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1.  L-DOPA decarboxylase mRNA expression is associated with tumor stage and size in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:484.
Background
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. The DDC gene encodes L-DOPA decarboxylase, an enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine. We have recently shown that DDC mRNA is a significant predictor of patients’ prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to analyze the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC patients.
Methods
53 malignant tumors were resected from the larynx, pharynx, tongue, buccal mucosa, parotid glands, and nasal cavity, as well as from 34 adjacent non-cancerous tissues of HNSCC patients, and were homogenized. Total RNA was isolated and converted into first-strand cDNA. An ultrasensitive real-time PCR method based on the SYBR Green chemistry was used for DDC mRNA quantification in head and neck tissue specimens. Relative quantification was performed using the comparative Ct (2-ddCt) method.
Results
DDC mRNA levels were lower in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the larynx and tongue than in adjacent non-cancerous tissue specimens. Furthermore, low DDC mRNA expression was noticed in laryngeal and tongue tumors of advanced TNM stage or bigger size, compared to early-stage or smaller tumors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between SCCs resected from pharynx, buccal mucosa, or nasal cavity, and their normal counterparts.
Conclusion
This is the first study examining the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC. According to our results, DDC mRNA expression may constitute a potential prognostic biomarker in tongue and/or larynx SCCs, which principally represent the overwhelming majority of HNSCC cases.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-484
PMCID: PMC3495033  PMID: 23083099
Oral cancer; Larynx; Tongue; Tumor biomarkers; Quantitative real-time PCR
2.  l-DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) Expression Status as a Novel Molecular Tumor Marker for Diagnostic and Prognostic Purposes in Laryngeal Cancer1 
Translational Oncology  2012;5(4):288-296.
l-DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) plays an essential role in the enzymatic synthesis of dopamine and alterations in its gene expression have been reported in several malignancies. Our objective was to analyze DDC messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in laryngeal tissues and to evaluate the clinical implication of this molecule in laryngeal cancer. In this study, total RNA was isolated from 157 tissue samples surgically removed from 100 laryngeal cancer patients. A highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction methodology based on SYBR Green I fluorescent dye was developed for the quantification of DDC mRNA levels. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of DDC protein. DDC mRNA expression was revealed to be significantly downregulated in primary laryngeal cancer samples compared with their nonmalignant counterparts (P = .001). A significant negative association was also disclosed between DDC mRNA levels and TNM staging (P = .034). Univariate analysis showed that patients bearing DDC-positive tumors had a significantly decreased risk of death (hazard ratio = 0.23, P = .012) and local recurrence (hazard ratio = 0.32, P =.006), whereas DDC expression retained its favorable prognostic significance in the multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves further demonstrated that DDC-positive patients experienced longer overall and disease-free survival periods (P = .006 and P = .004, respectively). Moreover, DDC protein was detected in both neoplastic and noncancerous tissues. Therefore, our results suggest that DDC expression status could qualify as a promising biomarker for the future clinical management of laryngeal cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3431039  PMID: 22937181
3.  Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with BPPV 
Summary
Background
The probable cause of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a degeneration of the oto lithic organs (utricle and saccule). The aim of the study is to find possible alterations in Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) recordings in BPPV patients, because the saccule is part of the VEMP pathway.
Material/Methods
27 BPPV patients (24 unilateral and 3 bilateral) aged 20 to 70 years and 30 healthy age matched controls. BPPV was diagnosed by the upbeating geotropic nystagmus found in the supine position with the head overextended towards one side. The subjects were investigated with pure tone audiometry, bi-thermal caloric test with electronystagmographic (ENG) recording, and VEMP recording.
Results
P1 latency and N1 latency did not present any statistical difference between control ears and affected ears of the BPPV population. The percentage of abnormal VEMP in the BPPV population was statistically higher than in the control ears (p<0.005). No significant relationship could be shown between the occurrence of Canal Paresis and abnormal VEMP. No relationship was found between the side (right or left ear) where BPPV appeared clinically and the side where abnormal VEMP was registered.
Conclusions
BPPV is a clinical entity associated with increased occurrence of abnormal VEMP recordings, possibly due to degeneration of the saccular macula, which is part of the neural VEMP pathway.
doi:10.12659/MSM.881328
PMCID: PMC3524684  PMID: 21169909
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo; saccule; Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials
4.  Primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis presenting with hoarseness and dysphagia: a case report 
Introduction
Primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis is an extremely rare condition. It usually presents with hoarseness, pain and/or difficulty in breathing.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with primary localized laryngeal amyloidosis who presented with hoarseness and dysphagia.
Conclusion
A search of PubMed shows that dysphagia in patients with laryngeal amyloidosis has been reported only once, although this symptom is relatively common in other conditions presenting with laryngeal mass. There were no signs of any systemic disease in our patient and diagnosis was established histopathologically. She was treated surgically by microlaryngoscopy under general anesthesia and the mass was excised using a CO2 laser technology method.
doi:10.4076/1752-1947-3-9049
PMCID: PMC2767149  PMID: 19918287
5.  Supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy for selected pyriform sinus carcinoma patients – a retrospective chart review 
Background
The aim of this study is to assess the functional and oncologic results of supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy and report our experience in the technique, local control and overall survival rates.
Materials and methods
18 selected patients with pyriform sinus cancer treated by supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy in a University Hospital setting. Retrospective chart review was used to assess functional and oncologic results of the procedure.
Results
The actuarial 5 year survival rate in our study was 55.56% and the actuarial neck recurrence rate was 16.67%. All patients were successfully decannulated. Aspiration pneumonia was the most common postoperative complication (22.23%) and was treated mostly conservatively. One patient required a temporary gastrostomy but no patient needed total laryngectomy in the postoperative period.
Conclusion
Supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy in experienced hands is a reliable technique for selected patients with pyriform sinus cancer.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-7-65
PMCID: PMC2731761  PMID: 19671141
6.  Resection of giant ethmoid osteoma with orbital and skull base extension followed by duraplasty 
Background
Osteomas of ethmoid sinus are rare, especially when they involve anterior skull base and orbit, and lead to ophthalmologic and neurological symptoms.
Case presentation
The present case describes a giant ethmoid osteoma. Patient symptoms and signs were exophthalmos and proptosis of the left eye, with progressive visual acuity impairment and visual fields defects. CT/MRI scanning demonstrated a huge osseous lesion of the left ethmoid sinus (6.5 cm × 5 cm × 2.2 cm), extending laterally in to the orbit and cranially up to the anterior skull base. Bilateral extensive polyposis was also found. Endoscopic and external techniques were combined to remove the lesion. Bilateral endoscopic polypectomy, anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy and middle meatus antrostomy were performed. Finally, the remaining part of the tumor was reached and dissected from the surrounding tissue via a minimally invasive Lynch incision around the left middle canthus. During surgery, CSF rhinorrhea was observed and leakage was grafted with fascia lata and coated with bio-glu. Postoperatively, symptoms disappeared. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient is still free of symptoms.
Conclusion
Before management of ethmoid osteomas with intraorbital and skull base extension, a thorough neurological, ophthalmological and imaging evaluation is required, in order to define the bounders of the tumor, carefully survey the severity of symptoms and signs, and precisely plan the optimal treatment. The endoscopic procedure can constitute an important part of surgery undertaken for giant ethmoidal osteomas. In addition, surgeons always have to take into account a possible CSF leak and they have to be prepared to resolve it.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-6-110
PMCID: PMC2576271  PMID: 18854008

Results 1-6 (6)