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author:("Liu, zhijin")
1.  Analysis of key genes of jasmonic acid mediated signal pathway for defense against insect damages by comparative transcriptome sequencing 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:16500.
Corn defense systems against insect herbivory involve activation of genes that lead to metabolic reconfigurations to produce toxic compounds, proteinase inhibitors, oxidative enzymes, and behavior-modifying volatiles. Similar responses occur when the plant is exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). To compare the defense responses between stalk borer feeding and exogenous MeJA on a transcriptional level, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods following Ostrinia furnacalis leaf feeding and MeJA leaf treatment. 39,636 genes were found to be differentially expressed with O. furnacalis feeding, MeJA application, and O. furnacalis feeding and MeJA application. Following Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the up- or down- regulated genes, many were implicated in metabolic processes, stimuli-responsive catalytic activity, and transfer activity. Fifteen genes that indicated significant changes in the O. furnacalis feeding group: LOX1, ASN1, eIF3, DXS, AOS, TIM, LOX5, BBTI2, BBTI11, BBTI12, BBTI13, Cl-1B, TPS10, DOX, and A20/AN1 were found to almost all be involved in jasmonate defense signaling pathways. All of the data demonstrate that the jasmonate defense signal pathway is a major defense signaling pathways of Asian corn borer’s defense against insect herbivory. The transcriptome data are publically available at NCBI SRA: SRS965087.
PMCID: PMC4642351  PMID: 26560755
2.  Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis 
Nature Communications  2014;5:5911.
The ability to generate high-speed on–off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s−1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on–off-keyed 10 Gbit s−1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s−1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions.
Quadrature amplitude modulation signalling is currently enabling rapid data transfer capacity growth, but it still has associated drawbacks. Here, Liu et al. use optical injection locking to generate complex modulation format signals with reduced consumption, small footprint and easy integration.
PMCID: PMC4284664  PMID: 25523757
3.  Apogossypolone inhibits the proliferation of LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2014;10(3):1184-1194.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of apogossypolone (ApoG2) on human LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Cell autophagy and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry and using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Morphological autophagy alterations were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The formation of acidic vesicular organelles was assessed by acridine orange staining and fluorescence microscopy. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was conducted to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-associated protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bak. The models of transplantation tumors in nude mice were established via subcutaneous injection of LNCaP cells. Growth of LNCaP cells was inhibited by ApoG2 treatment. Flow cytometry demonstrated that ApoG2 induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. The Bcl-2 expression was decreased while Bak expression was increased. In addition, activation of cysteine aspartate protease (caspase)-3 and -8 was observed and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) enhanced apoptosis of LNCaP cells. Furthermore, nude mice treated with ApoG2 demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor volume and a significant increase in cell viability. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues demonstrated that ApoG2 enhanced caspase-3, -8, LC-3B and beclin-1 expression and reduced the expression of Bcl-2. ApoG2 was able to effectively suppress the growth of LNCaP cells through the induction of autophagy and apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC4121422  PMID: 25060748
apogossypolone; autophagy; apoptosis; LNCaP cell; nude mouse
4.  The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) study: cluster randomised trial of humour therapy in nursing homes 
BMJ Open  2013;3(1):e002072.
To determine whether humour therapy reduces depression (primary outcome), agitation and behavioural disturbances and improves social engagement and quality-of-life in nursing home residents.
The Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns study was a single-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of humour therapy.
35 Sydney nursing homes.
All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate.
Professional ‘ElderClowns’ provided 9–12 weekly humour therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff ‘LaughterBosses’. Controls received usual care.
Depression scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, agitation scores on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, behavioural disturbance scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, social engagement scores on the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and self-rated and proxy-rated quality-of-life scores on a health-related quality-of-life tool for dementia, the DEMQOL. All outcomes were measured at the participant level by researchers blind to group assignment.
Sites were stratified by size and level of care then assigned to group using a random number generator.
Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Groups did not differ significantly over time on the primary outcome of depression, or on behavioural disturbances other than agitation, social engagement and quality of life. The secondary outcome of agitation was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with controls over 26 weeks (time by group interaction adjusted for covariates: p=0.011). The mean difference in change from baseline to 26 weeks in Blom-transformed agitation scores after adjustment for covariates was 0.17 (95% CI 0.004 to 0.34, p=0.045).
Humour therapy did not significantly reduce depression but significantly reduced agitation.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry -ACTRN12611000462987.
PMCID: PMC3549213  PMID: 23315520
5.  Using mouse models to study function of transcriptional factors in T cell development 
Cell Regeneration  2012;1(1):8.
Laboratory mice have widely been used as tools for basic biological research and models for studying human diseases. With the advances of genetic engineering and conditional knockout (CKO) mice, we now understand hematopoiesis is a dynamic stepwise process starting from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which are responsible for replenishing all blood cells. Transcriptional factors play important role in hematopoiesis. In this review we compile several studies on using genetic modified mice and humanized mice to study function of transcriptional factors in lymphopoiesis, including T lymphocyte and Natural killer (NK) cell development. Finally, we focused on the key transcriptional factor Bcl11b and its function in regulating T cell specification and commitment.
PMCID: PMC4230505  PMID: 25408871
Genetic modified mice; Humanized mice; Lymphopoiesis; T cell development; Bcl11b
6.  A randomized, phase 2 study comparing pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care as maintenance therapy after first-line treatment with pemetrexed and cisplatin for advanced, non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:423.
Maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aims to extend disease control after first-line chemotherapy with active and well-tolerated agents. The utility of continuation maintenance therapy requires further research.
This multicenter, randomized, phase 2 study compared continuation maintenance therapy with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 every 21 days) and best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC alone in patients with advanced, non-squamous NSCLC who had not progressed after 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) from randomization, was analyzed using a Cox model, stratified for the tumor response at the end of induction therapy, at a one-sided alpha of 0.2. Secondary endpoints: response and disease control rates, overall survival (OS), one year survival rates, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).
A total of 106 patients commenced induction therapy, of whom 55 patients were randomized to maintenance pemetrexed/BSC (n = 28) or BSC (n = 27). Although the median PFS time for maintenance phase for both arms was 3.2 months, the one-sided p-value for the PFS HR comparison was less than the prespecified limit of 0.2 (HR = 0.76, two-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42 to 1.37; one-sided p-value = 0.1815), indicating that PFS was sufficiently long in the pemetrexed/BSC arm to warrant further investigation. Similar PFS results were observed for the overall study period (induction plus maintenance) and when the PFS analysis was adjusted for sex, baseline disease stage, and the ECOG PS prior to randomization. The median OS for the maintenance phase was 12.2 months (95%CI: 5.6 to 20.6) for the pemetrexed/BSC arm and 11.8 months (95% CI: 6.3 to 25.6) for BSC arm. The one-year survival probabilities were similar for both arms for the maintenance phase and the overall study period. Both the induction and continuation maintenance therapies were generally well-tolerated, and similar proportion of patients in each arm experienced at least 1 grade 3/4 TEAE (pemetrexed/BSC, 17.9%; BSC, 18.5%).
Continuation pemetrexed maintenance therapy resulted in promising PFS with an acceptable safety profile in a Middle Eastern population with advanced non-squamous NSCLC and is worthy of further investigation.
Trial registration
PMCID: PMC3477017  PMID: 23006447
Non-squamous; Non-small cell lung cancer; Pemetrexed; Cisplatin; Induction; Maintenance

Results 1-6 (6)