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1.  The changes of Th17 cells and the related cytokines in the progression of human colorectal cancers 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:418.
The role of Th17 cells in colorectal tumorigenesis and development still remains unclear, despite the fact that it has been established in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
We first analyzed Th17 cells and Treg cells using flow cytometry in the circulation of colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and healthy controls, and the frequency of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 and treated by IL-1β, IL-6, and TGF-β in different concentrations. We then detected cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23 or TGF-β by ELISA in sera and supernatants from both normal and tumor tissues cultured ex vivo.
It was found that the percentage of Th17 and Treg cells increased in the circulation of both CRA and CRC patients; the increase of Th17 cells in the circulation occurred in early stages, whereas the increase of Treg cells in the circulation and the increase of Th17 cells in tumor tissues occurred in advanced stages. The subsequent cytokine profiling showed that, along CRC progression, IL-1β, IL-17A and IL-23 underwent a similar change, while IL-6 in CRC exhibited an opposite change, with Th17 cells. In addition, high levels of TGF-β and IL-17A were detected in tumor tissues rather than in normal mucosa. The in vitro experiment further demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6 or TGF-β modulated Th17 cell expansion in PBMC.
Our study reveals a unique change of Th17 cells, which is regulated possibly by IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β in the progression of CRC.
PMCID: PMC3488332  PMID: 22994684
Colorectal adenoma; Colorectal cancer; Th17 cells; Treg cells; Cytokines
2.  Signal amplification by rolling circle amplification on DNA microarrays 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(23):e118.
While microarrays hold considerable promise in large-scale biology on account of their massively parallel analytical nature, there is a need for compatible signal amplification procedures to increase sensitivity without loss of multiplexing. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a molecular amplification method with the unique property of product localization. This report describes the application of RCA signal amplification for multiplexed, direct detection and quantitation of nucleic acid targets on planar glass and gel-coated microarrays. As few as 150 molecules bound to the surface of microarrays can be detected using RCA. Because of the linear kinetics of RCA, nucleic acid target molecules may be measured with a dynamic range of four orders of magnitude. Consequently, RCA is a promising technology for the direct measurement of nucleic acids on microarrays without the need for a potentially biasing preamplification step.
PMCID: PMC96711  PMID: 11726701

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