clearly important and is in the forefront of planning for the wide primary PCI program, it is not the only important time interval. Myocardial necrosis begins before the patient arrives to the hospital and even before first medical contact, so time is of the essence. Therefore, our primary PCI program includes a nationwide awareness program for both the population and health care professionals to reduce the pre-hospital delay. We have also taken steps to improve the pre-hospital diagnosis of STEMI. In addition to equipping all ambulances to perform 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) we will establish advanced wireless transmission of the ECG to our Heart Centre and to the smart phone of the consultant on-call for the primary-PCI service. This will ensure that the patient is transferred directly to the cath lab without unnecessary delay in the emergency rooms. A single phone-call system will allow the first medic making the diagnosis to activate the primary PCI team. The emergency medical system is acquiring capability to track the exact position of each ambulance using GPS technology to give an accurate estimate of the time needed to arrive to the patient and/or to the hospital. We also plan for medical helicopter evacuation from remote or inaccessible areas. A comprehensive research database is being established to enable specific pioneering research projects and clinical trials, either as a single centre or in collaboration with other regional or international centers. The primary-PCI program is a collaborative effort between the Heart Hospital, Hamada Medical Corporation and the Qatar Cardiovascular Research Centre, a member of Qatar Foundation. Qatar will be first country to have a unified nationwide primary-PCI program. This clinical and research program could be a model that may be adopted in other countries to improve outcomes of patients with STEMI.
doi:10.5339/gcsp.2012.23
PMCID: PMC3963721
3.  Acute coronary syndrome in the Middle East: The importance of registries for quality assessment and plans for improvement 
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Several practice guidelines have been developed in Europe and North America to improve outcome of ACS patients through implementation of the recommendations into clinical practice. It is well know that there is wide gap between guidelines and implementation in real practice as was demonstrated in registry findings mainly conducted in the developed world. Here in we review main gaps in the management of ACS patients observed from two recent registries conducted in the Middle East.
doi:10.5339/gcsp.2013.2
PMCID: PMC3963729
acute coronary syndrome; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome; thrombolytic therapy; primary percutaneous coronary intervention
4.  Peripheral arterial disease in the Middle East: Underestimated predictor of worse outcome 
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PAD in the developed world is approximately 12% among adult population, which is age-dependent and with men being affected slightly more than women. Despite the strikingly high prevalence of PAD, the disease is underdiagnosed. Surprisingly, more than 70% of primary health care providers in the US were unaware of the presence of PAD in their patients. The clinical presentation of PAD may vary from asymptomatic to intermittent claudication, atypical leg pain, rest pain, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Claudication is the typical symptomatic expression of PAD. However, the disease may remains asymptomatic in up to 50% of all PAD patients. PAD has also been reported as a marker of poor outcome among patients with coronary artery disease. Despite the fact that the prevalence of atherosclerotic disease is increasing in the Middle East with increasing cardiovascular risk factors (tobacco use, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome), data regarding PAD incidence in the Middle East are scarce.
doi:10.5339/gcsp.2013.13
PMCID: PMC3963749
Peripheral arterial disease; Middle East
5.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Context
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
Aims
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Results
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Conclusion
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
doi:10.1016/j.jcdr.2012.08.005
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
6.  Stent Fracture: How Frequently Is It Recognized? 
In spite of there being several case reports, coronary stent fracture is not a well-recognized entity and incidence rates are likely to be underestimated. In this article, we review different aspects of stent fracture, including incidence, classification, predictors, outcome, diagnosis, and management.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.115501
PMCID: PMC3752880  PMID: 23983912
Complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); instent restenosis; stent fracture; stent thrombosis
7.  Does prior coronary artery bypass surgery alter the gender gap in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome? A 20-year retrospective cohort study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e001969.
Objectives
Previous studies demonstrated women presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have poor outcomes when compared with men ‘the gender gap phenomenon’. The impact of prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) on women presenting with ACS is unknown. We hypothesised that the gender gap is altered in ACS patients with prior CABG. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients presenting with ACS according to their gender and history of prior CABG.
Design
Retrospective, observational (cohort) study.
Setting
Data were collected from hospital-based registry of patients hospitalised with ACS in Doha, Qatar, from 1991 through 2010. The data were analysed according to their gender and history of prior CABG.
Participants
A total of 16 750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied. In total, 693 (4.3%) patients had prior CABG; among them 125 (18%) patients were women.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Comparisons of clinical characteristics, inhospital treatment, and outcomes, including inhospital mortality and stroke were made.
Results
Women with or without prior CABG were older, less likely to be smokers, but more likely to have diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and renal impairment than men (p=0.001). Women were less likely to receive reperfusion and early invasive therapies. When compared with men, women without prior CABG carried higher inhospital mortality (11% vs 4.9%; p=0.001) and stroke rates (0.9% vs 0.3%; p=0.001). Female gender was independent predictor of poor outcome. Among prior CABG patients, despite the fact that women had worse baseline characteristics and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy, there were no significant differences in mortality or stroke rates between the two groups.
Conclusions
Consistent with the world literature, women presenting with ACS and without prior CABG had higher death rates compared with men. Patients with prior CABG had comparable death rates regardless of the gender status.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001969
PMCID: PMC3533054  PMID: 23194954
acute coronary syndrome; coronary artery bypass surgery; gender gap; outcome
8.  Prospective observational studies of the management and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review 
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major global public health problem. Observational studies are necessary to understand patient characteristics, management, and outcomes of this common arrhythmia. Accordingly, our objective was to describe the current status of published prospective observational studies of AF.
Methods and results
MEDLINE and EMBASE (to June 2012) and reference lists of eligible studies were searched for English-language prospective observational registries of AF (n ⩾ 100 and follow-up ⩾6 months). Two reviewers independently extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Eight prospective studies enrolled a total of 17,924 patients with AF (total 41,306 patient-years of exposure; follow-up 11 months to 9.9 years). The majority of subjects were enrolled in Europe (74%) or North America (21%), and 0.3% had rheumatic AF. The most consistently reported comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (range 5–18%), hypertension (39–68%), heart failure (5–58%), and prior stroke (4–17%). Three studies did not report all the variables necessary to calculate the currently recommended stroke risk assessment score, and no study reported all the variables required to calculate a recently validated bleeding risk score. The most consistently reported management features were oral anticoagulation (32–64%) and aspirin (28–61%) use. Calcium channel blockers were less frequently used than other rate controlling agents, and digoxin was most common in the single study from Africa (63%). Total mortality was reported in all studies, while data on stroke/systemic embolism, hospitalizations, and major hemorrhage rates were not always reported.
Conclusions
Current literature on real-world management of AF is relatively limited with inadequate data to allow detailed comparisons among reports. Data on rheumatic AF and from Africa and the developing world in general are sparse.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2012.08.001
PMCID: PMC3809474  PMID: 24174832
Atrial fibrillation; Systematic review
9.  Immediate and one-year outcome of patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome complicated by stroke: Findings from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
Background
Stroke is a potential complication of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence, risk factors predisposing to stroke, in-hospital and 1-year mortality among patients presenting with ACS in the Middle East.
Methods
For a period of 9 months in 2008 to 2009, 7,930 consecutive ACS patients were enrolled from 65 hospitals in 6 Middle East countries.
Results
The prevalence of in-hospital stroke following ACS was 0.70%. Most cases were ST segment elevation MI-related (STEMI) and ischemic stroke in nature. Patients with in-hospital stroke were 5 years older than patients without stroke and were more likely to have hypertension (66% vs. 47.6%, P = 0.001). There were no differences between the two groups in regards to gender, other cardiovascular risk factors, or prior cardiovascular disease. Patients with stroke were more likely to present with atypical symptoms, advanced Killip class and less likely to be treated with evidence-based therapies. Independent predictors of stroke were hypertension, advanced killip class, ACS type –STEMI and cardiogenic shock. Stroke was associated with increased risk of in-hospital (39.3% vs. 4.3%) and one-year mortality (52% vs. 12.3%).
Conclusion
There is low incidence of in-hospital stroke in Middle-Eastern patients presenting with ACS but with very high in-hospital and one-year mortality rates. Stroke patients were less likely to be appropriately treated with evidence-based therapy. Future work should be focused on reducing the risk and improving the outcome of this devastating complication.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-64
PMCID: PMC3480946  PMID: 22894647
Acute coronary syndrome; Myocardial infarction; Stroke; Risk factors; Prognosis
10.  Elevated serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction; correlation with coronary angiographic and echocardiographic findings 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:262.
Background
To assess the relationship between serial serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who received thrombolysis and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, coronary reperfusion, echocardiographic findings, and clinical outcome. 51 consecutive patients presenting with AMI were studied. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Serial serum leptin levels at the time of admission and subsequently at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 60 hours afterwards were obtained. Coronary angiography was performed in 34 patients; the relation between serum leptin levels and evidence of coronary reperfusion as well as the extent of coronary atherosclerosis according to the coronary artery surgery study classification (CASS) were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all patients. 36 matched patients were enrolled as control group who had serum leptin level 9.4 ± 6.5 ng/ml.
Results
The patients mean age was 50.5 ± 10.6 years. There were 47 males and 3 females. 37.1% were diabetics, 23.5% were hypertensive, 21.6% were dyslipidemic and 22.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30). Leptin concentrations (ng/ml) increased and peaked at the 4th sample (36 hrs) after admission (mean ± SD) sample (1) =9.55 ± 7.4, sample (2) =12.9 ± 8.4, sample (3) =13.8 ± 10.4, sample (4) =18.9 ± 18.1, sample (5) =11.4 ± 6.5, sample (6) =10.8 ± 8.9 ng/ml. There was a significant correlation between serum leptin and BMI (r = 0.342; p = 0.03). Leptin levels correlated significantly to creatine kinase level on the second day (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.01). Significant correlation of mean serum leptin with the ejection fraction (P < 0.05) was found. No difference in timing of peak serum leptin between patients who achieved coronary reperfusion vs. those who did not (p = 0.8). There was a trend for an increase in the mean serum leptin levels with increasing number of diseased vessels. There was no correlation between serum leptin levels and outcome neither during the hospitalization nor at 9 months follow up.
Conclusion
Serum leptin levels increase after myocardial infarction. Serum leptin level may be a predictor of the left ventricular ejection fraction and the degree of atherosclerosis but not of coronary reperfusion.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-262
PMCID: PMC3490852  PMID: 22642879
Serum leptin; Acute myocardial infarction; Angiographic findings; Echocardiography
11.  Clinical Profile and Mortality of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy in the Middle East 
Objective:
Little is known about thrombolytic therapy patterns in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and mortality of STEMI patients who arrived in hospital within 12 hours from pain onset and received thrombolytic therapy.
Patients and Methods:
This was a prospective, multinational, multi-centre, observational survey of consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to 65 hospitals in six Middle Eastern countries during the period between October 2008 and June 2009, as part of Gulf RACE-II (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were performed using univariate statistics.
Results:
Out of 2,465 STEMI patients, 66% (n = 1,586) were thrombolysed with namely: streptokinase (43%), reteplase (44%), tenecteplase (10%), and alteplase (3%). 22.7% received no reperfusion. Median age of the study cohort was 50 (45-59) years with majority being males (91%). The overall median symptom onset-to-presentation and door-to-needle times were 165 (95- 272) minutes and 38 (24-60) minutes, respectively. Generally, patients presenting with higher GRACE risk scores were treated with newer thrombolytic agents (reteplase and tenecteplase) (P < 0.001). The use of newer thrombolytic agents was associated with a significantly lower mortality at both 1-month (0.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.014) and 1-year (0% vs. 1.7% vs. 3.4%; P = 0.044) compared to streptokinase use.
Conclusions:
Majority of STEMI patients from the Middle East were thrombolysed with streptokinase and reteplase in equal numbers. Nearly one-fifth of patients did not receive any reperfusion therapy. There was inappropriately long symptom-onset to hospital presentation as well as door-to-needle times. Use of newer thrombolytic agents in high risk patients was appropriate. Newer thrombolytic agents were associated with significantly lower mortality at 1-month and 1-year compared to the older agent, streptokinase.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.99224
PMCID: PMC3424777  PMID: 22919446
Acute coronary syndrome; GRACE score; Middle East; mortality; reteplase; STEMI; streptokinase; tenecteplase; thrombolytic therapy
12.  Polyvascular Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Its Predictors and Outcomes 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:284851.
We evaluated prevalence and clinical outcome of polyvascular disease (PolyVD) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data for 7689 consecutive ACS patients were collected from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events between October 2008 and June 2009. Patients were divided into 2 groups (ACS with versus without PolyVD). All-cause mortality was assessed at 1 and 12 months. Patients with PolyVD were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. On presentation, those patients were more likely to have atypical angina, high resting heart rate, high Killip class, and GRACE risk scoring. They were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and hypertension were independent predictors for presence of PolyVD. PolyVD was associated with worse in-hospital outcomes (except for major bleedings) and all-cause mortality even after adjusting for baseline covariates. Great efforts should be directed toward primary and secondary preventive measures.
doi:10.1100/2012/284851
PMCID: PMC3259691  PMID: 22272171
13.  Effect of Age on Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A 20-Year Registry in a Middle Eastern Country 
Introduction:
Despite the fact that the elderly constitute an increasingly important group of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), they are often excluded from clinical trials and are underrepresented in clinical registries.
Aims:
To evaluate the impact of age in patients hospitalized with ACS.
Methods:
Data collected for all patients presenting with ACS (n=16,744) who were admitted in Qatar during the period (1991-2010) and were analyzed according to age into 3 groups (≤50 years [41.4%], 51-70 years [48.7%] and >70 years [9.8%]).
Results:
Older patients were more likely to be women and have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure, while younger patients were more likely to be smokers. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and heart failure were more prevalent in older patients. Older age was associated with undertreatment with evidence-based therapies and had higher mortality rate. Age was independent predictor for mortality. Over the study period, the relative reduction in mortality rates was higher in the younger compared with the older patients (61, 45.9 and 35.5%).
Conclusions:
Despite being a higher-risk group, older patients were undertreated with evidence based therapy and had worse short-term outcome. Guidelines adherence and improvement in hospital care for elderly patients with ACS may potentially reduce morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.2174/1874192401206010060
PMCID: PMC3367301  PMID: 22670161
Age; acute coronary syndrome; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; unstable angina; death.
14.  Weekend Versus Weekday, Morning Versus Evening Admission in Relationship to Mortality in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in 6 Middle Eastern Countries: Results from Gulf Race 2 Registry 
We used prospective cohort data of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to compare their management on weekdays/mornings with weekends/nights, and the possible impact of this on 1-month and 1-year mortality. Analyses were evaluated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Of the 4,616 patients admitted to hospitals with ACS, 76% were on weekdays. There were no significant differences in 1-month (odds ratio (OR), 0.88; 95% CI: 0.68-1.14) and 1-year mortality (OR, 0.88; 95% CI: 0.70-1.10), respectively, between weekday and weekend admissions. Similarly, there were no significant differences in 1-month (OR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.73-1.15) and 1-year mortality (OR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80-1.20), respectively, between nights and day admissions. In conclusion, apart from lower utilization of angiography (P < .001) at weekends, there were largely no significant discrepancies in the management and care of patients admitted with ACS on weekdays and during morning hours compared with patients admitted on weekends and night hours, and the overall 30-day and 1-year mortality was similar between both the cohorts.
doi:10.2174/1874192401206010106
PMCID: PMC3447162  PMID: 23002404
Acute coronary syndrome; Weekend; Weekday; Mortality; Admission.
15.  The impact of diurnal fasting during Ramadan on the lipid profile, hs-CRP, and serum leptin in stable cardiac patients 
Aim
To study the effect of strict prolonged fasting on lipid profile, serum leptin, and high- sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with different stable cardiac illnesses and look for associated new cardiac events and any correlation between entire variables.
Methods
A total of 56 patients of different stable cardiac illnesses were followed in our cardiology outpatient for 3 months. Data concerning their ability to fast were collected: New York Heart Association class of congestive cardiac failure, angina class, previous myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary intervention, severity of valvular lesion, metallic prosthetic valve, and traditional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, insulin requirement, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit, and obesity). Detailed clinical examination and electrocardiography were performed in all patients in three consecutive visits before, during, and after Ramadan. Echocardiographic and angiographic findings and medication plans were collected from patient records. Lipid profile, serum leptin, and hs-CRP were assessed before, during, and after Ramadan.
Results
All patients fasted during Ramadan: 80.4% were male, 67.9% were aged >50 years, 71.4% had no change in their symptoms during fasting while 28.6% felt better. No patient has deteriorated. 91.1% of the patients were compliant with medicine during Ramadan, 73.2% after. 89.3% were compliant with diet during Ramadan with no significant change in body weight in the follow-up period. No cardiac or noncardiac morbidity or mortality was reported. High- density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly during compared to before fasting (P = 0.012). Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly increased during compared to before fasting (P = 0.022). No statistically significant changes were observed in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum leptin, or hs-CRP. Significant correlation was observed between TC and hs-CRP during fasting (P = 0.036), but not with TG, LDL-C, or HDL-C (P > 0.05). Neither of these correlated with serum leptin (P > 0.05), but significant correlation was observed between hs-CRP and serum leptin (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
Ramadan fasting in stable cardiac patients has no effect on their clinical status, serum leptin, or hs-CRP, but results in decrease in HDL-C, increase in LDL-C, with significant correlation between TC and hs-CRP during Ramadan, but not with TG, LDL-C, or HDL-C, and with significant correlation between hs-CRP and serum leptin before, during, and after fasting.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S22894
PMCID: PMC3262481  PMID: 22272070
serum leptin; hs-C-reactive protein; lipid profile; cardiac disease; Ramadan fasting
16.  Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries 
To describe prevalence and impact of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), data were collected over 5 months from 6 Middle Eastern countries. Patients were divided into 2 groups (with and without PAD). Out of 6705 consecutive ACS patients, PAD was reported in 177 patients. In comparison to non-PAD, PAD patients were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. They were more likely to have high Killip class, high GRACE risk score, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS) at presentation. Thrombolytics, antiplatelet use, and coronary intervention were comparable in both groups. When presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients with PAD had worse outcomes, while in NSTEACS; PAD was associated with higher rate of heart failure in comparison to non-PAD patients. In diabetics, PAD was associated with 2-fold increase in mortality when compared to non-PAD (P = 0.028). After adjustment, PAD was associated with high mortality in STEMI (adjusted OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.23–5.65, P = 0.01). Prevalence of PAD in ACS in the Gulf region is low. Patients with PAD and ACS constitute a high risk group and require more attention. PAD in patients with STEMI is an independent predictor of in-hospital death.
doi:10.1155/2011/815902
PMCID: PMC3246760  PMID: 22220279
17.  Association of Khat Chewing With Increased Risk of Stroke and Death in Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2010;85(11):974-980.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of khat chewing in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 29, 2007, through July 29, 2007, 8176 consecutive patients presenting with ACS were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study from 6 adjacent Middle Eastern countries.
RESULTS: Of the 8176 study patients, 7242 (88.6%) were non-khat chewers, and 934 (11.4%) were khat chewers, mainly of Yemeni origin. Khat chewers were older (57 vs 56 years; P=.01) and more likely to be men (85.7% vs 74.5%) compared with non-khat chewers. Non-khat chewers were more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and prior history of coronary artery disease and revascularization. Cigarette smoking was more prevalent in khat chewers, and they were more likely to present greater than 12 hours after onset of symptoms compared with non-khat chewers. At admission, khat chewers had higher heart rate, Killip class, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores. Khat chewers had a significantly higher risk of cardiogenic shock, stroke, and mortality. After adjustment of baseline variables, khat chewing was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.7; P<.001) and stroke (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.9; P=.01).
CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of patients with ACS, khat chewing was prevalent and was associated with increased risk of stroke and death. In the context of increasing global migration, a greater awareness of potential widespread practices is essential.
In this cohort of 8176 Middle Eastern patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, khat chewing was prevalent and associated with increased risk of stroke and death.
doi:10.4065/mcp.2010.0398
PMCID: PMC2966360  PMID: 20926835
18.  Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Large Middle Eastern Cohort 
Background:
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) can occur in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In the Gulf Registry of acute coronary events (Gulf RACE), we identified the clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of these patients.
Methods:
Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes for 461 ACS patients with prior CABG are compared to 7715 ACS patients without prior CABG enrolled from 64 hospitals in 6 Gulf countries over a 6-month period.
Results:
The overall incidence of ACS with prior CABG was 5.6% out of 8176 patients. The ACS with prior CABG were older (63 vs 55 years, P<0.0001), had more history of diabetes (62.3 vs 37.6%, P <0.0001), dyslipidemia (70.3 vs 29.5%, P<0.0001), and hypertension (75.7 vs 47.8%, P<0.0001) compared with the non-CABG group. They presented more frequently with dyspnea (14.8 vs 9.5%, P<0.0005), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (41.4 vs 31.6%, P<0.0001) and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction (49.4 vs 29.8%, P<0.0001) than ACS without prior CABG. They had a complicated in-hospital course with more recurrent ischemia (13.9 vs 9.3%, P=0.0011), heart failure (24.1 vs 15.7%), and stroke (2.2 vs 0.6%) compared with those without CABG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.6% in the CABG group compared with 3.5% in the ACS without prior CABG group. After adjusting for confounders, prior CABG was independently associated with recurrent ischemia and shock, more in patients presenting with ST elevation than non-ST elevation ACS.
Conclusions:
Patients with ACS and prior CABG are a high-risk group with poor outcomes irrespective of their older age and comorbidities. They should be identified and treated differently to improve their outcomes.
doi:10.2174/1874192401105010196
PMCID: PMC3170976  PMID: 21915225
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Angioplasty; Comorbidity; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; Risk factors; Stroke.
19.  Prevalence, Predictors, and Impact of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on in-Hospital Outcomes Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Middle East 
Objective:
To estimate the prevalence, predictors, and impact of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the Middle East.
Methods:
Data were collected prospectively from 6,266 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and enrolled in the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE). A low HDL-C was defined as a level <40 mg/Dl (1.0 mmol/L) for males and <50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for females. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
Results:
The overall mean age of the cohort was 56±12 years and majority were males (77%). The overall prevalence of low HDL-C was 62%. During in-hospital stay and at discharge, the majority were on statin therapy (83%) while 10% were on other cholesterol lowering agents. After adjustment of demographic and clinical characteristics, the predictors for low HDL-C were higher body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes mellitus, smoking and impaired renal function. Multivariable adjustment revealed that low HDL-C was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.54; 95% CI: 1.06-2.24; p=0.022) and cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20-2.14; p=0.001).
Conclusions:
ACS patients in the Middle East have a high prevalence of low HDL-C. Higher BMI, prior MI, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and impaired renal function were predictors of low HDL-C. Significantly higher in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were associated with low HDL-C in men but not in women.
doi:10.2174/1874192401105010203
PMCID: PMC3178900  PMID: 21966331
High density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; gender; Middle East.
20.  In-hospital Major Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Renal Insufficiency Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome: Data From a Registry of 8176 Patients 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2010;85(4):332-340.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) on in-hospital major adverse cardiac events across the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) spectrum.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 29, 2007, through July 29, 2007, 6 adjacent Middle Eastern countries participated in the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events, a prospective, observational registry of 8176 patients. Patients were categorized according to estimated glomerular filtration rate into 4 groups: normal (≥90 mL/min), mild (60-89 mL/min), moderate (30-59 mL/min), and severe CRI (<30 mL/min). Patients' characteristics and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events in the 4 groups were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of 6518 consecutive patients with ACS, 2828 (43%) had mild CRI, 1304 (20%) had moderate CRI, and 345 (5%) had severe CRI. In CRI groups, patients were older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. On admission, these patients had a higher resting heart rate and frequently had atypical and delayed presentations. Compared with the normal estimated glomerular filtration group, CRI groups were less likely to receive antiplatelet drugs, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins and were less likely to undergo coronary angiography. In-hospital heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and major bleeding episodes were significantly higher in all CRI groups. In multivariate analysis, mild, moderate, and severe CRI were associated with a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) of death (mild: OR, 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.7; moderate: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 3.9-11.5; and severe: OR, 12.0; 95% CI, 6.6-21.7).
CONCLUSION: Across the ACS spectrum, patients with CRI had a worse risk profile, had more atypical and delayed presentations, and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy. Chronic renal insufficiency of varying stages is an independent predictor of in-hospital morbidity and mortality.
Across the acute coronary syndrome spectrum, patients with chronic renal insufficiency had a worse profile, had more atypical and delayed presentations, and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy; chronic renal insufficiency of varying stages is an independent predictor of in-hospital morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0513
PMCID: PMC2848421  PMID: 20360292
21.  Use of Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Insufficiency 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2010;85(2):165-171.
Renal insufficiency (RI) has been shown to be associated with increased major adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. We reviewed the impact of RI on the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in the form of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in these high-risk patients. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus, and EBSCO Host research databases from 1990 through January 2009, using as search terms coronary revascularization, drug-eluting stent, and renal insufficiency. Studies that assessed DES implantation in patients with various degrees of RI were selected for review. Most of the available data were extracted from observational studies, and data from randomized trials formed the basis of a post hoc analysis. The outcomes after coronary revascularization were less favorable in patients with RI than in those with normal renal function. In patients with RI, DES implantation yielded better outcomes than did use of bare-metal stents. Randomized trials are needed to define optimal treatment of these high-risk patients with coronary artery disease.
doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0314
PMCID: PMC2813825  PMID: 20118392
22.  Endothelial Dysfunction: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Therapy, and Outcome 
Endothelial dysfunction is a well established response to cardiovascular risk factors and precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in lesion formation by the promotion of both the early and late mechanisms of atherosclerosis including up-regulation of adhesion molecules, increased chemokine secretion and leukocyte adherence, increased cell permeability, enhanced low-density lipoprotein oxidation, platelet activation, cytokine elaboration, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endothelial dysfunction is a term that covers diminished production/availability of nitric oxide and/or an imbalance in the relative contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. Also, when cardiovascular risk factors are treated the endothelial dysfunction is reversed and it is an independent predictor of cardiac events. We review the literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in regard to its pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome.
PMCID: PMC1993955  PMID: 17319104
endothelial dysfunction; coronary atherosclerosis; coronary artery disease
23.  Favorable Changes in Lipid Profile: The Effects of Fasting after Ramadan 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47615.
Aims
We assessed the effect of fasting during Ramadan on blood pressure (BP), body weight, plasma lipid, and lipoprotein variables among healthy normal individuals.
Methods
102 (68% male) multi-ethnic volunteers; mean age ± SD (38.7±10.5 years) were randomly recruited in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), to be investigated before Ramadan, one day after the end of Ramadan, and four weeks after Ramadan. Anthropometric, demographic, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by standard methods, and Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated using Friedewald’s formula.
Results
65 subjects completed the study. We found significant and beneficial changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), body weight, waist circumference (WC), TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, at the end of Ramadan, but not in TC. Further, there was a progressive and significant increase and decrease in HDL-C and LDL-C levels, respectively, four weeks after Ramadan.
Conclusions
We observed significant improvements in HDL-C, and LDL-C levels even after four weeks post Ramadan. Ramadan-like fasting may be considered for more effective lipid and lipoprotein control.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047615
PMCID: PMC3480413  PMID: 23112824

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