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1.  Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Induced by Pazopanib 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:489.
Background
The reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a clinical/radiological syndrome characterized by headache, seizures, impaired vision, acute hypertension, and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings. There are several reports in the literature that depict its occurrence in cancer patients. The list of common anticancer and supportive care drugs that predispose to reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is expanding and includes not only a large number of chemotherapeutic agents but also an increased number of new targeted drugs, particularly angiogenesis inhibitors such as bevacizumab,sorefenib and sunitinib. Pazopanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit which after a positive phase III randomized clinical trial in patients with advanced renal cell cancer received FDA approval for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Until now no cases of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome induced by pazopanib have been reported.
Case report
We present the case of a 40 years old female patient with heavily pre-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received pazopanib as salvage treatment. After 21 days of pazopanib therapy the patient referred to the emergency department with epileptic seizure, impaired vision at both eyes and headache. MRI of the brain revealed subcortical oedema at the occipital and parietal lobes bilaterally. She was treated with anticonvulsants, i.v. administration of mannitol and antihypertensives and she recovered completely from her symptoms and was discharged on the tenth hospital day. A brain MRI performed 3 weeks after showed that the subcortical oedema had been subsided.
Conclusion
In conclusion this is the first case of pazopanib induced reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Although usually reversible, this syndrome is a serious and potentially life threatening adverse effect, if untreated, that should be considered by physicians treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with pazopanib.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-489
PMCID: PMC3487903  PMID: 23088634
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome; Pazopanib; Renal cell carcinoma
2.  Is Post-ERCP Pancreatitis a Genetically Predisposed Complication? 
Background/Objectives. Pancreatitis remains the most common complication of ERCP. History of post-ERCP pancreatitis is an independent risk factor for a new episode, suggesting a genetic background. The N34S mutation in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK 1) gene may downregulate the threshold for the development of pancreatitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the presence of this mutation among patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis. Methods. During a period of four years, thirty patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis entered the study. Patients and procedural data were collected, focusing on risk factors for pancreatitis. Blood samples were taken for genetic testing for the presence of N34S mutation in SPINK 1 gene. After DNA extraction, we used an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction as an initial screening method for the N34S mutation, and in order to confirm the results and to determine the hetero- and homozygosity genotype status, we used a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Results. None of the thirty patients was found to carry the N34S mutation, with both of the applied methods. Patients had an average of two of the known risk factors. Conclusion. SPINK1 N34S mutation does not seem to play a role in post-ERCP pancreatitis, but larger studies needed to confirm our results.
doi:10.1155/2012/473960
PMCID: PMC3426223  PMID: 22934106
3.  Endoscopic removal of a toothpick perforating the sigmoid colon and causing chronic abdominal pain: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8469.
Toothpick ingestion is implicated in gut injuries which may cause severe complications, mimicking diseases causing acute abdomen. However, toothpick ingestion-related perforation may also cause mild, non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms without significant findings or major complications. We describe a young male with chronic postprandial lower abdominal pain caused by a toothpick impaction at the rectosigmoid junction after inadvertent ingestion. The foreign body was detected and successfully removed during flexible sigmoidoscopy. Perforation due to foreign body ingestion must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with unexplained symptoms and findings, even when they do not recall any foreign body ingestion.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8469
PMCID: PMC2769444  PMID: 19918434

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