Objective: We aimed to investigate the relation between adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Chinese population. Methods: The present study included 510 subjects with normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and 510 patients with type 2 diabetic. Five SNPs (rs2241767, rs3821799, rs182052, rs1501299 and rs7627128) were genotyped by TaqMan methods. Results: Of these 5 SNPs, three SNPs (rs1501299, rs182052, and rs7627128) were found to be significantly associated with T2DM. The haplotypes AAT (Construction of rs1501299, rs182052, and rs7627128) was frequent in T2DM patients (OR=2.051, 95% CI: 1.439~2.923, P<0.001), but GAT (Construction of rs1501299, rs182052, and rs7627128) was frequent in the control group (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.540~0.805, P<0.001). Conclusion: The ADIPOQ gene variants and haplotype were associated with the risk for development of type 2 diabetes.
ADIPOQ; diabetes; genetic polymorphism; case-control study
There are more than 1000 microbial species living in the complex human intestine. The gut microbial community plays an important role in protecting the host against pathogenic microbes, modulating immunity, regulating metabolic processes, and is even regarded as an endocrine organ. However, traditional culture methods are very limited for identifying microbes. With the application of molecular biologic technology in the field of the intestinal microbiome, especially metagenomic sequencing of the next-generation sequencing technology, progress has been made in the study of the human intestinal microbiome. Metagenomics can be used to study intestinal microbiome diversity and dysbiosis, as well as its relationship to health and disease. Moreover, functional metagenomics can identify novel functional genes, microbial pathways, antibiotic resistance genes, functional dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome, and determine interactions and co-evolution between microbiota and host, though there are still some limitations. Metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics represent enormous complements to the understanding of the human gut microbiome. This review aims to demonstrate that metagenomics can be a powerful tool in studying the human gut microbiome with encouraging prospects. The limitations of metagenomics to be overcome are also discussed. Metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics in relation to the study of the human gut microbiome are also briefly discussed.
Human gut microbiome; Metabolomics; Metagenomics; Metaproteomics; Metatranscriptomics
Stored, soluble histones in eggs are essential for early development, in particular during the maternally controlled early cell cycles in the absence of transcription. Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) direct and regulate chromatin-templated transactions, so understanding the nature and function of pre-deposition maternal histones is essential to deciphering mechanisms of regulation of development, chromatin assembly, and transcription. Little is known about histone H2A pre-deposition modifications nor known about the transitions that occur upon the onset of zygotic control of the cell cycle and transcription at the mid-blastula transition (MBT).
We isolated histones from staged Xenopus laevis oocytes, eggs, embryos, and assembled pronuclei to identify changes in histone H2A modifications prior to deposition and in chromatin. Soluble and chromatin-bound histones from eggs and embryos demonstrated distinct patterns of maternal and zygotic H2A PTMs, with significant pre-deposition quantities of S1ph and R3me1, and R3me2s. We observed the first functional distinction between H2A and H4 S1 phosphorylation, as we showed that H2A and H2A.X-F (also known as H2A.X.3) serine 1 (S1) is phosphorylated concomitant with germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) while H4 serine 1 phosphorylation occurs post-MBT. In egg extract H2A/H4 S1 phosphorylation is independent of the cell cycle, chromatin assembly, and DNA replication. H2AS1ph is highly enriched on blastula chromatin during repression of zygotic gene expression while H4S1ph is correlated with the beginning of maternal gene expression and the lengthening of the cell cycle, consistent with distinct biological roles for H2A and H4 S1 phosphorylation. We isolated soluble H2A and H2A.X-F from the egg and chromatin-bound in pronuclei and analyzed them by mass spectrometry analysis to quantitatively determine abundances of S1ph and R3 methylation. We show that H2A and H4 S1ph, R3me1 and R3me2s are enriched on nucleosomes containing both active and repressive histone PTMs in human A549 cells and Xenopus embryos.
Significantly, we demonstrated that H2A phosphorylation and H4 arginine methylation form a new class of bona fide pre-deposition modifications in the vertebrate embryo. We show that S1ph and R3me containing chromatin domains are not correlated with H3 regulatory PTMs, suggesting a unique role for phosphorylation and arginine methylation.
Histones; H2A; Xenopus laevis; Histone arginine methylation; Histone phosphorylation; Histone deposition; Early development
Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1, also known as Smarca4 and Snf2β) encodes an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent catalytical subunit of the (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. SWI/SNF complexes are recruited to chromatin through multiple mechanisms, including specific DNA-binding factors (for example, heat shock transcription factor 4 (Hsf4) and paired box gene 6 (Pax6)), chromatin structural proteins (for example, high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1)) and/or acetylated core histones. Previous studies have shown that a single amino acid substitution (K798R) in the Brg1 ATPase domain acts via a dominant-negative (dn) mechanism. Genetic studies have demonstrated that Brg1 is an essential gene for early (that is, prior implantation) mouse embryonic development. Brg1 also controls neural stem cell maintenance, terminal differentiation of multiple cell lineages and organs including the T-cells, glial cells and limbs.
To examine the roles of Brg1 in mouse lens development, a dnBrg1 transgenic construct was expressed using the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter in postmitotic lens fiber cells. Morphological studies revealed abnormal lens fiber cell differentiation in transgenic lenses resulting in cataract. Electron microscopic studies showed abnormal lens suture formation and incomplete karyolysis (that is, denucleation) of lens fiber cells. To identify genes regulated by Brg1, RNA expression profiling was performed in embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5) wild-type and dnBrg1 transgenic lenses. In addition, comparisons between differentially expressed genes in dnBrg1 transgenic, Pax6 heterozygous and Hsf4 homozygous lenses identified multiple genes coregulated by Brg1, Hsf4 and Pax6. DNase IIβ, a key enzyme required for lens fiber cell denucleation, was found to be downregulated in each of the Pax6, Brg1 and Hsf4 model systems. Lens-specific deletion of Brg1 using conditional gene targeting demonstrated that Brg1 was required for lens fiber cell differentiation, for expression of DNase IIβ, for lens fiber cell denucleation and indirectly for retinal development.
These studies demonstrate a cell-autonomous role for Brg1 in lens fiber cell terminal differentiation and identified DNase IIβ as a potential direct target of SWI/SNF complexes. Brg1 is directly or indirectly involved in processes that degrade lens fiber cell chromatin. The presence of nuclei and other organelles generates scattered light incompatible with the optical requirements for the lens.
The breeding of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition in China. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animal health. Thus, a total of 1,132 domestic rabbit sera from 4 regions in China were collected for serological screening for Encephalitozoon cuniculi and for Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Antibodies to E. cuniculi were detected in 248/1,132 (21.9%) sera tested while antibodies against T. gondii revealed a seroprevalence of 51/1,132 (4.5%). We believe that the present results are of epidemiological implications and public health importance due to the acknowledged susceptibility of humans to E. cuniculi and T. gondii infections. Therefore, routine screening tests of domestic rabbits are proposed considering the zoonotic potential of these parasites.
Encephalitozoon cuniculi; Toxoplasma gondii; domestic rabbit; seroprevalence; China
Background: This study aimed to determine the spatiotemporal expression of caudal-type homeobox genes (CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4) during development of the midgut in human embryos and to explore the possible roles of CDX genes during the morphogenesis of human midgut. Human embryos (n=28) were sectioned serially and sagittally and CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins were detected on the midline from the 5th to 9th weeks of gestation by immunohistochemical staining. Results: CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins were weakly expressed in epithelium and mesenchyme of the midgut in the 6th and 7th weeks of gestation and reached estimated optimal level on the 8th and 9th weeks of gestation. In the 9th week of gestation, immunoreactivities specific to CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 were restricted in epithelium of the midgut. Conclusions: CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins began to express in human midgut in the 6th week of gestation. From the 6th to 9th week of gastation, the expression of CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins gradually increase and exhibited overlapping expression patterns, suggesting that CDX genes may be involved in early development of the epithelium of human midgut. Cross-regulatory interactions may exist among CDX genes with respect to human midgut development.
Human; embryo; CDX; midgut; development
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) due to parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection after solid organ transplantation has been rarely reported and most of the cases were renal transplant recipients. Few have been described after liver transplantation. Moreover, little information on the management of this easily recurring disease is available at present. We describe the first case of a Chinese liver transplant recipient with PVB19-induced PRCA during immunosuppressive therapy. The patient suffered from progressive anemia with the lowest hemoglobin level of 21 g/L. Bone marrow biopsy showed selectively inhibited erythropoiesis with giant pronormoblasts. Detection of PVB19-DNA in serum with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed a high level of viral load. After 2 courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, bone marrow erythropoiesis recovered with his hemoglobin level increased to 123 g/L. He had a low-level PVB19 load for a 5-mo follow-up period without recurrence of PRCA, and finally the virus was cleared. Our case indicates that clearance of PVB19 by IVIG in transplant recipients might be delayed after recovery of anemia.
Pure red cell aplasia; Parvovirus B19; Intravenous immunoglobulin; Recurrence; Liver transplantation
AIM: To investigate the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and clinicopathologic and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system parameter and prognosis in human gastric cancer.
METHODS: Expression of MMP-2 mRNA, uPA, and uPA-R mRNA in tumor tissues and ≥5 cm adjacent normal tissues from 67 cases of gastric cancer was studied using RT-PCR and Northern blot respectively. Survival analyses were done using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: The expression rates of MMP-2 mRNA, uPA and uPA-R mRNA in tumor tissues (31%, 41%, and 51%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in ≥5 cm adjacent tissues (19%, 11%, and 9%; χ2 = 4.59, 43.58, and 53.24 respectively, P<0.05, 0.0001, and 0.0001, respectively). Expression of MMP-2 mRNA was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (metastasis: 61.9%, no metastasis: 39.1%, χ2 = 7.61, P<0.05), Lauren’s classification of diffuse/mixed types: 54.2%, intestinal type: 26.3%, χ2 = 4.25, P<0.05, expression of uPA and uPA-R mRNA (uPA+: 55.1%, uPA-: 22.2% and uPA-R+: 54.9%, uPA-R-: 18.8%, χ2 = 5.72 and 6.40 respectively, P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of MMP-2 mRNA expression did not show significant difference in all 67 cases, but revealed an association of the expression of MMP-2 mRNA, uPA, and uPA-R mRNA with worse prognosis (P = 0.0083, 0.0160, and 0.0094, respectively).
CONCLUSION: MMP-2 may play an important role in the development of invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; Matrix metalloproteinase-2; Urokinase-type plasminogen activator
AIM: To investigate the role of adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene therapy in inhibiting the infiltration of macrophages and CD8+T cells and cell apoptosis after liver transplantation.
METHODS: The rat orthotopic liver transplantation model was applied. The rats were divided into three groups: group I: rejection control (SD-to-Wistar); group II: acute rejection treated with intramuscular injection of CsA 3.0 mg/(kg·d) for 12 d (SD-to-Wistar+CsA); groupIII: injection of 1×109 PFU adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene liquor in dorsal vein of penis 7 d before liver transplantation (SD-to-Wistar+CTLA4Ig). Immunohistochemistry and transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were used to analyze the expression of CTLA4Ig gene in liver, infiltration of macrophages and CD8+T cells, cell apoptosis in grafts at different time-points after liver transplantation. Histopathological examination was done.
RESULTS: CTLA4Ig gene expression was positive in liver on d 7 after administering adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene via vein, and remained positive until day 60 after liver transplantation. Infiltration of macrophages and CD8+T cells in CTLA4Ig-treated group was less than in rejection control group and CsA-treated group. The apoptotic index of rejection group on d 3, 5, and 7 were significantly higher than that of CTLA4Ig-treated group. A good correlation was found between severity of rejection reaction and infiltration of immune activator cells or cell apoptotic index in grafts.
CONCLUSION: CTLA4Ig gene is constantly expressed in liver and plays an important role in inducing immune tolerance.
Liver transplantation; Adenovirus; CTLA4Ig; Apoptosis
AIM: To sum up the clinical characteristics of patients with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and to document the possible causes of CPM.
METHODS: Data of 142 patients undergoing OLT between January 1999 to May 2003 were analyzed retrospectively. Following risk factors during perioperation were analyzed in patients with and without CPM: primary liver disease, preoperative serum sodium level, magnesium level and plasma osmolality, fluctuation degree of serum sodium concentration, and immunosuppressive drug level, etc.
RESULTS: A total of 13 (9.2%) neurologic symptoms appeared in 142 patients post-operation including 5 cases (3.5%) with CPM and 8 cases (5.6%) with cerebral hemorrhage or infarct. Two patients developing CPM after OLT had a hyponatremia history before operation (serum sodium < 130 mmol/L), their mean serum sodium level was 130.6 ± 5.54 mmol/L. The serum sodium level was significantly lower in CPM patients than in patients without neurologic complications or with cerebral hemorrhage/infarct (P < 0.05).The increase in serum sodiumduring perioperative 48 h after OLT in patients with CPM was significantly greater than that in patients with cerebral hemorrhage/infarct but without neurologic complications (19.5 ± 6.54 mmol/L, 10.1 ± 6.43 mmol/L, 4.5 ± 4.34 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Plasma osmolality was greatly increased postoperation in patients with CPM. Hypomagnesemia was noted in all patients perioperation, but there were no significant differences between groups. The duration of operation on patients with CPM was longer than that on others (492 ± 190.05 min, P < 0.05). Cyclosporin A (CsA) levels were normal in all patients, but there were significant differences between patients with or without neurologic complications (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: CPM may be more prevalent following liver transplantation. Although the diagnosis of CPM after OLT can be made by overall neurologic evaluations including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head, the mortality is still very high. The occurance of CPM may be associated with such factors as hyponatremia, rapid rise of serum sodium concentration, plasma osmolality increase postoperation, the duration of operation, and high CsA levels.
AIM: To modify the hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant technique to prevent postoperative complications, and to study the inhibiting effect of multiglycosides tripterygium wilfordii (TII) on immune rejection.
METHODS: Female golden hamsters and inbred male Wistar rats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. One hundred and twelve orthotopic liver xenotransplants were performed by Kamada’s cuff technique with modifications. Over 72 hour survival of the animal after operation was considered as a successful operation. When the established surgical model became stable, 30 of the latest 42 cases were divided into untreated control group (n = 15) and TII group (n = 15) at random. Survival of recipients was observed. Liver specimens were collected at 2 and 72 h from the operated animals and postmortem, respectively, for histological study.
RESULTS: The successfully operative rate of the 30 operations was 80%, and the survival of the control and TII group was 7.1 ± 0.35 was days and 7.2 ± 0.52 d, respectively (t = 0.087, P = 0.931). The rate of conjunctival hyperemia in control group (100%) differed significantly from that (31%) in TII group (P = 0.001). Rejection did not occur in both groups within 2 h postoperatively, but became obvious in control group at 72 h after surgery and mild in TII group. Although rejections were obvious in both groups at death of recipients, it was less severe in TII group than in control group.
CONCLUSION: This modified Kamada’s technique can be used to establish a stable hamster-to-rat liver xenotransplant model. Monotherapy with multiglycosides tripteryguiumwilfordii (30 mg•kg-1•l-1) suppresses the rejection mildly, but fails to prolong survival of recipients.
gastroesophageal reflux/physiopathology; asphyxia neonatorum/physiopathology; esophagus; stomach; hydrogen-ion concentration; manometry
matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA; stomach neoplasms; polymerase chain reaction
Giant hepatic hemangioma is a benign liver condition that may be treated using surgery. We studied the digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) characteristics of giant hepatic hemangioma, and the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) alone for its treatment. This was a retrospective study of 27 patients diagnosed with giant hepatic hemangioma and treated with TAE alone (using lipiodol mixed with pingyangmycin) at the Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, between January 2010 and March 2013. The feeding arteries were identified using DSA. All patients were followed up for between three weeks and 12 months. Changes in tumor diameter and symptoms were observed. The 27 patients included had giant hepatic hemangiomas ranging from 5.3 to 24.5 cm (mean, 11.24±5.08 cm) in the right (n = 13), left (n = 1) or both (n = 13) lobes. Preoperative hepatic angiography showed multiple abnormal vascular lakes in the early phase, known as the “early leaving but late returning, hanging nut on a twig” sign. On the day after TAE, hepatic transaminase levels were increased (ALT: 22.69±17.95 to 94.88±210.32 U/L; ALT: 24.00±12.37 to 99.70±211.54 U/L; both P<0.05), but not total bilirubin. Six patients complained of abdominal pain, and 12 experienced transient fever. In the months after TAE, tumor size decreased (baseline: 11.24±5.08; 3 months: 8.95±4.33; 6 months: 7.60±3.90 cm; P<0.05), and the patients’ condition improved. These results indicated that TAE was effective and safe for treating giant hepatic hemangioma. TAE may be a useful alternative to surgery for the treatment of hepatic hemangioma.
The aim of this study was to determine the expression patterns of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) during anorectal development in normal rat embryos and in embryos with anorectal malformations (ARM), and to investigate the possible role of BMP7 in the pathogenesis of ARM. ARM was induced by treating rat embryos with ethylenethiourea on the 10th gestational day (GD10). Embryos were harvested by Cesarean delivery and the spatiotemporal expression of BMP7 was evaluated in normal (n=168) and ARM embryos (n=171) from GD13 to GD16 using immunohistochemistry staining and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining in normal embryos revealed that BMP7 was abundantly expressed on the epithelium of the urorectal septum (URS) and the hindgut on GD13, and BMP7-immunopositive cells were extensively detected in the URS, hindgut, and cloacal membrane by GD14. Increased positive tissue staining was noted on the fused tissue of the URS and the thin anal membrane on GD15. In ARM embryos, the epithelium of the cloaca, URS, and anorectum were negatively or only faintly immunostained for BMP7. BMP7 protein expression showed time-dependent changes in the developing hindgut according to western blotting, and reached a peak on GD15 during anus formation. BMP7 expression levels from GD14 to GD15 were significantly lower in the ARM group compared with the normal group (P<0.05). Spatiotemporal expression of BMP7 was disrupted in ARM embryos during anorectal morphogenesis from GD13 to GD16. These results suggest that downregulation of BMP7 at the time of cloacal separation into the primitive rectum and UGS might be related to the development of ARM.
Anorectal malformation; BMP7; embryogenesis; development; rat
Objective: This study was performed to investigate bone deteriorations and the involvement of skeletal Eph/ephrin signaling pathway of GIOP aged mice in response to the treatment of genistein. Methods: The biomarkers in serum and urine were measured, tibias were taken for the measurement on gene and protein expression and histomorphology analysis, and femurs were taken for the measurement on bone Ca and three-dimensional architecture of trabecular bone. Results: Genistein showed a greater increase in bone Ca, BMD and significantly increased FGF-23 and OCN, reduced TRACP-5b, PTH and CTX in GIOP mice. Genistein reversed DXM-induced trabecular deleterious effects and stimulated bone remodeling. The treatment of DXM group with genistein significantly elevated the ratio of OPG/RANKL. Moreover, genistein administration down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of Eph A2 and ephrin A2 in tibia of the GIOP mice. In contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of Eph B4 and ephrin B2 were increased in mice treated by DXM with genistein as compared to the DXM single treatment. Conclusions: DXM-induced trabecular bone micro-structure deterioration in aged mice was involved in the regulation of the Eph receptors and ephrin ligands. Genistein might represent a therapy with bone-forming as well as an anti-resorptive activity in GIOP mice. The underlying mechanism was mediated, at least partially, through regulation Eph/ephrin signaling.
Eph/ephrin; bone; genistein; dexamethasone
Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique type of chronic pancreatitis, which is rarely associated with pseudocyst. A 48-year-old lady was admitted to our department with a rapidly growing cystic mass in the pancreatic tail with an elevated concentration of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). She had a history of autoimmune pancreatitis and received steroid treatment. Imaging studies demonstrated a cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. The mass kept growing despite restoration of steroid treatment. Eventually, the patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed the existence of pseudocyst, significant lymphocytic infiltration, and fibrotic change in the pancreatic tail.
Autoimmune pancreatitis; Distal pancreatectomy; Pseudocyst
Previous studies have suggested that 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) induces cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, suggesting that vitamin D may be a useful adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer and a chemopreventive agent. Most epidemiological data however shows a weak link between serum 25(OH)D3 and risk of prostate cancer. To explore dichotomy we have compared tumor progression in the LPB-Tag model of prostate in VDR knock out (VDRKO) and wild type (VDRWT) mice. On the C57BL/6 background LPB-Tag tumors progress significantly more rapidly in the VDRKO mice. VDRKO tumors show significantly higher levels of cell proliferation than VDRWT tumors. In mice supplemented with testosterone to restore the serum levels to the normal range, these difference in tumor progression, and proliferation are abrogated, suggesting that there is considerable cross-talk between the androgen receptor (AR) and the vitamin D axis which is reflected in significant changes in steady state mRNA levels of the AR, PCNA, cdk2 survivin and IGFR1 and 2 genes. These alterations may explain the differences between the in vitro data and the epidemiological studies.
Purpose: We report the case of a 59-year-old male patient who presented with space-occupying lesions in the pancreas and liver suggestive of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Materials and methods: Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging and enhanced CT imaging of the lesions were performed in addition to abdominal ultrasound, ERCP, and MRCP. Tumor markers, including CA199 and AFP, were also evaluated. Results: PET/CT imaging showed a soft tissue mass with indistinct boundaries in the head of the pancreas with a maximum SUV of 4.39. A less dense shadow was also found in the left lobe of the liver with an indistinct boundary and a maximum SUV of 4.13. Enhanced CT revealed an enhancing mass in the head of the pancreas on arterial phase imaging as well as a mildly enhancing focus in the left lobe of the liver. The patient was diagnosed with a space-occupying lesion of the uncinate process of the pancreas suggestive of pancreatic cancer with metastasis to the liver. However, serum tumor markers were normal. Postoperative pathology was consistent with chronic pancreatitis and old hepatic schistosomiasis associated with granulomatous inflammation of the liver. Conclusion: This case of mass-forming pancreatitis and granulomatous inflammation in old hepatic schistosomiasis mimicked metastatic pancreatic cancer on PET/CT. Such false positive lesions have not been reported before, and further exploration and investigation are needed.
Pancreatic carcinoma; mass-forming pancreatitis; PET/CT; granulomatous; liver metastasis; schistosome
Epidemiological data have demonstrated an inverse association between serum vitamin D3 levels, cancer incidence and related mortality. However, the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer biology and its utility for prevention of prostate cancer progression are not as well-defined. The data are often conflicting: some reports suggest that vitamin D3 induces apoptosis in androgen dependent prostate cancer cell lines, while others suggest that vitamin D3 only induces cell cycle arrest. Recent molecular studies have identified an extensive synergistic crosstalk between the vitamin D- and androgen-mediated mRNA and miRNA expression, adding an additional layer of post-transcriptional regulation to the known VDR- and AR-regulated gene activation. The Warburg effect, the inefficient metabolic pathway that converts glucose to lactate for rapid energy generation, is a phenomenon common to many different types of cancer. This process supports cell proliferation and promotes cancer progression via alteration of glucose, glutamine and lipid metabolism. Prostate cancer is a notable exception to this general process since the metabolic switch that occurs early during malignancy is the reverse of the Warburg effect. This “anti-Warburg effect” is due to the unique biology of normal prostate cells that harbor a truncated TCA cycle that is required to produce and secret citrate. In prostate cancer cells, the TCA cycle activity is restored and citrate oxidation is used to produce energy for cancer cell proliferation. 1,25(OH)2D3 and androgen together modulates the TCA cycle via transcriptional regulation of zinc transporters, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 and androgen maintain normal prostate metabolism by blocking citrate oxidation. These data demonstrate the importance of androgens in the anti-proliferative effect of vitamin D in prostate cancer and highlight the importance of understanding the crosstalk between these two signaling pathways.
vitamin D; androgen; prostate; warburg; miRNA; mRNA
Reduced beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) is a free thiol-containing form of beta2-GPI that displays a powerful effect in protecting endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. The present study aims to investigate the effect of beta2-GPI or reduced beta2-GPI on ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and on cell apoptosis and to determine the possible mechanisms.
The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was selected as the experimental material. Oil red O staining and cholesterol measurement were used to detect cholesterol accumulation qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of the main proteins that are associated with the transport of cholesterol, such as CD36, SRB1, ABCA1 and ABCG1. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of certain apoptosis-related proteins, such as caspase-9, caspase-3, p38 MAPK/p-p38 MAPK and JNK/p-JNK.
Beta2-GPI or reduced beta2-GPI decreased ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation (96.45 ± 8.51 μg/mg protein vs. 114.35 ± 10.38 μg/mg protein, p < 0.05;74.44 ± 5.27 μg/mg protein vs. 114.35 ± 10.38 μg/mg protein, p < 0.01) and cell apoptosis (30.00 ± 5.10% vs. 38.70 ± 7.76%, p < 0.05; 20.66 ± 2.50% vs. 38.70 ± 7.76%, p < 0.01), and there are significant differences between beta2-GPI and reduced beta2-GPI (p < 0.05). Reduced beta2-GPI decreased the ox-LDL-induced expression of CD36 mRNA and ABCA1 mRNA (p < 0.05), as well as CD36, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, p-p38 MAPK and p-JNK proteins (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Beta2-GPI did not significantly decrease the expression of ABCA1 mRNA and the p-p38 MAPK protein.
Both beta2-GPI and reduced beta2-GPI inhibit ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and cell apoptosis, and the latter exhibits a stronger inhibition effect. Both of these glycoproteins reduce the lipid intake of macrophages by downregulating CD36 as well as protein expression. Reduced beta2-GPI inhibits cell apoptosis by reducing the ox-LDL-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK, and the amount of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9. Beta2-GPI does not inhibit the ox-LDL-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK.
Reduced beta2-glycoprotein I; Beta2-glycoprotein I; Ox-LDL; Foam cell; Apoptosis
To develop new therapies for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) we have compared the effects of two hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, CG-1521 and Trichostatin A (TSA) on the biology of two IBC cell lines: SUM149PT and SUM190PT. CG-1521 and TSA induce dose (0−10 µM) and time-dependent (0−96 h) increases in the proportion of cells undergoing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol. In SUM 149PT cells, both CG-1521 and TSA increase the levels of acetylated α-tubulin; however the morphological effects are different: CG-1521 blocks mitotic spindle formation and prevents abscission during cytokinesis while TSA results in an increase in cell size. In SUM190PT cells CG-1521 does not cause an increase in acetylated-α-tubulin and even though TSA significantly increases the levels of acetylated tubulin, neither inhibitor alters the morphology of the cells. Microarray analysis demonstrates that CG-1521 modulates the expression of 876 mRNAs and 63 miRNAs in SUM149PT cells, and 1227 mRNAs and 35 miRNAs in SUM190PT cells. Only 9% of the genes are commonly modulated in both cell lines, suggesting that CG-1521 and TSA target different biological processes in the two cell lines most likely though the inhibition of different HDACs in these cell lines. Gene ontology (GO) analysis reveals that CG-1521 affects the expression of mRNAs that encode proteins associated with the spindle assembly checkpoint, chromosome segregation, and microtubule-based processes in both cell lines and has cell-type specific effects on lipid biosynthesis, response to DNA damage, and cell death.
acetylation; midzone; abscission; chromosome misalignment; cell death; cell cycle
Background: Anorectal malformations (ARMs) represent a variety of congenital disorders that involve abnormal termination of the anorectum. This study was to reveal relation between CDX1 and human ARMs phenotypes.
Methods: 108 Chinese patients and 120 Chinese controls were included in this study. We analyzed the relation between two by PCR, qRT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence.
Results: Four heterozygous mutations in CDX1 gene were identified in ARMs patients (3.7%, 4/108), no found in controls. CDX1 protein expression was significantly decreased in the ARMs compared with the control anorectum. All samples analyzed in ARMs group exhibited down-regulated CDX1 mRNA expression in comparison to matched normal group, demonstrated significant differences statistically.
Conclusion: The findings represented the relation between CDX1 mutations and CDX1 genotype. Furthermore, it was suggested that the downregulation of CDX1 might be related to the development of ARMs.
Anorectal malformations; CDX1; mutation; children