Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-11 (11)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Explanted Diseased Livers – A Possible Source of Metabolic Competent Primary Human Hepatocytes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e101386.
Being an integral part of basic, translational and clinical research, the demand for primary human hepatocytes (PHH) is continuously growing while the availability of tissue resection material for the isolation of metabolically competent PHH remains limited. To overcome current shortcomings, this study evaluated the use of explanted diseased organs from liver transplantation patients as a potential source of PHH. Therefore, PHH were isolated from resected surgical specimens (Rx-group; n = 60) and explanted diseased livers obtained from graft recipients with low labMELD-score (Ex-group; n = 5). Using established protocols PHH were subsequently cultured for a period of 7 days. The viability and metabolic competence of cultured PHH was assessed by the following parameters: morphology and cell count (CyQuant assay), albumin synthesis, urea production, AST-leakage, and phase I and II metabolism. Both groups were compared in terms of cell yield and metabolic function, and results were correlated with clinical parameters of tissue donors. Notably, cellular yields and viabilities were comparable between the Rx- and Ex-group and were 5.3±0.5 and 2.9±0.7×106 cells/g liver tissue with 84.3±1.3 and 76.0±8.6% viability, respectively. Moreover, PHH isolated from the Rx- or Ex-group did not differ in regards to loss of cell number in culture, albumin synthesis, urea production, AST-leakage, and phase I and II metabolism (measured by the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and uracil-5′-diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase activity). Likewise, basal transcript expressions of the CYP monooxygenases 1A1, 2C8 and 3A4 were comparable as was their induction when treated with a cocktail that consisted of 3-methylcholantren, rifampicin and phenobarbital, with increased expression of CYP 1A1 and 3A4 mRNA while transcript expression of CYP 2C8 was only marginally changed. In conclusion, the use of explanted diseased livers obtained from recipients with low labMELD-score might represent a valuable source of metabolically competent PHH which are comparable in viability and function to cells obtained from specimens following partial liver resection.
PMCID: PMC4084809  PMID: 24999631
2.  Helicobacter hepaticus Induces an Inflammatory Response in Primary Human Hepatocytes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99713.
Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PHH (p<0.05) resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05). IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05). An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytomety. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic effect of a Helicobacter spp. on human liver cells, resulting in an inflammatory response with increased synthesis of inflammatory mediators and consecutive monocyte activation.
PMCID: PMC4059665  PMID: 24932686
3.  Inhibition of Autophagic Flux by Salinomycin Results in Anti-Cancer Effect in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e95970.
Salinomycin raised hope to be effective in anti-cancer therapies due to its capability to overcome apoptosis-resistance in several types of cancer cells. Recently, its effectiveness against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo was demonstrated. However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Latest studies implicated interference with the degradation pathway of autophagy. This study aimed to determine the impact of Salinomycin on HCC-autophagy and whether primary human hepatocytes (PHH) likewise are affected. Following exposure of HCC cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 to varying concentrations of Salinomycin (0–10 µM), comprehensive analysis of autophagic activity using western-blotting and flow-cytometry was performed. Drug effects were analyzed in the settings of autophagy stimulation by starvation or PP242-treatment and correlated with cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis induction, mitochondrial mass accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Impact on apoptosis induction and cell function of PHH was analyzed.
Constitutive and stimulated autophagic activities both were effectively suppressed in HCC by Salinomycin. This inhibition was associated with dysfunctional mitochondria accumulation, increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation and cell viability. Effects of Salinomycin were dose and time dependent and could readily be replicated by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of HCC-autophagy alone. Salinomycin exposure to PHH resulted in transient impairment of synthesis function and cell viability without apoptosis induction. In conclusion, our data suggest that Salinomycin suppresses late stages of HCC-autophagy, leading to impaired recycling and accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria with increased ROS-production all of which are associated with induction of apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC4015957  PMID: 24816744
4.  Long-Term Results after Treatment of Very Low-, Low-, and High-Risk Thyroid Cancers in a Combined Setting of Thyroidectomy and Radio Ablation Therapy in Euthyroidism 
Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer treatment usually consists of thyroidectomy and radio ablation in hypothyroidism 4-6 weeks after surgery. Replacing hypothyroidism by recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can facilitate radio ablation in euthyroidism within one week after surgery. The outcome of this approach was investigated. Methods. This is a prospective randomized trial to compare thyroidectomy and radio ablation within a few days after preconditioning with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone versus thyroidectomy and radio ablation separated by four weeks of L-T4 withdrawal. Tumors were graded into very low-, low- , or high-risk tumors. Recurrence-free survival was confirmed at follow-up controls by neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin. Suspected tumor recurrence was treated by additional radio ablation or surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires with additional evaluation of job performance and sick-leave time were used in all patients. Results. Radio ablation in euthyroidism in quick succession after thyroidectomy did not lead to higher tumor recurrence rates of differentiated thyroid cancers in any risk category and was significantly advantageous with respect to quality-of-life (P < 0.001), sick-leave time (P < 0.001), and job performance (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can be used safely and with good efficacy to allow radio ablation under sustained euthyroidism within one week after thyroidectomy.
PMCID: PMC3723358  PMID: 23935620
5.  Extended pancreas donor program – the EXPAND study rationale and study protocol 
Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK), pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or pancreas transplantation after kidney (PAK) are the only curative treatment options for patients with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus with or without impaired renal function. Unfortunately, transplant waiting lists for this indication are increasing because the current organ acceptability criteria are restrictive; morbidity and mortality significantly increase with time on the waitlist. Currently, only pancreas organs from donors younger than 50 years of age and with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 are allocated for transplantation in the Eurotransplant (ET) area. To address this issue we designed a study to increase the available donor pool for these patients.
This study is a prospective, multicenter (20 German centers), single blinded, non-randomized, two armed trial comparing outcome after SPK, PTA or PAK between organs with the currently allowed donor criteria versus selected organs from donors with extended criteria. Extended donor criteria are defined as organs procured from donors with a BMI of 30 to 34 or a donor age between 50 and 60 years. Immunosuppression is generally standardized using induction therapy with Myfortic, tacrolimus and low dose steroids. In principle, all patients on the waitlist for primary SPK, PTA or PAK are eligible for the clinical trial when they consent to possibly receiving an extended donor criteria organ. Patients receiving an organ meeting the current standard criteria for pancreas allocation (control arm) are compared to those receiving extended criteria organ (study arm); patients are blinded for a follow-up period of one year. The combined primary endpoint is survival of the pancreas allograft and pancreas allograft function after three months, as an early relevant outcome parameter for pancreas transplantation.
The EXPAND Study has been initiated to investigate the hypothesis that locally allocated extended criteria organs can be transplanted with similar results compared to the currently allowed standard ET organ allocation. If our study shows a favorable comparison to standard organ allocation criteria, the morbidity and mortality for patients waiting for transplantation could be reduced in the future.
Trial registration
Trial registered at: NCT01384006
PMCID: PMC3716891  PMID: 23816330
Pancreas transplantation; Organ allocation; Extended donor criteria; Rejection
6.  High-Urgency Renal Transplantation: Indications and Long-Term Outcomes 
Journal of Transplantation  2013;2013:314239.
The concept of high-urgency (HU) renal transplantation was introduced in order to offer to patients, who are not able to undergo long-term dialysis treatment, a suitable renal graft in a short period of time, overcoming by this way the obstacle of the prolonged time spent on the waiting list. The goal of this study was to evaluate the patient and graft survivals after HU renal transplantation and compare them to the long-term outcomes of the non-high-urgency renal transplant recipients. The clinical course of 33 HU renal transplant recipients operated on at our center between 1995 and 2010 was retrospectively analyzed. The major indication for the HU renal transplantation was the imminent lack of access for either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (67%). The patient survival of the study population was 67%, 56%, and 56%, whereas the graft survival was 47%, 35% and 35%, at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. In the comparison between our study population and the non-HU renal transplant recipients, our study population presented statistically significant (P < 0.05) lower patient survival rates. The HU renal transplant recipients also presented lower graft survival rates, but statistical significance (P < 0.05) was reached only in the 5-year graft survival rate.
PMCID: PMC3582095  PMID: 23476738
7.  Impact of Salinomycin on human cholangiocarcinoma: induction of apoptosis and impairment of tumor cell proliferation in vitro 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:466.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a primary liver cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Despite all efforts made in past years, prognosis remains to be poor. At least in part, this might be explained by a pronounced resistance of CC cells to undergo apoptosis. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. In this study we investigated the effect of Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, on CC cells as an appropriate agent to treat CC. Salinomycin was quite recently identified to induce apoptosis in cancer stem cells and to overcome apoptosis-resistance in several leukemia-cells and other cancer cell lines of different origin.
To delineate the effects of Salinomycin on CC, we established an in vitro cell culture model using three different human CC cell lines. After treatment apoptosis as well as migration and proliferation behavior was assessed and additional cell cycle analyses were performed by flowcytometry.
By demonstrating Annexin V and TUNEL positivity of human CC cells, we provide evidence that Salinomycin reveals the capacity to break apoptosis-resistance in CC cells. Furthermore, we are able to demonstrate that the non-apoptotic cell fraction is characterized by sustainable impaired migration and proliferation. Cell cycle analyses revealed G2-phase accumulation of human CC cells after treatment with Salinomycin. Even though apoptosis is induced in two of three cell lines of CC cells, one cell line remained unaffected in regard of apoptosis but revealed as the other CC cells decreased proliferation and migration.
In this study, we are able to demonstrate that Salinomycin is an effective agent against previously resistant CC cells and might be a potential candidate for the treatment of CC in the future.
PMCID: PMC3487825  PMID: 23057720
Salinomycin; Cholangiocarcinoma; Apoptosis; Tumor cell migration; Cell cycle
8.  Clinical Application of the Hanover Classification for Iatrogenic Bile Duct Lesions 
HPB Surgery  2012;2011:612384.
Background. There is only limited evidence available to justify generalized clinical classification and treatment recommendations for iatrogenic bile duct lesions. Methods. Data of 93 patients with iatrogenic bile duct lesions was evaluated retrospectively to analyse the variety of encountered lesions with the Hanover classification and its impact on surgical treatment and outcomes. Results. Bile duct lesions combined with vascular lesions were observed in 20 patients (21.5%). 18 of these patients were treated with additional partial hepatectomy while the majority were treated by hepaticojejunostomy alone (n = 54). Concomitant injury to the right hepatic artery resulted in additional right anatomical hemihepatectomy in 10 of 18 cases. 8 of 12 cases with type A lesions were treated with drainage alone or direct suture of the bile leak while 2 patients with a C2 lesion required a Whipple's procedure. Observed congruence between originally proposed lesion-type-specific treatment and actually performed treatment was 66–100% dependent on the category of lesion type. Hospital mortality was 3.2% (n = 3). Conclusions. The Hannover classification may be helpful to standardize the systematic description of iatrogenic bile duct lesions in order to establish evidence-based and lesion-type-specific treatment recommendations.
PMCID: PMC3261461  PMID: 22271972
9.  Boerhaave syndrome as a complication of colonoscopy preparation: a case report 
Colonoscopy is one of the most frequently performed elective and invasive diagnostic interventions. For every colonoscopy, complete colon preparation is mandatory to provide the best possible endoluminal visibility; for example, the patient has to drink a great volume of a non-resorbable solution to flush out all feces. Despite the known possible nauseating side effects of colonoscopy preparation and despite the knowledge that excessive vomiting can cause rupture of the distal esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome), which is a rare but severe complication with high morbidity and mortality, it is not yet a standard procedure to provide a patient with an anti-emetic medication during a colon preparation process. This is the first report of Boerhaave syndrome induced by colonoscopy preparation, and this case strongly suggests that the prospect of being at risk of a severe complication connected with an elective colonoscopy justifies a non-invasive, inexpensive yet effective precaution such as an anti-emetic co-medication during the colonoscopy preparation process.
Case presentation
A 73-year-old Caucasian woman was scheduled to undergo elective colonoscopy. For the colonoscopy preparation at home she received commercially available bags containing soluble polyethylene glycol powder. No anti-emetic medication was prescribed. After drinking the prepared solution she had to vomit excessively and experienced a sudden and intense pain in her back. An immediate computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a rupture of the distal esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome). After initial conservative treatment by endoluminal sponge vacuum therapy, she was taken to the operating theatre and the longitudinal esophageal rupture was closed by direct suture and gastric fundoplication (Nissen procedure). She recovered completely and was discharged three weeks after the initial event.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of Boerhaave syndrome as a complication of excessive vomiting caused by colonoscopy preparation. The case suggests that patients who are prepared for a colonoscopy by drinking large volumes of fluid should routinely receive an anti-emetic medication during the preparation process, especially when they have a tendency to nausea and vomiting.
PMCID: PMC3220652  PMID: 22054124
10.  Carcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater: Determinants of Long-term Survival in 94 Resected Patients 
HPB Surgery  1998;11(1):1-11.
This retrospective study details 94 patients after surgical resection of carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater to determine prognostic factors. The tumour was limited to the ampulla of Vater in 32%, invaded the duodenal wall in 34%, infiltrated 2cm or less into the pancreas in 22%, and invaded more than 2cm into the pancreas and/or other adjacent structures in 11%. Curative resection was accomplished in 97% of cases. After exclusion of perioperative deaths the 1-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 79.6%, 38.2%, and 31.6%, respectively with a median survival of 3.68 years. 26 patients survived more than five and 15 patients more than ten years. In an univariate analysis advanced tumour size, poor tumour grading, lymph node metastases and advanced UICC stage significantly decreased survival. Comparison of short and long survivors confirmed tumour size, lymph node status and UICC stage as significant prognostic factors. In a multivariate analysis (Cox model), only tumour size was a statistically independent predictor of prognosis. The survival probability increased with each year a patient survived after resection. When a patient had already survived five years after resection, the probability to survive another five years was 83%. Careful clinicopathologic staging is important for the prognosis after resection.
PMCID: PMC2423926  PMID: 9830575
11.  Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Liver Originating from a Solitary Non-Parasitic Cyst: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
HPB Surgery  1996;10(1):45-49.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the liver arising from a non-parasitic cyst is a rare entity of a primary liver tumor with an unfavourable prognosis. We report a case of a patient with a cyst in the right lobe leading to upper abdominal symptoms and respiratory discomfort. Malignancy was not suspected from the clinical findings or repeated cytological examination of the cyst fluid. However, the blood stained brown color of the cyst fluid was unusual. Cyst recurrence after six attempts of conservative treatment with sonography guided drainage over a period for more than one year led to laparotomy with cyst unroofing. Because frozen section from the cyst wall revealed the unexpected finding of squamous cell carcinoma right hemihepatectomy was performed during the same operation. The patient is alive more than four years after surgery without cyst or tumor recurrence. The difficulties in establishing diagnosis are confirmed by the review ofother reports. In the diagnosis and treatment ofsymptomatic non-parasitic liver cysts possible malignancy has to be considered. In case of proven carcinoma radical surgery with partial hepatectomy should be performed.
PMCID: PMC2423823  PMID: 9187552

Results 1-11 (11)