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author:("Hu, yongdong")
1.  Streptavidin-biotin-based directional double Nanobody sandwich ELISA for clinical rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H5N1 
Influenza H5N1 is one subtype of the influenza A virus which can infect human bodies and lead to death. Timely diagnosis before its breakout is vital to the human health. The current clinical biochemical diagnosis for influenza virus are still flawed, and the diagnostic kits of H5N1 are mainly based on traditional monoclonal antibodies that hardly meet the requirements for clinical applications. Nanobody is a promising tool for diagnostics and treatment due to its smallest size, high specificity and stability. In this study, a novel Nanobody-based bioassay was developed for rapid, low-cost and sensitive detection of the influenza H5N1 virus.
Nanobodies specific to H5N1 virus were selected from a VHH library by phage display technology. In this system, the biotinylated Nanobody was directionally captured by streptavidin coated on ELISA plate, which can specifically capture the H5N1 virus. Another Nanobody conjugated with HRP was used as a detector. A novel directional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for H5N1 using specific Nanobodies was established and compared to the conventional undirected ELISA assay.
We have successfully constructed a high quality phage display Nanobody library and isolated two Nanobodies against H5N1 with high affinity and specificity. These two Nanobodies were further used to prepare the biosensor detection system. This streptavidin-biotin-based directional double Nanobodies sandwich ELISA for H5N1 detection showed superiority over the commonly undirectional ELISA protocol. The linear range of detection for standards in this immunoassay was approximately 50–1000 ng/mL and the detection limit was 14.1 ng/mL. The average recoveries of H5N1 virus from human serum samples were in the range from 94.58% to 114.51%, with a coefficient of variation less than 6.5%.
Collectively, these results demonstrated that the proposed detection system is an alternative diagnostic tool that enables a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and specific detection of the influenza virus.
PMCID: PMC4274719  PMID: 25526777
Nanobody; Influenza H5N1 virus; Directional; Biotinylation; Streptavidin
2.  Construction of a synthetic phage-displayed Nanobody library with CDR3 regions randomized by trinucleotide cassettes for diagnostic applications 
Nanobodies (Nbs) have proved their great value as therapeutic molecules and clinical diagnostic tools. Although the routine procedure to obtain Nbs is to immunize camels with antigens, it is unavailable to immunize a camel when the antigens are highly toxic, pathogenic or nonimmunogenic. A synthetic phage display library is an alternative to generate Nbs against such targets, besides all the other ones.
We constructed a large and diverse synthetic phage display Nanobody (Nb) library based on the conserved camel single-domain antibody fragment (VHH) framework of cAbBCII10. Diversity was introduced in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) by means of randomization of synthetic oligonucleotides. Then human prealbumin (PA) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were used to select specific Nbs from this library. Furthermore, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect PA based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-PA Nb isolated from this study and another biotinylated anti-PA Nb obtained from an immune library, in our previous study.
A large and diverse synthetic phage display Nb library with CDR3 regions randomized by trinucleotide cassettes was constructed. The library size was 1.65 × 109 CFU/mL and the correct insertion ratio was nearly 100%. A Nb against human PA and against NGAL was successfully isolated from the synthetic library. The obtained anti-PA Nb was effectively used to develop a sandwich ELISA for PA detection and it demonstrated a working range from 50 to 1000 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 27.1 ng/mL.
This proposed novel synthetic library was a good source for obtaining some antigen-specific Nbs. This approach could provide crucial support to an immune library and a naïve library in the acquisition of specific Nbs, potentially functioning as a great resource for medical diagnostic applications. In addition, we have successfully developed a novel sandwich ELISA to detect PA, which could provide great assistance for clinical PA detection.
PMCID: PMC4269866  PMID: 25496223
Nanobody; Trinucleotide cassettes; Human prealbumin; Phage display; Diagnostic application
3.  Combining magnetic nanoparticle with biotinylated nanobodies for rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H3N2 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):528.
Our objective is to develop a rapid and sensitive assay based on magnetic beads to detect the concentration of influenza H3N2. The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (nanobody) as diagnostic tools for influenza H3N2 was investigated. A healthy camel was immunized with inactivated influenza H3N2. A nanobody library of 8 × 108 clones was constructed and phage displayed. After three successive biopanning steps, H3N2-specific nanobodies were successfully isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Sequence analysis of the nanobodies revealed that we possessed four classes of nanobodies against H3N2. Two nanobodies were further used to prepare our rapid diagnostic kit. Biotinylated nanobody was effectively immobilized onto the surface of streptavidin magnetic beads. The modified magnetic beads with nanobody capture specifically influenza H3N2 and can still be recognized by nanobodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a relatively high sensitive detection with a limit of 50 ng/mL. In conclusion, by combining magnetic beads with specific nanobodies, this assay provides a promising influenza detection assay to develop a potential rapid, sensitive, and low-cost diagnostic tool to screen for influenza infections.
PMCID: PMC4199786  PMID: 25328501
Influenza A grade 2 (H3N2); Nanobody; Magnetic nanoparticles; Biotinylation
4.  Draft Genome Sequence of Root-Colonizing Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain PTS-394 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(1):e00038-14.
Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain PTS-394, isolated from the rhizosphere of tomatoes grown on Putuo Mountain (Xiamen, Fujian province, China), which exhibited excellent colonization ability on plant roots. The 4.0-Mb genome uncovered the mechanism for its potential root colonization ability and may provide novel insights into plant-bacterium interactions.
PMCID: PMC3924363  PMID: 24526631
5.  Gene Cloning, Expression and Immunogenicity of the Protective Antigen Subolesin in Dermacentor silvarum 
Subolesin (4D8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. To date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against Dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of D. silvarum 4D8 cDNA (Ds4D8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residues. The results of sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that D. silvarum 4D8 (Ds4D8) is highly conserved showing more than 81% identity of amino acid sequences with those of other hard ticks. Additionally, Ds4D8 containing restriction sites was ligated into the pET-32(a+) expression vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli rosetta. The recombinant Ds4D8 (rDs4D8) was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified using Ni affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the molecular weight of rDs4D8 was 40 kDa, which was consistent with the expected molecular mass considering 22 kDa histidine-tagged thioredoxin (TRX) protein from the expression vector. Western blot results showed that rabbit anti-D. silvarum serum recognized the expressed rDs4D8, suggesting an immune response against rDs4D8. These results provided the basis for developing a candidate vaccine against D. silvarum ticks and transmission of associated pathogens.
PMCID: PMC3949003  PMID: 24623890
Dermacentor silvarum; protective antigen; subolesin; 4D8; rDs4D8; vaccine
6.  Extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials 
Clinical trials have reported the effects of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) extracts (TEs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the results have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed to assess the safety of TEs and their effects on the treatment of RA. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of TEs and placebo (PBO) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with RA were included. Weighted mean differences (MDs) were calculated for net changes by employing fixed-effect or random-effects models. After filtering, ten RCTs (involving 733 participants) were included in this study. The methodological quality of these studies was generally low. Compared with DMARDs, TEs alone produced a mild increase in grip strength (GS) (P = 0.02; standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14 to 1.48). The most common adverse effects (AEs) of TEs were gastrointestinal discomfort, menstruation disorders, and amenorrhea. In conclusion, TEs, as a sort of “herbal DMARD,” could be as effective as synthetic DMARDs in the treatment of RA. However, the efficacy of TEs in treating RA should be further estimated with better designed, fully powered, confirmatory RCTs that apply the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) improvement criteria to evaluate their outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3866793  PMID: 24391674
7.  Solubility of Omeprazole Sulfide in Different Solvents at the Range of 280.35–319.65 K 
Journal of Solution Chemistry  2013;42(12):2342-2353.
Solubility data were measured for omeprazole sulfide in ethanol, 95 mass-% ethanol, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, methanol, acetone, n-butanol and n-propanol in the temperature range from 280.35 to 319.65 K by employing the gravimetric method. The solubilities increase with temperature and they are in good agreement with the calculated solubility of the modified Apelblat equation and the λh equation. The experimental solubility and correlation equation in this work can be used as essential data and model in the purification process of omeprazole sulfide. The thermodynamic properties of the solution process, including the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated using the van’t Hoff equation.
PMCID: PMC3843816  PMID: 24319302
Omeprazole sulfide; Solubility; Gravimetric method; Purification; Solution thermodynamics
8.  Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for postoperative recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: clinical efficacy and failure pattern 
To assess the therapeutic outcome and failure pattern of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after radical surgery.
Treatment outcome and failure pattern were retrospectively evaluated in 83 patients with localized cervical and thoracic recurrences after radical surgery for thoracic esophageal SCC. All patients were treated with 3DCRT-based CCRT (median radiation dose 60 Gy), in which 39 received concurrent cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (PF), and 44 received concurrent docetaxel plus cisplatin (TP). Treatment response was evaluated at 1–3 months after CCRT.
With a median follow-up of 34 months (range, 2–116 months), the 3-year overall survival (OS) of all the patients was 51.8% and the median OS time was 43.0 months. The overall tumor response rate was 75.9% (63/83), with a complete remission (CR) rate of 44.6% (37/83). In univariate analysis, tumor response after CCRT (p = 0.000), recurrence site (p = 0.028) and concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.090) showed a trend favoring better OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor response after CCRT (p = 0.000) and concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.010) were independent predictors of OS. Forty-seven patients had progressive diseases after CCRT, 27 had local failure (27/47, 57.4%), 18 had distant metastasis (18/47, 38.3%) and 2 had both local and distant failures (2/47, 4.3%).
3DCRT-based CCRT is effective in postoperatively recurrent esophageal SCC. Patients that obtained complete remission after CCRT appeared to achieve long-term OS and might benefit from concurrent TP regimen. Local and distant failures remained high and prospective studies are needed to validate these factors.
PMCID: PMC3816598  PMID: 24139225
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Postoperative recurrence; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
9.  Coinfection of Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) by Coxiella-Like, Arsenophonus-Like, and Rickettsia-Like Symbionts 
We report that multiple symbionts coexist in Dermacentor silvarum. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, we prove that Coxiella-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts, with 95.6% and 96.7% sequence similarity to symbionts in the closest taxon, respectively, are novel. Moreover, we also provide evidence that the Coxiella-like symbiont appears to be the primary symbiont.
PMCID: PMC3623253  PMID: 23354701
10.  Screening and Molecular Cloning of a Protective Antigen from the Midgut of Haemaphysalis longicornis 
Vaccination is considered a promising alternative for controlling tick infestations. Haemaphysalis longicornis midgut proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane were screened for protective value against bites. The western blot demonstrated the immunogenicity of 92 kDa protein (P92). The analysis of the P92 amino acid sequence by LC-MS/MS indicated that it was a H. longicornis paramyosin (Hl-Pmy). The full lenghth cDNA of Hl-Pmy was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) which consisted of 2,783 bp with a 161 bp 3' untranslated region. Sequence alignment of tick paramyosin (Pmy) showed that Hl-Pmy shared a high level of conservation among ticks. Comparison with the protective epitope sequence of other invertebrate Pmy, it was calculated that the protective epitope of Hl-Pmy was a peptide (LEEAEGSSETVVEMNKKRDTE) named LEE, which was close to the N-terminal of Hl-Pmy protein. The secondary structure analysis suggested that LEE had non-helical segments within an α-helical structure. These results provide the basis for developing a vaccine against biting H. longicornis ticks.
PMCID: PMC3712107  PMID: 23864744
Haemaphysalis longicornis; protective antigen; P92; Hl-Pmy; epitope
11.  Sorafenib modulates the radio sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro in a schedule-dependent manner 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:485.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high incidence and mortality. Radiotherapy and sorafenib have proven effective for HCC. Here, we investigated whether sorafenib modulated the response of HCC cells to irradiation in vitro, effect of timing of sorafenib, and the underlying mechanisms.
Cell viability of the HCC cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402, was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4-sulfophenyl)-2 H-terazolium (MTT) assays. Clonogenic growth assays of SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402 were determined by colony formation assays. DNA damage was assessed by monitoring γ-HAX foci in irradiated cells with immunofluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle distribution changes were examined by flow cytometry. Effects of sorafenib (15 μM) added 30 min prior to radiation (pre-irradiation sorafenib) of SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 or 24 h post-irradiation (post-irradiation sorafenib) on irradiated SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells were compared to those of radiation alone or no treatment.
The effect of sorafenib was dependent on its time of addition in relationship to irradiation of cells. Pre-irradiation sorafenib did not significantly affect the viability of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells compared with irradiation treatment alone. In contrast, post-irradiation sorafenib increased the sensitivity of irradiated SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells significantly in a time-dependent manner. Pre-irradiation sorafenib significantly increased the surviving fraction of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells in clonogenic assays whereas post-irradiation sorafenib significantly reduced the surviving fractions of SMMC-7221 and BEL-7402 cells. SMMC-7721 cells treated with sorafenib 30 min before irradiation had significantly fewer cells with γ-H2AX foci (23.8 ± 2.9%) than SMMC-7721 cells receiving radiation alone (59.9 ± 2.4; P < 0.001). Similarly, BEL-7402 cells receiving sorafenib prior to irradiation had significantly fewer cells with γ-H2AX foci (46.4 ± 3.8%) than those receiving radiation alone (25.0 ± 3.0%; P < 0.001). In addition, irradiation (6 Gy) caused a significant increase in the percentage of both SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells in G2/M at 12 to 16 h post irradiation, which was markedly delayed by pre-irradiation sorafenib.
Sorafenib combined with irradiation exerted a schedule-dependent effect in HCC cells in vitro, which has significant implications for the combined use of sorafenib and radiotherapy for HCC patients.
PMCID: PMC3488336  PMID: 23088517
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiation; Sorafenib; Apoptosis; DNA damage repair

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