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1.  Potential Applications of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Radiation Dose Escalation in Patients with Early Stage High-Risk Prostate Cancer 
Patients with early stage high-risk prostate cancer (prostate specific antigen > 20, Gleason score > 7) are at high risk of recurrence following prostate cancer irradiation. Radiation dose escalation to the prostate may improve biochemical-free survival for these patients. However, high rectal and bladder dose with conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy may lead to excessive gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), by virtue of combining the steep dose gradient of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and daily pretreatment imaging, may allow for radiation dose escalation and decreased treatment morbidity. Reduced treatment time is feasible with hypo-fractionated IGRT and it may improve patient quality of life.
PMCID: PMC4313771  PMID: 25699239
prostate cancer; high-risk; image-guided radiotherapy; hypofractionation
2.  Feasibility of intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:265.
In this study the feasibility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer was assessed.
A retrospective study of ten patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who underwent concurrent chemotherapy with IMRT (1) and IGRT (9) was conducted. The gross tumor volume was treated to a median dose of 70 Gy (62.4-75 Gy).
At a median follow-up of 14 months (1-39 months), three patients developed local failures, six patients developed distant metastases, and complications occurred in two patients (1 tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 esophageal stricture requiring repeated dilatations). No patients developed grade 3-4 pneumonitis or cardiac complications.
IMRT and IGRT may be effective for the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer with acceptable complications.
PMCID: PMC3996254  PMID: 24742268
Esophageal cancer; Tomotherapy; Normal tissue sparing
3.  Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Cardiac Sparing in Patients with Left-Sided Breast Cancer 
Frontiers in Oncology  2014;4:257.
Patients with left-sided breast cancer are at risk of cardiac toxicity because of cardiac irradiation during radiotherapy with the conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique. In addition, many patients may receive chemotherapy prior to radiation, which may damage the myocardium and may increase the potential for late cardiac complications. New radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may decrease the risk of cardiac toxicity because of the steep dose gradient limiting the volume of the heart irradiated to a high dose. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a new technique of IMRT delivery with daily imaging, which may further reduce excessive cardiac irradiation. Preliminary results of IGRT for cardiac sparing in patients with left-sided breast cancer are promising and need to be investigated in future prospective clinical studies.
PMCID: PMC4172060  PMID: 25295227
breast cancer; left breast; cardiac toxicity; IGRT
4.  Feasibility of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71250.
The study aims to assess the tolerance of elderly patients (70 years or older) with locally advanced rectal cancers to image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). A retrospective review of 13 elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation using IGRT was performed. Grade 3–4 acute toxicities, survival, and long-term complications were compared to 17 younger patients (<70 years) with the same disease stage.
Grade 3–4 hematologic toxicities occurred in 7.6% and 0% (p = 0.4) and gastrointestinal toxicities, and, in 15.2% and 5% (p = 0.5), of elderly and younger patients, respectively. Surgery was aborted in three patients, two in the elderly group and one in the younger group. One patient in the elderly group died after surgery from cardiac arrhythmia. After a median follow-up of 34 months, five patients had died, two in the elderly and three in the younger group. The 3-year survival was 90.9% and 87.5% (p = 0.7) for the elderly and younger group respectively. Two patients in the younger group developed ischemic colitis and fecal incontinence. There was no statistically significant difference in acute and late toxicities as well as survival between the two groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
Elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancers may tolerate preoperative chemoradiation with IGRT as well as younger patients. Further prospective studies should be performed to investigate the potential of IGRT for possible cure in elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3742779  PMID: 23967173
5.  Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma 
The Oncologist  2012;17(6):783-791.
Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.
Learning Objectives:
After completing this course, the reader will be able to: Explain the differences in risk and aggression of breast cancer for Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors.Describe the difference in breast tumor sites for Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors.Use adapted guidelines for surveillance and treatment of these high-risk patients.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at
To assess breast cancer (BC) risk after Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and compare characteristics, risk of second BC, and prognosis of patients with these BCs with patients with first primary BC.
Patients and Methods.
We considered all 9,620 women with HL recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset in 1973–2007. We calculated age-period standardized incidence ratios of BC. We compared patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, risk of second BC, and prognosis between patients with BC after HL (n = 316) and patients with other BCs occurring during the same period (n = 450,413) using logistic regression and Cox models adjusted for confounders.
HL patients had a 2.4-fold higher risk for developing BC (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–2.7) than the general population. Age at HL diagnosis and radiation therapy influenced this risk. Compared with first primary BCs, BCs after HL were diagnosed at a younger age, at an earlier stage, were less frequently hormone receptor positive, were located more frequently in external quadrants, and were less frequently treated using radiotherapy. These patients had a higher risk (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.85; 95% CI, 1.79–4.53) for developing a second BC and had a higher BC mortality risk (adjusted HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05–1.76). The higher mortality risk was only partly explained by the higher occurrence rate of a second BC.
HL survivors have a higher risk for developing BC, their BCs are more aggressive, they have a higher risk for a second BC occurrence, and they have a poorer prognosis. Guidelines of care should be adapted to decrease the impact of BC in these high-risk patients.
PMCID: PMC3380877  PMID: 22588325
Breast cancer; Hodgkin's lymphoma; Radiation therapy; Prognosis
6.  Feasibility of Tomotherapy-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60268.
The study aims to assess the feasibility of tomotherapy-based image-guided (IGRT) radiotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. A retrospective review of 33 patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers was conducted. Radiotherapy planning, treatment toxicity and loco-regional control were assessed.
At a median follow-up of 32 months (6–47 months), no patient developed loco-regional recurrence. Two patients (6%) developed distant metastases. Grade 3–4 acute toxicity was respectively 72% and 25% for mucositis and gastrointestinal toxicity. Two patients (6%) had long-term dependence on tube feedings. Dose-volume histogram demonstrated excellent target volume coverage and low radiation dose to the organs at risk for complications.
Conclusions and clinical relevance
IGRT provides excellent loco-regional control but acute toxicity remains significant and needs to be addressed in future prospective trials. The feasibility of Tomotherapy to decrease radiation dose to the normal tissues merits further investigations.
PMCID: PMC3610680  PMID: 23555938
7.  Feasibility of Tomotherapy-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy to Reduce Aspiration Risk in Patients with Non-Laryngeal and Non-Pharyngeal Head and Neck Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e56290.
The study aims to assess the feasibility of Tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) to reduce the aspiration risk in patients with non-laryngeal and non-hypopharyngeal cancer. A retrospective review of 48 patients undergoing radiation for non-laryngeal and non-hypopharyngeal head and neck cancers was conducted. All patients had a modified barium swallow (MBS) prior to treatment, which was repeated one month following radiotherapy. Mean middle and inferior pharyngeal dose was recorded and correlated with the MBS results to determine aspiration risk.
Mean pharyngeal dose was 23.2 Gy for the whole group. Two patients (4.2%) developed trace aspiration following radiotherapy which resolved with swallowing therapy. At a median follow-up of 19 months (1–48 months), all patients were able to resume normal oral feeding without aspiration.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance
IGRT may reduce the aspiration risk by decreasing the mean pharyngeal dose in the presence of large cervical lymph nodes. Further prospective studies with IGRT should be performed in patients with non-laryngeal and non-hypopharyngeal head and neck cancers to verify this hypothesis.
PMCID: PMC3591427  PMID: 23505414
8.  Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer 
Frontiers in Oncology  2013;3:172.
Treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer remains a challenge because of the head and neck complex anatomy and the tumor invasion to the adjacent organs and/or metastases to the cervical nodes. Postoperative irradiation or concurrent chemoradiation may lead to damage of radiosensitive structures such as the salivary glands, mandible, cochlea, larynx, and pharyngeal muscles. Xerostomia, osteoradionecrosis, deafness, hoarseness of the voice, dysphagia, and aspiration remain serious complications of head and neck irradiation and impair patient quality of life. Intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy by virtue of steep dose gradient and daily imaging may allow for decreased radiation of the organs at risk for complication while preserving loco-regional control.
PMCID: PMC3703525  PMID: 23847763
head and neck cancer; image-guided radiotherapy; preservation of radiosensitive organs
9.  Potential Applications of Imaging and Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases and Glioblastoma to Improve Patient Quality of Life 
Frontiers in Oncology  2013;3:284.
Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and brain metastasis remains a challenge because of the poor survival and the potential for brain damage following radiation. Despite concurrent chemotherapy and radiation dose escalation, local recurrence remains the predominant pattern of failure in GBM most likely secondary to repopulation of cancer stem cells. Even though radiotherapy is highly effective for local control of radio-resistant tumors such as melanoma and renal cell cancer, systemic disease progression is the cause of death in most patients with brain metastasis. Preservation of quality of life (QOL) of cancer survivors is the main issue for patients with brain metastasis. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by virtue of precise radiation dose delivery may reduce treatment time of patients with GBM without excessive toxicity and potentially improve neurocognitive function with preservation of local control in patients with brain metastasis. Future prospective trials for primary brain tumors or brain metastasis should include IGRT to assess its efficacy to improve patient QOL.
PMCID: PMC3832799  PMID: 24312897
glioblastoma; brain metastases; image-guided radiotherapy; neurotoxicity
10.  Health-related quality of life in survivors of stage I-II breast cancer: randomized trial of post-operative conventional radiotherapy and hypofractionated tomotherapy 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:495.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is a key component of clinical oncology trials. However, few breast cancer trials comparing adjuvant conventional radiotherapy (CR) and hypofractionated tomotherapy (TT) have investigated HRQOL. We compared HRQOL in stage I-II breast cancer patients who were randomized to receive either CR or TT. Tomotherapy uses an integrated computed tomography scanner to improve treatment accuracy, aiming to reduce the adverse effects of radiotherapy.
A total of 121 stage I–II breast cancer patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy (MA) were randomly assigned to receive either CR or TT. CR patients received 25 × 2 Gy over 5 weeks, and BCS patients also received a sequential boost of 8 × 2 Gy over 2 weeks. TT patients received 15 × 2.8 Gy over 3 weeks, and BCS patients also received a simultaneous integrated boost of 15 × 0.6 Gy over 3 weeks. Patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR23 questionnaires. The mean score (± standard error) was calculated at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, and at 3 months and 1, 2, and 3 years post-radiotherapy. Data were analyzed by the 'intention-to-treat' principle.
On the last day of radiotherapy, patients in both treatment arms had decreased global health status and functioning scores; increased fatigue (clinically meaningful in both treatment arms), nausea and vomiting, and constipation; decreased arm symptoms; clinically meaningful increased breast symptoms in CR patients and systemic side effects in TT patients; and slightly decreased body image and future perspective.
At 3 months post-radiotherapy, TT patients had a clinically significant increase in role- and social-functioning scores and a clinically significant decrease in fatigue. The post-radiotherapy physical-, cognitive- and emotional-functioning scores improved faster in TT patients than CR patients. TT patients also had a better long-term recovery from fatigue than CR patients. ANOVA with the Bonferroni correction did not show any significant differences between groups in HRQOL scores.
TT patients had a better improvement in global health status and role- and cognitive-functioning, and a faster recovery from fatigue, than CR patients. These results suggest that a shorter fractionation schedule may reduce the adverse effects of treatment.
PMCID: PMC3492203  PMID: 23098579
Health-related quality of life; Breast cancer; Hypofractionated radiotherapy; Adjuvant treatment; Randomized trial
11.  Feasibility of Intensity-Modulated and Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Functional Organ Preservation in Locally Advanced Laryngeal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e42729.
The study aims to assess the feasibility of intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT, and IGRT, respectively) for functional preservation in locally advanced laryngeal cancer. A retrospective review of 27 patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced laryngeal cancers (8 IMRT, 19 IGRT) was undertaken. In addition to regular clinical examinations, all patients had PET imaging at 4 months and 10 months after radiotherapy, then yearly. Loco-regional control, speech quality and feeding-tube dependency were assessed during follow-up visits.
At a median follow-up of 20 months (range 6–57 months), four out of 27 patients (14.8%) developed local recurrence and underwent salvage total laryngectomy. One patient developed distant metastases following salvage surgery. Among the 23 patients who conserved their larynx with no sign of recurrence at last follow-up, 22 (95%) reported normal or near normal voice quality, allowing them to communicate adequately. Four patients (14.8%) had long-term tube feeding-dependency because of severe dysphagia (2 patients) and chronic aspiration (2 patients, with ensuing death from aspiration pneumonia in one patient).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
Functional laryngeal preservation is feasible with IMRT and IGRT for locally advanced laryngeal cancer. However, dysphagia and aspiration remain serious complications, due most likely to high radiation dose delivery to the pharyngeal musculatures.
PMCID: PMC3423414  PMID: 22916151
12.  Early Contralateral Shoulder-Arm Morbidity in Breast Cancer Patients Enrolled in a Randomized Trial of Post-Surgery Radiation Therapy 
Shoulder/arm morbidity is a common complication of breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy (RT), but little is known about acute contralateral morbidity.
Patients were 118 women enrolled in a RT trial. Arm volume and shoulder mobility were assessed before and 1–3 months after RT. Correlations and linear regression were used to analyze changes affecting ipsilateral and contralateral arms, and changes affecting relative interlimb differences (RID).
Changes affecting one limb correlated with changes affecting the other limb. Arm volume between the two limbs correlated (R = 0.57). Risk factors were weight increase and axillary dissection. Contralateral and ipsilateral loss of abduction strongly correlated (R = 0.78). Changes of combined RID exceeding 10% affected the ipsilateral limb in 25% of patients, and the contralateral limb in 18%. Aromatase inhibitor therapy was significantly associated with contralateral loss of abduction.
High incidence of early contralateral arm morbidity warrants further investigations.
PMCID: PMC3418149  PMID: 22904635
early breast cancer; short-course radiation therapy; image-guided radiation therapy; shoulder/arm morbidity; breast cancer-related lymphedema
13.  Effectiveness of prophylactic retropharyngeal lymph node irradiation in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:253.
The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the prevention of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences in locally advanced head and neck cancer.
A retrospective review of 76 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiation or postoperative radiotherapy with IMRT or IGRT who were at risk for retropharyngeal nodal recurrences because of anatomic site (hypopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx) and/or the presence of nodal metastases was undertaken.
The prevalence of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences was assessed on follow-up positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scans.
At a median follow-up of 22 months (4–53 months), no patient developed retropharyngeal nodal recurrences.
Prophylactic irradiation of retropharyngeal lymph nodes with IMRT or IGRT provides effective regional control for individuals at risk for recurrence in these nodes.
PMCID: PMC3489531  PMID: 22708791
Head and neck cancer; IMRT; IGRT; Retropharyngeal lymph nodes
14.  Short course radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost for stage I-II breast cancer, early toxicities of a randomized clinical trial 
TomoBreast is a unicenter, non-blinded randomized trial comparing conventional radiotherapy (CR) vs. hypofractionated Tomotherapy (TT) for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of the trial is to compare whether TT can reduce heart and pulmonary toxicity. We evaluate early toxicities.
The trial started inclusion in May 2007 and reached its recruitment in August 2011. Women with stage T1-3N0M0 or T1-2N1M0 breast cancer completely resected by tumorectomy (BCS) or by mastectomy (MA) who consented to participate were randomized, according to a prescribed computer-generated randomization schedule, between control arm of CR 25x2 Gy/5 weeks by tangential fields on breast/chest wall, plus supraclavicular-axillary field if node-positive, and sequential boost 8x2 Gy/2 weeks if BCS (cumulative dose 66 Gy/7 weeks), versus experimental TT arm of 15x2.8 Gy/3 weeks, including nodal areas if node-positive and simultaneous integrated boost of 0.6 Gy if BCS (cumulative dose 51 Gy/3 weeks). Outcomes evaluated were the pulmonary and heart function. Comparison of proportions used one-sided Fisher's exact test.
By May 2010, 70 patients were randomized and had more than 1 year of follow-up. Out of 69 evaluable cases, 32 were assigned to CR (21 BCS, 11 MA), 37 to TT (20 BCS, 17 MA). Skin toxicity of grade ≥1 at 2 years was 60% in CR, vs. 30% in TT arm. Heart function showed no significant difference for left ventricular ejection fraction at 2 years, CR 4.8% vs. TT 4.6%. Pulmonary function tests at 2 years showed grade ≥1 decline of FEV1 in 21% of CR, vs. 15% of TT and decline of DLco in 29% of CR, vs. 7% of TT (P = 0.05).
There were no unexpected severe toxicities. Short course radiotherapy of the breast with simultaneous integrated boost over 3 weeks proved feasible without excess toxicities. Pulmonary tests showed a slight trend in favor of Tomotherapy, which will need confirmation with longer follow-up of patients.
Trail registration NCT00459628
PMCID: PMC3432009  PMID: 22656865
Early breast cancer; Hypofractionation; Simultaneous integrated boost (SIB); Image guided radiation treatment (IGRT); Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)
15.  Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy 
Scapula alata (SA) is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT).
The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements.
Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9%) had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009), 6.1 (P = 0.016), and 6.1 (P = 0.005), respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036) and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046) among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient.
The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.
PMCID: PMC3488523  PMID: 22591589
Breast cancer; Surgery; Radiation treatment; Complications; Winged scapula; Scapular winging; Long thoracic nerve; Multiple outcomes; Shoulder/arm morbidity; Lymphedema
16.  Feasibility of image-guided radiotherapy based on helical tomotherapy to reduce contralateral parotid dose in head and neck cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:175.
To evaluate the feasibility of image-guided radiotherapy based on helical Tomotherapy to spare the contralateral parotid gland in head and neck cancer patients with unilateral or no neck node metastases.
A retrospective review of 52 patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancers with image guidance based on daily megavoltage CT imaging with helical tomotherapy was performed.
Mean contralateral parotid dose and the volume of the contralateral parotid receiving 40 Gy or more were compared between radiotherapy plans with significant constraint (SC) of less than 20 Gy on parotid dose (23 patients) and the conventional constraint (CC) of 26 Gy (29 patients). All patients had PTV coverage of at least 95% to the contralateral elective neck nodes. Mean contralateral parotid dose was, respectively, 14.1 Gy and 24.7 Gy for the SC and CC plans (p < 0.0001). The volume of contralateral parotid receiving 40 Gy or more was respectively 5.3% and 18.2% (p < 0.0001)
Tomotherapy for head and neck cancer minimized radiotherapy dose to the contralateral parotid gland in patients undergoing elective node irradiation without sacrificing target coverage.
PMCID: PMC3411401  PMID: 22578076
Head and neck cancer; Tomotherapy; Parotid sparing
17.  Age and Axillary Lymph Node Ratio in Postmenopausal Women with T1-T2 Node Positive Breast Cancer 
The Oncologist  2010;15(10):1050-1062.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The age-specific incidence rate is highest among patients 70 years or older. High lymph node ratio combined with older age was associated with a threefold increased risk of breast cancer death and a sevenfold increased hazard ratio of overall mortality.
Learning Objectives
After completing this course, the reader will be able to: Identify changes in medical/surgical practice that can affect the prognostic performance of established prognostic factors such as lymph node involvement in breast cancer.Explain how the lymph node ratio can help to adjust against practice-related changes.Use the lymph node ratio as a measure of tumor burden in order to weigh the risk of breast cancer death against other causes of death in elderly patients.
This article is available for continuing medical education credit at
The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between age and lymph node ratio (LNR, number of positive nodes divided by number of examined nodes), and to determine their effects on breast cancer (BC) and overall mortality.
Women aged ≥50 years, diagnosed in 1988–1997 with a unilateral histologically confirmed T1-T2 node positive surgically treated primary nonmetastatic BC, were selected from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) were used to evaluate the age-LNR relationship. Cumulative incidence functions and multivariate competing risks analysis based on model selection by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to examine the effect of age and LNR on mortality. Low LNR was defined as ≤0.20, mid-LNR 0.21–0.65, and high LNR >0.65.
GAMLSS showed a nonlinear LNR-age relationship, increasing from mean LNR 0.26–0.28 at age 50–70 years to 0.30 at 80 years and 0.40 at 90 years. Compared with a 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8%–10.8%] risk of BC death at 5 years in women aged 50–59 years with low LNR, the risk in women ≥80 years with low LNR was 12.6% [95% CI 10.1%–15.0%], mid-LNR 18.1% [13.9%–22.1%], high LNR 29.8% [22.7%–36.1%]. Five-years overall risk of death increased from 40.8% [37.5%–43.9%] by low LNR to 67.4% [61.4%–72.4%] by high LNR. The overall mortality hazard ratio for age ≥80 years with high LNR was 7.49 [6.54–8.59], as compared with women aged 50–59 years with low LNR.
High LNR combined with older age was associated with a threefold increased risk of BC death and a sevenfold increased hazard ratio of overall mortality.
PMCID: PMC3227897  PMID: 20930094
Breast neoplasms; Lymph nodes; Prognosis; Survival; Elderly; SEER Program; Competing risks; Cause-specific mortality; Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape; GAMLSS; Bayesian Information Criterion; BIC
18.  Breathing adapted radiotherapy: a 4D gating software for lung cancer 
Physiological respiratory motion of tumors growing in the lung can be corrected with respiratory gating when treated with radiotherapy (RT). The optimal respiratory phase for beam-on may be assessed with a respiratory phase optimizer (RPO), a 4D image processing software developed with this purpose.
Methods and Materials
Fourteen patients with lung cancer were included in the study. Every patient underwent a 4D-CT providing ten datasets of ten phases of the respiratory cycle (0-100% of the cycle). We defined two morphological parameters for comparison of 4D-CT images in different respiratory phases: tumor-volume to lung-volume ratio and tumor-to-spinal cord distance. The RPO automatized the calculations (200 per patient) of these parameters for each phase of the respiratory cycle allowing to determine the optimal interval for RT.
Lower lobe lung tumors not attached to the diaphragm presented with the largest motion with breathing. Maximum inspiration was considered the optimal phase for treatment in 4 patients (28.6%). In 7 patients (50%), however, the RPO showed a most favorable volumetric and spatial configuration in phases other than maximum inspiration. In 2 cases (14.4%) the RPO showed no benefit from gating. This tool was not conclusive in only one case.
The RPO software presented in this study can help to determine the optimal respiratory phase for gated RT based on a few simple morphological parameters. Easy to apply in daily routine, it may be a useful tool for selecting patients who might benefit from breathing adapted RT.
PMCID: PMC3148530  PMID: 21702952
Lung cancer; radiotherapy; 4D-CT; gating
19.  Prognostic value of histopathology and trends in cervical cancer: a SEER population study 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:164.
Histopathology is a cornerstone in the diagnosis of cervical cancer but the prognostic value is controversial.
Women under active follow-up for histologically confirmed primary invasive cervical cancer were selected from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9-registries public use data 1973–2002. Only histologies with at least 100 cases were retained. Registry area, age, marital status, race, year of diagnosis, tumor histology, grade, stage, tumor size, number of positive nodes, number of examined nodes, odds of nodal involvement, extent of surgery, and radiotherapy were evaluated in Cox models by stepwise selection using the Akaike Information Criteria.
There were 30,989 records evaluable. From 1973 to 2002, number of cases dropped from 1,100 new cases/year to 900/year, but adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinoma increased from 100/year to 235/year. Median age was 48 years. Statistically significant variables for both overall and cause-specific mortality were: age, year of diagnosis, race, stage, histology, grade, hysterectomy, radiotherapy, tumor size and nodal ratio. The histological types were jointly significant, P < 0.001. Cause-specific mortality hazard ratios by histological type relatively to non-microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma were: microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma 0.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.39), carcinoma not otherwise specified 0.91 (0.79–1.04), non-mucinous adenocarcinoma 1.06 (0.98–1.15), adenosquamous carcinoma 1.35 (1.20–1.51), mucinous adenocarcinoma 1.52 (1.23–1.88), small cell carcinoma 1.94 (1.58–2.39).
Small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were associated with poorer survival. The incidental observation of increasing numbers of adenocarcinomas despite a general decline suggests the inefficiency of conventional screening for these tumors. Increased incidence of adenocarcinomas, their adverse prognosis, and the young age at diagnosis indicate the need to identify women who are at risk.
PMCID: PMC1994954  PMID: 17718897
20.  Modeling the effect of age in T1-2 breast cancer using the SEER database 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:130.
Modeling the relationship between age and mortality for breast cancer patients may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Data from 9 registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) of the United States were used. This study employed proportional hazards to model mortality in women with T1-2 breast cancers. The residuals of the model were used to examine the effect of age on mortality. This procedure was applied to node-negative (N0) and node-positive (N+) patients. All causes mortality and breast cancer specific mortality were evaluated.
The relationship between age and mortality is biphasic. For both N0 and N+ patients among the T1-2 group, the analysis suggested two age components. One component is linear and corresponds to a natural increase of mortality with each year of age. The other component is quasi-quadratic and is centered around age 50. This component contributes to an increased risk of mortality as age increases beyond 50. It suggests a hormonally related process: the farther from menopause in either direction, the more prognosis is adversely influenced by the quasi-quadratic component. There is a complex relationship between hormone receptor status and other prognostic factors, like age.
The present analysis confirms the findings of many epidemiological and clinical trials that the relationship between age and mortality is biphasic. Compared with older patients, young women experience an abnormally high risk of death. Among elderly patients, the risk of death from breast cancer does not decrease with increasing age. These facts are important in the discussion of options for adjuvant treatment with breast cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC1277821  PMID: 16212670
21.  Minimum follow-up time required for the estimation of statistical cure of cancer patients: verification using data from 42 cancer sites in the SEER database 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:48.
The present commonly used five-year survival rates are not adequate to represent the statistical cure. In the present study, we established the minimum number of years required for follow-up to estimate statistical cure rate, by using a lognormal distribution of the survival time of those who died of their cancer. We introduced the term, threshold year, the follow-up time for patients dying from the specific cancer covers most of the survival data, leaving less than 2.25% uncovered. This is close enough to cure from that specific cancer.
Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were tested if the survival times of cancer patients who died of their disease followed the lognormal distribution using a minimum chi-square method. Patients diagnosed from 1973–1992 in the registries of Connecticut and Detroit were chosen so that a maximum of 27 years was allowed for follow-up to 1999. A total of 49 specific organ sites were tested. The parameters of those lognormal distributions were found for each cancer site. The cancer-specific survival rates at the threshold years were compared with the longest available Kaplan-Meier survival estimates.
The characteristics of the cancer-specific survival times of cancer patients who died of their disease from 42 cancer sites out of 49 sites were verified to follow different lognormal distributions. The threshold years validated for statistical cure varied for different cancer sites, from 2.6 years for pancreas cancer to 25.2 years for cancer of salivary gland. At the threshold year, the statistical cure rates estimated for 40 cancer sites were found to match the actuarial long-term survival rates estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method within six percentage points. For two cancer sites: breast and thyroid, the threshold years were so long that the cancer-specific survival rates could yet not be obtained because the SEER data do not provide sufficiently long follow-up.
The present study suggests a certain threshold year is required to wait before the statistical cure rate can be estimated for each cancer site. For some cancers, such as breast and thyroid, the 5- or 10-year survival rates inadequately reflect statistical cure rates, and highlight the need for long-term follow-up of these patients.
PMCID: PMC1164404  PMID: 15904508
22.  Ratios of involved nodes in early breast cancer 
Breast Cancer Research  2004;6(6):R680-R688.
The number of lymph nodes found to be involved in an axillary dissection is among the most powerful prognostic factors in breast cancer, but it is confounded by the number of lymph nodes that have been examined. We investigate an idea that has surfaced recently in the literature (since 1999), namely that the proportion of node-positive lymph nodes (or a function thereof) is a much better predictor of survival than the number of excised and node-positive lymph nodes, alone or together.
The data were abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic T1–T2 primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997, in whom axillary node dissection was performed. The end-point was death from breast cancer. Cox models based on different expressions of nodal involvement were compared using the Nagelkerke R2 index (R2N). Ratios were modeled as percentage and as log odds of involved nodes. Log odds were estimated in a way that avoids singularities (zero values) by using the empirical logistic transform.
In node-negative cases both the number of nodes excised and the log odds were significant, with hazard ratios of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.986–0.997) and 1.150 (1.058–1.249), respectively, but without improving R2N. In node-positive cases the hazard ratios were 1.003–1.088 for the number of involved nodes, 0.966–1.005 for the number of excised nodes, 1.015–1.017 for the percentage, and 1.344–1.381 for the log odds. R2N improved from 0.067 (no nodal covariate) to 0.102 (models based on counts only) and to 0.108 (models based on ratios).
Ratios are simple optimal predictors, in that they provide at least the same prognostic value as the more traditional staging based on counting of involved nodes, without replacing them with a needlessly complicated alternative. They can be viewed as a per patient standardization in which the number of involved nodes is standardized to the number of nodes excised. In an extension to the study, ratios were validated in a comparison with categorized staging measures using blinded data from the San Jose–Monterey cancer registry. A ratio based prognostic index was also derived. It improved the Nottingham Prognostic Index without compromising on simplicity.
PMCID: PMC1064081  PMID: 15535850
axillary lymph node ratio; breast neoplasm; functional form; loco-regional; log odds; nodal ratio; Nottingham Prognostic Index; predictive utility; prognostic factors; proportional hazards; proportion based; ratio-based prognostic index; SEER program; staging; survival
23.  Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: twenty-year data from two SEER registries 
BMC Cancer  2004;4:60.
Many researchers are interested to know if there are any improvements in recent treatment results for metastatic breast cancer in the community, especially for 10- or 15-year survival.
Between 1981 and 1985, 782 and 580 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lognormal statistical method to estimate survival was retrospectively validated since the 15-year cause-specific survival rates could be calculated using the standard life-table actuarial method. Estimated rates were compared to the actuarial data available in 2000. Between 1991 and 1995, further 752 and 632 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries. The data were analyzed to estimate the 15-year cause-specific survival rates before the year 2005.
The 5-year period (1981–1985) was chosen, and patients were followed as a cohort for an additional 3 years. The estimated 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 7.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.8–12.4) and 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) by the lognormal model for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Since the SEER database provides follow-up information to the end of the year 2000, actuarial calculation can be performed to confirm (validate) the estimation. The Kaplan-Meier calculation for the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–10.8) and 7.0% (95% CI, 4.3–9.7) respectively. Using the 1991–1995 5-year period cohort and followed for an additional 3 years, the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were estimated to be 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) and 14.7% (95% CI, 9.8–19.6) for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively.
For the period 1981–1985, the 15-year cause-specific survival for the Connecticut and the San Francisco-Oakland registries were comparable. For the period 1991–1995, there was not much change in survival for the Connecticut registry patients, but there was an improvement in survival for the San Francisco-Oakland registry patients.
PMCID: PMC516777  PMID: 15345027

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